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来源:飞度在线咨询    发布时间:2019年01月18日 01:29:02    编辑:admin         

At first glance, Jibo looks a bit like Wall-E’s robot girlfriend. Both Jibo, a real robot, and Wall-E’s girlfriend, the fictional Pixar character, have the look of a futuristic Apple product: reflective white plastic, round curves, a black screen for a “face,” and smooth swiveling movements.乍一看,Jibo长得有点像皮克斯动画工作室(Pixar)创作的《机器人总动员》(Wall-E)里那个主人公的女友Eve。Jibo和Eve的外观都颇具未来主义范儿,看上去像是苹果公司(Apple)的产品:光滑的白色塑料外壳,圆润的曲线,一张充当“脸”的黑色屏幕,转动灵活。But Jibo’s raison d’être is slightly more in line with Rosie, the robot maid from the 1960s animated television series The Jetsons, and its operating system is more akin to the one employed by Samantha, the artificially intelligent character from the 2013 Spike Jonze film Her. (One key difference: Jibo is male, according to its makers.)不过从本质上看,Jibo其实更像上世纪60年代动画片《登家庭》(The Jetsons)里的机器人女佣Rosie。它的操作系统更类似于2013年斯派克o琼斯的电影《她》(Her)中的虚拟人工智能角色Samantha使用的那种。(但根据其制作者介绍,一个关键的区别是,Jibo其实是个男孩。)Jibo is described as a “family robot” because it is able to see, hear, speak, learn, and help families with a variety of tasks around the house. It—he?—can “relate” by expressing itself in natural language, using “social and emotive cues so you understand each other better.” Jibo is meant to be a companion.Jibo被称做一款“家庭机器人”,因为它具有看、听、说、学等功能,而且可以帮助我们干许多家务活。它(或者说“他”?)可以使用自然语言来表达自己,并且可以“使用社交性和感性的暗示,让你们更好地理解对方。”总之,Jibo致力于成为一个居家伙伴。It’s the creation of a team of robot architects, cloud computing engineers, animators, conversational technologists, and human-robot interaction engineers. Jibo, Inc. is backed by .59 million in venture funding from investors including Charles River Ventures, Fairhaven Capital Partners, Osage University Partners, and angel backers.它是一群机器人设计师、云计算工程师、动画工程师、会话技术专家和人机互动工程师的心血之作。Jibo公司也从查尔斯河风险投资公司(Charles River Ventures)、菲尔海文资本合作公司(Fairhaven Capital Partners)、奥塞治大学合伙公司(Osage University Partners)和天使投资人那里获得了559万美元的融资。So far, people like Jibo. A crowdfunding campaign, launched last month, raked in more than .5 million from more than 3,500 people, handily surpassing its 0,000 target. (The Boston-based company does not expect to ship its first units, priced at 9 each, until the 2015 winter holiday season. The crowdfunding campaign is designed to get developers excited about building apps for the robot, it said.)到目前为止,人们都很喜欢Jibo。上个月Jibo推出了一个众筹项目,很快就从3500多人那里筹集到了150多万美元,轻而易举地超过了该公司预设的10万美元的目标。(这家总部位于波士顿的公司预计,第一批定价为499美元的产品要等到2015年冬的假日季才能上市。该公司表示,推出这个众筹项目是为了激发软件开发者为Jibo设计应用程序的兴趣。)Naturally, I had to meet Jibo. Off to a hotel room in Midtown Manhattan, then, where two Jibos and Dr. Cynthia Breazeal, the robot’s creator, awaited me. The robot is not yet fully functioning, it turns out. I watched a prepared demo where Jibo, about a foot tall, turned to look me in the eye. This was disarming at first, as if I was being followed by a security camera. Once he started talking to me, it began to feel more natural—as natural as a robot in a 1980s science fiction movie, anyway. Unlike his lesser robotic peers, or, say, a smartphone, Jibo did not rudely buzz or ding when there was a new message to communicate to me. He politely said, “Excuse me, Erin,” and waited for me to respond before continuing.当然,我也要去见一下Jibo。在曼哈顿市中心的一家酒店的房间里,两个Jibo机器人和它们的发明者辛西娅o布雷西亚士正在等着我。事实明,Jibo的功能还没有充分完善。就在我观看一段准备好的演示视频时,大概一英尺高的Jibo突然扭过头来直勾勾地看着我。这种眼神一开始让我觉得有点紧张,好像是被一台安保摄像机盯着。一旦开始说话,它给人的感觉就自然多了——至少像80年代科幻片里的机器人一样自然。和那些自动化程度不高的智能设备相比(比如智能手机),准备向我传递新信息时,Jibo不会粗鲁地“嗡”或“叮”一声,而是会礼貌地说道:“打扰了,艾林”,然后等我做出反应后,才会继续说话。In the room, Jibo showed off his swiveling, spinning and leaning moves to me, along with some of the programs he’ll feature. He ended his performance with a cheesy joke, and his eyes turned to tiny half-moons when he laughed at the punch line.