2019年03月19日 23:20:21|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度新闻好医院
GAYLE KING: But when you look at it, Condoleezza Rice, what is your take on it as to why the numbers don#39;t match up in terms of what women have done?主持人盖尔-金:赖斯,说说你的看法吧。你认为为什么女性做了这么多,但是在各界担任领导地位的女性数量还是那么少呢?CONDOLEEZZA RICE: I do think the numbers are getting better. If you look at the Senate, we have new women in the Senate, if you look at the fact that three of the last four secretaries of state, or three of the last five, were in fact women. So things are getting better. But I see it in the classroom, even at a place like Stanford. It#39;s very important that women feel that they are fully accepted in the workplace and that women put themselves out there. I found when I was a young specialist in international security, had I been waiting for a female, black, Soviet-specialist role model, I would still be waiting. And indeed the people who advocated for my career were white men; in fact they were old white men, because they dominated the field.美国前国务卿赖斯:我认为实际上情况是在越变越好。如果从在国会的女性数量来看,我们在国会中一直都有女性议员。而且在过去的三四年里,美国国务卿都是由女性担任的。所以,情况是在变好。但是如果从学校的情况来看,即使是斯坦福大学这样的名校,非常重要的一点是,女性必须完全相信自己能够在职场上有所作为,并将自己放到那些重要位置上。当我还在学国际安全政策时,我能等待有一个女人、黑人、学习前苏联政治经济的人来做我的榜样吗?如果是那样的话,我到现在还只是在那里等而已。事实上,在我的事业上指导我的人都是白人男性,而且是老年白人男性,因为他们在这个领域占有统治地位。KING: I#39;ve been hearing that things are getting better for such a long time.主持人:可是这些年我一直都在听人说情况在好转。RICE: But they are. And I do think that women – there are barriers, we still have gender definition. When a woman walks into a room, people see certain aspects. My good friend, the late astronaut Sally Ride, often talked about the degree to which if a woman puts herself forward in science and math, maybe she#39;s not quite y. So it#39;s a combination, as Valerie said. It#39;s women putting themselves forward and it#39;s also men being more accepting.赖斯:事实的确如此。现在确实还有各种对性别认同的障碍。当女性走入房间时,人们就会看到她身上一些女性的特质。我的好朋友,女宇航员萨莉-莱德经常说,在科学和数学方面,女性要把自己看得更高,即使她们还没有完全准备好。正如瓦莱丽-贾勒特(另一位嘉宾,白宫高级顾问)所说,现在的情况复杂。一方面女性要把自己看得更高,另一方面男性也在越来越多地接受女性。KING: What would you tell women today that you wish someone had told you back when you were starting?主持人:你现在想告诉女性朋友们哪些话,这些话是你希望当初在你刚开始工作时有人告诉你的?RICE: I wish someone had told me that my own sense of unease about whether I really belonged was shared by everybody in the room, including my male colleagues, but they hid it better, they covered it better. And not to be afraid to put yourself out there. I tell young women, if you get to the place that we are and someone treats you badly because you#39;re a woman, that#39;s your fault, not theirs, because you have plenty of arrows in your quiver by this time. But with young women, find someone who can help you navigate and understand the cues, because it is a little unnerving particularly if you are in a field that is male-dominated like the one I entered, international security policy.赖斯:我希望有人能告诉我,我的那些格格不入的紧张感其实每个人都有,包括我的那些男同事们,只不过他们隐藏得比较好,比较会掩饰。还有就是不要害怕把自己置于更高的位置。我要告诉年轻女性们,如果你身处高位,别人却因为你是女人而无礼对待,那么错不在他们,而在你自己,因为这个时候你大可挺直腰板明自己。但是我还要告诉年轻女性们,给自己找一个可以帮助你、指引你理解行业规则的人,因为如果你身处一个男性占主导地位的领域,就像我当年加入国际安全政治领域学习时那样,你需要有个人指引才不会过于紧张。JARRETT: But you can#39;t let the fear of failure stop you from trying. And I think so many times women are waited been given permission – you can#39;t do that. You have to put yourself out there, you have to have a tough skin, you have to be able to accept rejection and get back up and bounce back in the game.白宫高级顾问贾勒特:但你不能因为害怕失败而停止尝试。太多时候,女性会在那里等着别人允许自己做某事,这样是不行的。你必须把自己的位置摆得高一点,你必须要厚脸皮,你必须要敢于接受拒绝,然后在哪里跌到了就在哪里爬起来。 /201303/229697Mr. Johnson had never been up in an aerophane before and he had a lot about air accidents, so one day when a friend offered to take him for a ride in his own small phane, Mr. Johnson was very worried about accepting. Finally, however, his friend persuaded him that it was very safe, and Mr. Johnson boarded the plane.约翰逊先生从前未乘过飞机,他读过许多关于飞行事故的报道。所以,有一天一位朋友邀请他乘自己的小飞机飞行时,约翰逊先生非常担心,不敢接受。