在房间里,Jibo向我展示旋转,偏头等动作,以及一些他搭载的一些程序。最后他以一个很劲爆的笑话结束了表演。当这个笑点惹得他大笑的时候,Jibo眼睛眯成了一个小小的月芽。Jibo can perform a number of functions. He can tell children’s stories and snap family photos using face recognition. He can place Skype calls and handle communications for which you would normally use a phone. Jibo is meant to stay in the home, perched on a table or countertop, and a demo shows him greeting a single man when he comes home from work and offering to order Chinese takeout. In another scene, Jibo is hanging out while a woman kneads b. He chimes in to remind her that her daughter is picking her up soon. “Thanks, Jibo,” the woman responds, not unlike Jane Jetson talking to Rosie.Jibo可以实现一些功能,比如给小孩子讲故事、利用面部识别技术抓拍家庭照片等等。它也可以用Skype打电话,另外某些需要用手机完成的通讯也可以通过他来完成。Jibo是为家庭设计的,它可以放在桌子或工作台上。在一段展示视频中,当一个男人下班回家时,Jibo立即向他问好,然后问他需要不需要叫中餐外卖。在另一幕中,一个女人正在揉面。这时Jibo提醒她,她的女儿很快要来接她外出购物。那个女人回答道:“谢谢你,Jibo。”和《登家庭》里简o杰特森对Rosie所说的话没什么区别。Jibo can be considered the next logical step past today’s “telepresence” robots, which work only by connecting a smartphone or tablet—a brain, if you will—to a mobile base. For example, Romo augments your cell phone with rubber tank ts, though it requires a tablet or another phone to serve as a remote controller. Ubooly is a plush children’s toy in which parents can insert their cell phone for playtime. The Double telepresence robot, essentially an iPad on top of a Segway, allows people to feel physically present in meetings and move around the office when they’re working remotely. It’s a bit like Max Headroom on a broomstick and, to be frank, a little silly in practice.Jibo可以被视为目前的“远程呈现”机器人的下一步发展方向。所谓的“远程呈现”机器人就是把一台手机或平板电脑(也就是机器人的“大脑”)连接到一个移动基座上。比如,Romo无非就是给你的手机安装了一个橡胶“坦克底盘”,而且它还需要另一台平板或手机作为遥控器。Ubooly则是一款儿童玩具,父母可以把他们的手机插到毛绒玩具的肚子里,让它陪孩子玩。远程呈现机器人Double,本质上就是把iPad放在一辆赛格威两轮车(Segway)上面,让身处异地的人们觉得他们亲自参加会议或在办公室走来走去。它有点像英剧《超级麦克斯》(Max Headroom)里的主人公,但老实说,实际使用时,它看起来真是蠢萌蠢萌的。Jibo works with smartphones, but Breazeal chose to give the robot its own brain, rather than rely on a smartphone. The smartphone would have limited the robot’s capabilities, she says. As it turns out, people don’t like to put their phones into a robot anyway. They prefer to keep it on hand, Breazeal says.Jibo也可以和智能手机一起工作,但布雷西亚决定给予它一个属于自己的大脑,而不是完全依赖智能手机。她认为智能手机会限制它的能力。事实明,人们并不喜欢把自己的手机放在一个机器人身上,而是喜欢一直把手机拿在手上。Whether that can make a difference—or translate to sales of in-home robots—is up for debate, but if anyone can figure this out, it’s Jibo’s inventor. Breazeal has dedicated her career to social robots, starting as a grad student at M.I.T. When she was younger, she didn’t understand why NASA was sending robots to Mars but they still hadn’t arrived in people’s homes. It’s because those robots weren’t designed to be social, she reasoned. Breazeal went on to build the first a social robot, which was called Kismet and intended for children. She has since published numerous studies on social robotics and in 2010 delivered a TED talk on the subject. People respond to human-like robots the same way they respond to people, she argued, and robots with the ability to convey expression increase empathy, engagement, and collaboration among people in a way that a robot with a flat demeanor cannot.目前还不知道,这究竟是不是一个明智的决定,这样做能否给Jibo带来好销量。但对这个问题最有发言权的人,可能还是Jibo的发明者布雷西亚。早在麻省理工学院(MIT)读书时,布雷西亚就把她的整个职业生涯奉献给了社交型机器人。她最初不明白为什么美国国家航空航天局(NASA)可以把机器人送上火星,却不能把机器人送进地球上的千家万户。后来她究其根源,觉得这是因为机器人在设计上缺乏社交性的缘故。后来布雷西亚设计了她的第一款专门针对小孩子的社交机器人Kismet。从那时起,她发表了不计其数的关于社交型机器人的论文。2010年,她还在TED大会上针对这个课题发表了一篇演讲。她认为,人们会像跟真人沟通一样与仿人型机器人进行交流。而能够传递感性信号的机器人,可以提高人们的代入感、参与感和协作性,这是缺少人性化因素的工作机器人所做不到的。An estimated 3 million service robots, which are intended for personal and domestic use, were sold in 2012, according to the International Federation of Robotics, representing sales of .2 billion. The IFR predicts 22 million robots to be sold through 2016.根据国际机器人联合会(International Federation of Robotics)统计,2012年,全球共售出大约300万台家用和个人用途的务型机器人,销售额达12亿美元。该组织预测称,到2016年,全球将卖出2200万台机器人。Jibo is purposely designed to not resemble a human, Breazeal says. The goal is to create what she calls a humanized experience, “because that’s what empowers people,” she says. Robots that try to look like human beings end up being a little too science fiction.布雷西亚表示,Jibo有意地没有设计成人的外型。Jibo的目标是创建她所谓的“拟人体验”,因为她认为:“那才是让人之所以成为人的东西。”试图模仿人类外观的机器人不免科幻色太浓了。Artificial intelligence has certainly been top-of-mind for many Americans, both because of the film Her and ever-present economic fears that robots will make our jobs redundant. A recent New York Times article, “The Future of Robot Caregivers,” sunnily outlined how robots could lighten the burden of caring for aging baby boomers:人工智能无疑是很多美国人耳熟能详的东西,这既托了电影《她》的福,也是因为很多人一直担心机器人会抢了我们的饭碗。《纽约时报》(The New York Times)最近刊发的一篇名为《机器人护士的未来》的文章乐观地表示,机器人护工未来可能会承担起照顾“婴儿潮”一代老年人的重任,从而将大大减轻我们这一代年轻人的养老压力。“In an ideal world, it would be: Each of us would have at least one kind and fully capable human caregiver to meet our physical and emotional needs as we age. But most of us do not live in an ideal world, and a reliable robot may be better than an unreliable or abusive person, or than no one at all.”“在理想世界里,等我们老了,每个人都应该至少有一名善良、合格的人类护工来照顾我们的身体和精神需求。但我们大多数人并非住在‘理想国’,因此一个可靠的机器人很可能强于一个不可靠甚至有虐待倾向的人——更别说可能根本没人来照顾我们。”In Japan, robots help with a nursing shortage by conversing with patients that have dementia. Similar life-helper robots can be found in Sweden and around Europe, according to the Times.这篇文章声称,在日本,由于护工不足,机器人已经承担起了与老年痴呆患者交谈的任务。类似的护士机器人也出现在了瑞典等欧洲国家。Not everyone welcomes this development. “This how to fail the third machine age,” wrote Zeynep Tufekci, a sociology professor at the University of North Carolina’s iSchool, in response to the article.但也并非所有人都欢迎这种新进展。对于这篇文章,北卡罗来纳大学(University of North Carolina)信息学院社会学教授泽伊内普o图菲克希撰文回应道:“这是第三个机器时代的失败。”“In my view, warehousing elderly and children—especially children with disabilities—in rooms with machines that keep them busy, when large numbers of humans beings around the world are desperate for jobs that pay a living wage is worse than the Dickensian nightmares of mechanical industrialization, it’s worse than the cold, alienated workplaces depicted by Kafka.”“在我看来,把大量的老人和孩子关在屋子里——尤其是有残疾的儿童,然后用机器人陪着他们干这干那,而全球大量的人类则忙着找一份勉强糊口的工作,这其实比狄更斯笔下的机器工业化噩梦更可怕,比卡夫卡笔下冷漠、疏远的职场更可悲。”“It’s an abdication of a desire to remain human, to be connected to each other through care, and to take care of each other.”“这相当于放弃了对保持人性的渴望,放弃了通过关爱来彼此联系,放弃了互相照顾。”Tufekci argues that based on unemployment figures, we’re not facing a shortage of caregivers. Rather, she writes, “we’re facing a shortage of caring.”图菲克希认为,从失业数据来看,我们并非面临护工的短缺。相反,“我们面临的是缺乏关爱。”Meanwhile, a new study from Pew Research suggests that tech industry influencers are split on whether robots will help or hurt the economy. Just over half of those surveyed believed robots won’t take away more jobs than they create, resulting in a net positive for the economy. However, the other half felt less optimistic about our robotic future.与此同时,皮尤研究中心(Pew Research)的一项新研究显示,对科技行业有影响力的人们在机器人究竟会促进还是会损害国民经济的问题上持不同态度。约半数以上受访者认为,机器人抢走的工作不会比它们创造的工作多,因此会给经济带来正能量。另一半受访者则对与机器人共处的未来感到不太乐观。“The other 48%, though, think that robots will displace huge numbers of white and blue collar workers in the next 10 years, which would not only leave people unemployed but which could disrupt social order.”