不过,由于朋友不断保说飞行是很安全的,约翰逊先生终于被说了,登上了飞机。His friend started the engine and began to taxi onto the runway of the airport. Mr. Johnson had heard that the most dangerous part of a flight were the take-off and the landing, so he was extremely frightened and closed his eyes.他的朋友启动引擎开始在机场跑道上滑行。约翰逊先生听说飞行中最危险的是起飞与降落,所以他吓得紧闭双眼。After a minute or two he opened them again, looked out of the window of the plane, and said to his friend, ;Look at those people down there. They look as small as ants, don#39;t they?;过了一两分钟,他睁开双眼朝窗外望去,接着对朋友说道:“看下面那些人,他们看起来就象蚂蚁一样小,是不是?”;Those are ants,; answered his friend. ;We#39;re still on the ground.;“那些就是蚂蚁,”他的朋友答道,“我们还在地面上。” /201302/224973

I never should have been an attorney.我或许本来就不该当律师。I am physically incapable of pulling all-nighters, I avoid conflict instead of pursuing it, and I have essentially zero drive to fight for the interests of multi-billion dollar corporations. So it did not come as much of a surprise to anyone -- except my mom and dad, perhaps -- when after exactly one year of practice at a big law firm, I turned in my BlackBerry and walked out the door.我受不了整夜整夜地加班,我总是回避冲突、不愿跟着冲突走,我也没有什么动力来为规模几十亿美元的大公司争夺利益。因此,我的选择可能除了我父母,谁都不会奇怪:在一家大律所干了整整一年后,我交出了黑莓手机,选择离开。Big Law is famously tough. But despite its reputation, law students continue to line up for consideration at the country#39;s top firms, hoping to land a coveted spot as an associate. Many of these young lawyers, though, will find that they are simply not cut out for law firm life and, according to Pamela Woldow of law firm consultancy Edge International, approximately 70% will leave within the first four years of practice.大牌律所出了名的压力大。但法律专业的学生们仍然排着队等候美国这些大律所的挑选,希望能够在这里谋得一个职位。很多年轻律师后来会发现,他们根本不适合律所的工作和生活,据律所咨询公司Edge International的帕米拉·沃都称,约70%的律师会在入行后四年内离开。At a time when their very survival seems up in the air, how can firms spot and hire the few candidates that will thrive in Big Law instead of wasting time and money on people like me?有些人能不能干得来还不好说,在这样的情况下,律所怎样才能发现和聘用日后能在大律所如鱼得水的应聘者,不把时间和金钱浪费在像我这样的人身上。Woldow says that smart firms are beginning to change their hiring standards, selecting candidates who will stay longer than just a few years and who, upon making partner, will bring in their own business.沃都表示,一些先知先觉的律所正在开始改变雇佣标准,选择那些不会呆几年就离开的应聘者,以及那些成为合伙人后能给公司带来更多业务的人。According to Heather Frattone, associate dean for career planning at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, this means that firms are looking for more than just exemplary report cards. Depending on the firm, ;communications skills, project management, organizational understanding, drive, initiative, resilience, and entrepreneurship; are all sought after qualities in recruits, but different firms place varying levels of value on these traits.宾夕法尼亚大学(University of Pennsylvania)法学院职业规划副主任希瑟·弗拉顿表示,它意味着律所不再只注重出色的成绩单。根据律所的不同,“沟通技巧、项目管理、组织能力、内驱力、主动性、适应力和创业精神”是招聘时关注的东西,但不同的律所对这些特质的注重程度则有所不同。Firm recruiters, Frattone adds, are beginning to ask more behavioral questions to identify candidates with the qualities they#39;re looking for. ;Things like, #39;Tell me a time you were not successful at something you were working on, and what did you learn from that?#39;; These are the kinds of questions you might hear at any other interview. They just haven#39;t had much of a role at law firms up until now.弗拉顿表示,律所招聘人员开始询问更多行为方面的问题,寻找具有相关特质的应聘者。“比如,‘讲讲你一次失败的经历,你从中学到了什么?’”这是大家在任何其他行业的面试中都可能遇到的问题。但过去,这些问题在律所面试中不太会遇到。But it#39;s not enough for young lawyers to be smart, ambitious team players. Woldow advises looking for people with more life experience over candidates who went straight from high school to college to law school. ;Maturity helps you roll with the punches a little more,; she says. Candidates who have only worked within academia, who graduated at the top of their class, and are used to being lauded for their accomplishments often ;don#39;t understand that they#39;re just the lowest of the low in a big machine.; They have trouble taking orders, moving through Big Law#39;s hierarchical structure, and putting in the required hours.