“有48%的受访者认为,未来10年里,机器人将会取代大量白领和蓝领工人。这不仅会导致大量人口失业,还会导致社会失序。”Breazeal contends that Jibo isn’t meant to be a caregiver for aging people or a replacement for human labor. The robots are meant to help older users age independently. “Jibo is about empowerment and helping people do what they want to do and what they need to do,” she says. “Its not about replacing people.”布雷西亚认为,Jibo并不是要成为老年人的护工,也不想取代人力劳动。研制这些机器人的目的,是为了帮助用户能够独立面对老年生活。她表示:“Jibo是要给人以能量,帮助人们做他们想做、需要做的事,而不是要取代别人。”“There’s a lot of kneejerk reaction,” she adds. “We’re not trying to create a robot caregiver at all. We’re empowering people to live independently and be emotionally connected to their family, because that’s what matters.”她表示:“有很多人本能地表示反对。我们并不是要发明一个机器人护工,而是要让人们能够独立生活,在情感上与他们的家庭保持连接,因为这才是最重要的。” /201408/323641。

The top technology vendor story for 2014 does not involve a shiny new smartphone nor a new public cloud, but crudely rendered PowerPoint slides.2014年科技行业的最大新闻不是关于一款闪亮的新智能手机,也不是一个新的公共云务,而是一堆不加掩饰呈现的PPT幻灯片。Starting in June, a series of stories started documenting a global intelligence operation last seen on Showtime#39;s #39;Homeland.#39; Those PowerPoint slides, provided by National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden, taught businesses that the convenience of the cloud cuts both ways. By tapping into the pipes exiting data centers belonging to Google Inc., Microsoft Corp. and other tech vendors, the NSA found a #39;convenient#39; way to vacuum vast amounts of data. The NSA#39;s reach was also revealed to extend to cellphone data从6月份开始,一系列文章开始记述一场全球情报行动,这类行动通常只有在Showtime频道播出的电视剧《国土安全》(Homeland)中才会看到。这些PPT幻灯片由美国国家安全局(NSA)曝光者斯诺登(Edward Snowden)提供,它们向企业显示了云务的便利性有利也有弊。通过监控谷歌(Google Inc.)和微软(Microsoft Corp.)等科技公司数据中心的数据传输通道,NSA发现了一种“便捷”的途径获得大量数据。有人披露,NSA监控的范围还延伸到了手机数据。In the wake of the revelations-henceforth called the #39;Snowden Effect#39;- tech vendors have worked to identify and apply security fixes, while assuring clients that their data remains safe. Abroad, businesses and politicians have touted local solutions. But this is just the beginning. Mr. Snowden is said to retain many more documents and it is quite likely that the Snowden Effect will remain the top tech industry story of 2014.事情曝光后(以下称“斯诺登效应”),科技公司努力确定并使用安全补丁,同时向客户保他们的数据仍是安全的。在海外,企业和政界人士鼓吹局部解决方案。但这还只是开始而已。据说斯诺登手里还有更多的文件,2014年斯诺登效应将很可能仍旧是科技行业的最大新闻。Meanwhile tech vendors in 2013 had their hands full operating multi-billion-dollar businesses. While many of the younger companies have achieved success, traditional and legacy vendors have struggled. CIO Journal looks back at the most significant news generated by some of the world#39;s leading tech giants in 2013.与此同时,2013年科技公司忙于运营规模数十亿美元的业务,分身乏术。很多创办时间更短的公司取得了成功,而传统老牌公司却陷入困境。CIO Journal栏目回顾了2013年一些全球顶级科技巨头制造的重大新闻。Microsoft: Microsoft announced in August that CEO Steve Ballmer would retire in 12 months. Mr. Ballmer, who took the CEO reins from founder Bill Gates in 2000, is in the midst of transforming Microsoft from a PC-based software maker to a device and services company, with an emphasis on mobile and cloud computing. Mr. Ballmer admitted that evolution was taken too long, setting the stage for his departure. On Dec. 17, John Thompson, Microsoft#39;s board director, said Microsoft would name Mr. Ballmer#39;s replacement - from a pool of 20 people - in 2014.微软(Microsoft):微软8月份宣布,首席执行长鲍尔默(Steve Ballmer)将在12个月后退休。鲍尔默2000年接替微软创始人盖茨(Bill Gates)出任首席执行长,他正在努力将微软从一家基于个人电脑的软件生产商转变为一家设备和务公司,重点是移动和云计算。鲍尔默承认,转型花了太长的时间,这是他离职的原因之一。12月17日,微软董事汤普森(John Thompson)说,2014年微软将从20名人选中任命鲍尔默的继任者。Google: The company#39;s biggest reveal this year was its strategy to place #39;moonshot#39; bets on game-changing technology efforts, such as driverless cars. The company this year released to limited availability its Google Glass wearable computer. Google also unveiled Project Loon, an audacious effort to build a global network of high-altitude balloons that bring Internet access to people in remote areas. The company is also mounting a significant foray into robotics. Google is also targeting enterprise customers with cloud infrastructure software, which it released to general availability in December.谷歌(Google):该公司今年披露的最大一则消息是它计划探索具有划时代意义的科技领域,比如无人驾驶汽车。该公司今年限量推出了谷歌眼镜(Google Glass)可穿戴电脑。谷歌还发布了“Project Loon”,这是一项构建一个全球高空气球网络的大胆计划,使偏远地区的人们也可以上网。该公司还将大举进军机器人学领域。谷歌还面向企业客户推出云基础设施软件,12月份全面推出。Apple Inc.: For Apple, it was another year, another refresh of its iPhone and iPad. In September, Apple#39;s iPhone 5S received plaudits for its fingerprint scanning technology, which promises to make it easier and more secure for users to log in to their device. Announced in October, the iPad Air is a thinner, lighter but souped-up version of its market-leading tablet computer. The company also lured Burberry CEO Angela Ahrendts to run its retail and online store businesses. But CEO Tim Cook, along with the company#39;s stock price, took some hits for failing to bring the long-rumored Apple TV product to market. However, he hinted that a wearable computer of some sort could be on the horizon. Anyone up for an iWatch?苹果(Apple Inc.):对苹果来说,2013年是新的一年,是iPhone和iPad更新换代的又一年。9月份,苹果的iPhone 5S凭借其指纹识别技术获得了好评。指纹识别技术可以使用户更轻松、更安全地登陆设备。10月份,苹果发布了iPad Air,这是其领先市场的平板电脑的最新款,更薄、更轻,但功能更强大。该公司还请来柏利(Burberry)首席执行长阿伦茨(Angela Ahrendts)负责其零售和网络商店业务。但由于苹果没有推出外界猜测已久的苹果电视(Apple TV),首席执行长库克(Tim Cook)受到质疑,该公司的股价也受到了一定的打击。不过,库克暗示,可能有望推出一款可穿戴电脑。有人想要一个iWatch吗?Hewlett-Packard Co.: Hewlett-Packard Co. faced significant challenges in 2013, the second full year in CEO Meg Whitman#39;s multi-year turnaround plan. The company said it would focus on making more competitive servers, storage and networking gear, as well as analytics software. Although H-P is accelerating research and development to boost sales, smaller commodity hardware and cloud software rivals are pressuring the company. Disappointing sales in H-P#39;s enterprise group prompted Ms. Whitman in August to replace division head David Donatelli. In November, H-P posted weaker fourth-quarter sales, the ninth consecutive top-line decline. Ms. Whitman said 2014 would be a #39;pivotal year#39; for H-P.惠普(Hewlett-Packard Co.):2013年惠普遭遇了相当大的挑战,这是首席执行长惠特曼(Meg Whitman)推出多年业务扭转计划后的第二个整年。该公司说,它将专注于生产更有竞争力的务器、存储设备和联网设备,以及分析软件。尽管惠普正在加快研发以便推动销售,但规模较小的商业硬件和云软件竞争对手正向该公司施加压力。惠普企业集团令人失望的销售促使惠特曼今年8月份撤换了部门主管多纳泰利(David Donatelli)。11月份,惠普说第四季度销售收入下滑,这是连续第九个月营收下滑。惠特曼说,2014年对惠普来说将是至关重要的一年。IBM Corp.: Like H-P, IBM Corp. is shaking up leadership as it struggles in some of its core businesses. Following disappointing third-quarter results in October, CEO Virginia Rometty reassigned James Bramante, the IBM senior vice president who ran growth markets. IBM has missed Wall Street#39;s revenue targets in six of the last seven quarters. IBM also disappointed some customers, some in grand fashion. In August, the premier of the state of Queensland in Australia, Campbell Newman, said he had banned IBM from entering into new contracts with the state until it improved its governance and contracting practices. The company has also been at loggerheads with state officials in Pennsylvania, Indiana and Texas over technology implementations.国际商业机器公司(IBM Corp.):与惠普一样,在一些核心业务上举步维艰的IBM也正在重组领导层。今年10月发布了令人失望的第三季度业绩之后,IBM首席执行长罗梅蒂(Virginia Rometty)将负责成长市场的高级副总裁布拉曼特(James Bramante)调职。IBM在过去七个季度中有六个季度都未达到华尔街预计的营收目标。IBM还让一些客户感到失望,有时候是大失所望。