仅凭这些,还不足以确保年轻律师成为聪明上进的团队成员。沃都建议选择那些有更多生活经验的人,而不是直接从高中——大学——法学院一路读下来的学生。她说:“成熟有助于一个人应对各种压力。”只有学术经验、以最优成绩毕业、已经习惯了种种赞扬声的毕业生应聘者们往往“不会理解自己只处于大公司底层的底层这一现实。”他们会在从指挥、按大律所繁复的等级制度慢慢晋升以及投入必要的时间方面遇到麻烦。Psychotherapist Will Meyerhofer, a former associate at Sullivan amp; Cromwell and author of the legal blog The People#39;s Therapist, thinks firms can keep associates around longer by only hiring people he calls ;workhorses.; These are the ones ;who can just handle the brutal hours, who are very motivated by the money and making partner.; He describes these people as ;nerdy,; ;geeky,; and ;dorky,; and with ;fewer outside interests.;职业心理学家、法律客The People#39;s Therapist的主威尔·迈尔沃弗也曾经在Sullivan amp; Cromwell工作过。他认为,律所可以只聘用“老黄牛”来确保员工效力更长的时间。这些人“能承担漫长的工作时间,能被金钱和胜任合伙人的前景鼓舞。”他把这些人称作“书呆子”、“极客”和“呆子”,“没有其他什么兴趣”。But while plenty of firms will happily snap up those recruits, Williams amp; Connolly regularly takes cases to trial and looks for attorneys who will not only make a positive impression on clients, but on juries as well. ;Someone who can only talk on a purely theoretical, academic level, is going to be more challenged here,; says Williams amp; Connolly hiring partner Meg Keeley. Instead, Keeley says, her firm seeks ;someone who can make arguments on a practical and personal level.;很多律所都乐意招这样的人,但Williams amp; Connolly会定期具体分析,寻找那些不仅能给客户、也能给陪审团留下积极印象的律师。“只会高谈阔论理论和学术的人会在这儿面临更大的挑战,”Williams amp; Connolly的招聘合伙人麦格·基利表示。基利称,事实上,她的律所是在寻找“能在实务和个人层面进行辩驳的人”。And, of course, candidates should also have a real excitement about the actual practice of law. (Tip: Don#39;t mention Law amp; Order in an interview.) These are the people that Meyerhofer says will happily ;sit and argue over the best ways to draft certain provisions.;当然,候选人对于从事法律行业也应该真正有兴趣。【建议:不要在面试中提起《法律与秩序》( Law amp; Order)。】按迈尔沃弗的话说,要的就是那些能高高兴兴地“坐下来,争论如何更好地起草某些条款”的人。A September, 2008 paper from UC Berkeley professors Marjorie Shultz and Sheldon Zedeck suggests that Keeley is onto something. Attempting to help law schools identify promising future lawyers, the report#39;s authors examined a number of ;predictors; of lawyering effectiveness. Typical measures of ;geekiness; like LSAT scores and undergraduate grade point averages were not reliable indicators of later lawyering abilities. Instead, situational judgment tests, biographical information, and seven specific personality traits -- ambition, adjustment, sociability, prudence, interpersonal sensitivity, inquisitiveness, and learning approach -- could better forecast an applicant#39;s later success as an attorney.加州大学伯克利分校(UC Berkeley)教授玛约利·舒尔茨和谢尔顿·泽得克2008年9月的一份研究报告指出,基利说的有道理。报告试图帮助法学院发掘日后可能大有前途的律师,对众多可能预示未来律师职业能力的“预兆”进行了分析。典型的“好学者”标准,比如LSAT得分以及本科平均分,并不是反映日后律师职业能力的可靠指标。事实上,情景判断测试、个人经历以及7种特定人格特质——野心,适应力,社交能力,谨慎度,人际敏感度、好打探和学习方法——可以更好地预测应聘者日后作为律师的成功程度。Of course, most firms would love to hire these social and inquisitive lawyers, but picking them out of the overflowing candidate pool is not always easy. Law students don#39;t usually confess to their interviewers that they don#39;t like to work hard or have no passion for practicing law.当然,大多数律所都愿意聘用这些擅长社交、好打探的律师,但要在众多的应聘者中找到这些人并不容易。法律专业的学生们通常不会向面试考官承认,他们不喜欢拼命工作,他们对从事法律行业没有热情。Woldow points to a few specific biographical indicators of future Big Law superstars: first-generation lawyers without legacies of Supreme Court justices and Big Law partners; first or second-generation immigrants; and people from modest economic backgrounds. These people, she says, often come in with different expectations. Instead of thinking they are due money and success, they think, ;#39;I have to earn it and make my way.#39;;迈尔沃弗指出,有几种背景可能预示未来会在大律所中获得成功:第一代律师,父辈不是最高法院大法官,也不是什么大律所的合伙人;第一或第二代移民;以及来自经济条件一般的家庭。她说,这些人进来的时候想法往往不一样。他们不会把获得金钱和成功视为必然,他们想的是“我必须要努力赚取这些,走出自己的路。” /201306/243921

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