今年8月,澳大利亚昆士兰州州长纽曼(Campbell Newman)说,他已经禁止IBM与该州签订新合约,直到IBM改善治理和承包业务为止。IBM还与美国宾夕法尼亚、印第安那和德克萨斯州的官员在技术实施的问题上发生争执。Dell Inc.: Following a contentious buyout battle with Carl Icahn and other investors, Dell Inc. went private in November to work on its strategic reinvention as a cloud software and services company. The company is helping customers pick and integrate public cloud software from vendors such as Microsoft and Google. To cultivate innovation, the company is investing 0 million over the next several years in startups. Dell said it hopes this effort will generate capital gains for the company, while providing a window into emerging technologies in cloud, security, storage, mobility and analytics.戴尔(Dell Inc.):经过了与伊坎(Carl Icahn)和其他投资者颇具争议的私有化之争后,戴尔于今年11月完成了私有化目标,力图实现向一家云软件和务公司的战略性转变。戴尔正帮主客户挑选并整合来自微软(Microsoft)和谷歌(Google)等供应商的公共云软件。为了促进创新,戴尔将在未来几年向初创公司投资3亿美元。戴尔说,希望这样的举措能够为公司带来资本收益,并打开一扇通往云、安全、存储、移动和分析等方面的新兴科技的窗口。Oracle Corp.: Oracle CEO Larry Ellison infamously skipped his final keynote at the business software maker#39;s customer conference in September to watch his yacht take the America#39;s Cup. The move overshadowed major announcements the company made at Oracle OpenWorld, including a deal to run Oracle software on Microsoft#39;s Windows Azure cloud service. In an acknowledgment that more software is moving to the cloud, Oracle in June partnered with rival Salesforce.com Inc. to integrate business applications in the cloud. Oracle in December acquired Responsys Inc., a maker of cloud marketing software, for .5 billion.甲骨文(Oracle Corp.):甲骨文首席执行长埃利森(Larry Ellison)今年9月份为了观看他的游艇参加美洲杯帆船赛(America’s Cup)而取消了在公司客户大会上的终场发言,这个颇受非议的举动给甲骨文在Oracle OpenWorld大会上宣布的重大消息蒙上了阴影,其中包括在微软Windows Azure云务平台上运行甲骨文软件的协议。在认识到越来越多的软件正在转向云务之后,甲骨文于今年6月份与竞争对手Salesforce.com Inc.合作,整合了云务商业应用。甲骨文今年12月份以15亿美元收购了云营销软件生产商Responsys Inc.。SAP : On the whole, it was a relatively quiet year for SAP, the enterprise software maker that is the frequent target of Mr. Ellison#39;s ire. The company made available its HANA in-memory database to run predictive analytics against data housed in SAP#39;s business software. The company also rolled out a cloud version of HANA for businesses. Also significant: SAP said Jim Hagemann Snabe, co-CEO with Bill McDermott, will swap his current role for a position on SAP#39;s supervisory board in May 2014. But SAP also closed out 2013 with some bad news. Avon Products Inc. said it is cancelling a 5 million SAP software system after sales workers in Canada left because it proved too onerous to their routines.SAP :总的来说,今年对SAP 是平淡的一年,这家企业软件生产商经常成为埃利森愤怒的目标。SAP 让其HANA内存数据库可以对SAP商业软件内包含的数据进行预测性分析。该公司还面向企业推出了HANA的云务版本。同样值得注意的是:SAP宣布与孟鼎铭(Bill McDermott)共同担任首席执行长的施杰翰(Jim Hagemann Snabe)将在2014年5月从当前职位调任SAP监督委员会的一个职位。但SAP今年也有一些坏消息。雅芳(Avon Products Inc.)宣布将取消一个1.25亿美元的SAP软件系统,因为雅芳驻加拿大的许多销售人员觉得这个系统对他们的日常工作来说过于繁琐,因而辞去了工作。Salesforce.com Inc.: Cloud software maker Salesforce.com spent the last seven years buying companies in marketing engagement, social media, and human resources. In June, it paid .5 billion for ExactTarget, its biggest acquisition to date. In November, the company revealed how those purchases fit into its Salesforce1 strategy. Its mission is enabling sales workers to collaborate with coworkers to sell products and services, at any time, from any device, through Salesforce.com#39;s cloud platform. In addition to the Oracle deal, Salesforce.com also partnered with H-P to run software on the systems provider#39;s infrastructure.Salesforce.com Inc.:这家云软件生产商过去七年一直在收购市场营销、社交媒体和人力资源方面的公司。今年6月,该公司斥资25亿美元收购了ExactTarget,这是该公司迄今最大的收购行动。11月,该公司披露了这些收购行动与其Salesforce1战略相融合的情况。其任务是让销售人员能够通过Salesforce.com的云平台与同事协作,在任何时间、通过任何设备销售产品和务。除了与甲骨文的交易,Salesforce.com还与惠普合作,在后者的基础架构上运行软件。BlackBerry Ltd.: Perhaps no company has endured a more difficult time in 2013 than BlackBerry Ltd., whose business has stumbled as the iPhone and Android phones have soared. After failing to sell many phones based on its revamped BlackBerry 10 operating system, the company in November abandoned a .7 billion plan to go private, choosing to continue as a public company with new leadership. BlackBerry replaced CEO Thorsten Heins, who failed to right the ship after he was promoted from within to turn the company around almost two years ago, with former Sybase Inc. CEO John Chen. On Dec. 20, BlackBerry reported a .4 billion third-quarter loss quarter, after which Mr. Chen said 2014 would be an #39;investment#39; year for the company.黑莓(BlackBerry Ltd.):或许2013年没有哪个公司的境况比黑莓更糟,黑莓的业务随着iPhone和安卓手机的迅速崛起而步履蹒跚。由于采用改进版黑莓10操作系统的手机销量不佳,该公司今年11月放弃了规模47亿美元的私有化方案,选择在新领导层管理下保持上市公司身份。黑莓撤掉了首席执行长海因斯(Thorsten Heins),他在近两年前从公司内部晋升这一职位,但未能让公司调整好方向。取代海因斯的是前Sybase Inc.首席执行长John Chen。12月20日,黑莓宣布第三季度亏损44亿美元,之后Chen说,2014年将是黑莓的“投资年”。 /201312/270845。

Chests puffing up with pride — and happiness felt head to toe — are sensations as real as they are universal. And now we can make an atlas of them.骄傲感会充满胸膛,幸福感会从头顶灌倒脚底,这种真实的感觉所有人都有体会。而现在我们可以用图谱描绘它们了。Researchers have long known that emotions are connected to a range of physiological changes, from nervous job candidates’ sweaty palms to the racing pulse that results from hearing a strange noise at night. But new research reveals that emotional states are universally associated with certain bodily sensations, regardless of individuals’ culture or language.研究人员早就知道情绪影响着一系列体征变化。从求职者因紧张而掌心出汗,到在夜晚听到奇怪的声响而心跳加速。但是新的研究表明,情绪状态与特定的身体感觉有关,无论个人的文化或语言。More than 700 participants in Finland, Sweden and Taiwan participated in experiments aimed at mapping their bodily sensations in connection with specific emotions. Participants viewed emotion-laden words, s, facial expressions and stories. They then self-reported areas of their bodies that felt different than before they’d viewed the material. By coloring in two computer-generated silhouettes — one to note areas of increased bodily sensation and the second to mark areas of decreased sensation — participants were able to provide researchers with a broad base of data showing both positive and negative bodily responses to different emotions.超过700名来自芬兰、瑞典和台湾的参测者参与实验,实验旨在描绘出特定情绪对身体感觉的映射图。参与者观看感情激昂的文字、视频、表情和故事。然后自行报告跟观看材料前相比,他们感觉不同的身体部位。用电脑生成了两幅轮廓图,一幅是感觉增加的区域,一幅是感觉降低的区域,对这两图着色后参测者就能向研究人员提供一个广泛的基础数据显示身体对不同情绪的正面和负面的反应。Researchers found statistically discrete areas for each emotion tested, such as happiness, contempt and love, that were consistent regardless of respondents’ nationality. Afterward, researchers applied controls to reduce the risk that participants may have been biased by sensation-specific phrases common to many languages (such as the English “cold feet” as a metaphor for fear, reluctance or hesitation). The results are published today in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.研究人员为每一个情绪测试建立统计离散模型,比如幸福、受辱和爱,得到的结果是一致的与受访者的国籍无关。随后,研究人员使用了控制方法,降低了参测者因为多种语言特殊感觉偏差造成的(测试结果不准确)风险(例如英语“cold feet”可理解为害怕,不情愿或犹豫)。研究结果今天在美国国家科学院的会议上发表。Although each emotion produced a specific map of bodily sensation, researchers did identify some areas of overlap. Basic emotions, such as anger and fear, caused an increase in sensation in the upper chest area, likely corresponding to increases in pulse and respiration rate. Happiness was the only emotion tested that increased sensation all over the body.尽管每种情感产生一个特定的身体感觉图谱,研究者也确定了一些重叠的区域。基本的情绪,比如愤怒和恐惧,会引起上胸部区域感觉增强,很可能同时会引起脉搏和呼吸率的增加。而在所有测试的情绪中,幸福是唯一能增加全身感觉的情绪。The findings enhance researchers’ understanding of how we process emotions. Despite differences in culture and language, it appears our physical experience of feelings is remarkably consistent across different populations.研究结果提高了研究人员对人类如何处理情绪的理解。尽管文化和语言存在差异,但似乎我们的身体感受其他人是高度一致的。The researchers believe that further development of these bodily sensation maps may one day result in a new way of identifying and treating emotional disorders.研究人员认为,随着这些身体感觉图谱的进一步研究,未来可能会找到识别和治疗情感障碍的新方法。 /201401/271381。

The cognitive challenges of walking while texting are well known, both to scientists and to those of us who have ambled into a light pole or a fellow pedestrian or have been on the receiving end of someone else#39;s distracted movements. Strolling while talking on the phone — or, more particular, texting — ties up the brain#39;s relatively limited working attentional resources, most researchers would agree, much as those activities do when you are driving.边走边发短信会带来认知挑战,这一点不仅仅为科学家,也为那些曾经一头撞上电线杆或者别的路人,或者曾被走神的人撞上的人来说所熟知。边走边使用电话——或者更具体地说,发短信——涉及到的工作记忆资源相对有限,至少不会超过你开车时发短信涉及的大脑资源,对此大部分研究人员都认同。But walking is not driving. In some ways, it#39;s more demanding. You sit while you drive. Walking requires a multitude of orchestrated actions and reactions. But whether and how using a phone affects the physical process of walking and whether those impacts might have health costs have been little explored.但走路跟开车不同。在某种角度来说,它提出的要求更高。开车时你是坐着的,而走路需要多种行为和反应协调一致。不过,用手机是否或如何影响走路这种生理过程,以及这种影响是否会产生健康损害,这些还甚少得到研究。So researchers at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, rounded up 26 healthy adults for a study, published last month in PLOS One, and sent them strolling repeatedly along a 28-foot stretch of hallway while cameras captured their steps. In one setup, the volunteers walked without a phone; in another, they a long text on a phone#39;s screen; and in a third, they texted ;The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.; The volunteers were told to hold the phone and type as they usually would. They were also asked to try to walk as normally as possible.澳大利亚布里斯班的昆士兰大学(University of Queensland)研究人员因此做了一项试验,征集了26名健康成人,并请他们在一条长为28英尺的走廊上反复行走,用摄像机记录下他们的脚步。一次安排这些志愿者在走路时不拿手机;另一次边走边在手机上看一条长长的短信;第三次则是边走边发短信,内容为:敏捷的褐色狐狸跳过了懒。志愿者需要手持手机,用习惯的方式来编辑短信内容,同时需要走起路来尽量跟平常一样。这份研究上月发表在《公共科学图书馆·综合》(PLOS One)上。As it turned out, texting significantly distorted their gait and walking form, whether they intended to contort themselves or not. Most noticeable, the volunteers began to walk with a more upright and rigid body position. Their heads froze into cocked and largely unchanging positions, eyes on the screen, chins bent toward their chests. Their necks and lower back joints had significantly less range of motion. They displayed ;tighter mechanical constraint; in their upper bodies and midsections, according to the researchers; arms stopped swinging loosely and were bent and locked into place. The pelvic joints likewise stiffened, making leg motion jerkier. In general, the texters moved ;like robots,; said Siobhan Schabrun, an honorary senior fellow at the University of Queensland, who led the study.研究发现,不管人们是否会有意识地加以控制,发短信都会显著扭曲人们的姿势和步态。最值得注意的是,这些志愿者走起路来时,身体的姿势变得更为挺直、僵硬。他们的头歪了起来,而且角度没怎么变化,眼睛盯着屏幕,下巴垂到胸前。他们的脖子和后腰关节活动范围显著变小。据研究人员说,这些参试人员的上半身和腰腹部出现了“更紧张的力学约束”,上臂不再松弛摆动,而是弯了起来,固定在身体两侧。骨盆关节同样僵硬,这令双腿动作变得不再稳定。这项研究的领导者、昆士兰大学荣誉资深研究员西沃恩·斯格布兰(Siobhan Schabrun)介绍说,总的来看,发短信的人走起路来“像是机器人”。Simultaneously, their gait patterns changed. Texters took significantly shorter steps, and their pace slowed. They also ;deviated more from a straight line,; the study#39;s authors wrote, meaning that with almost every step, they set their feet farther to the side.与此同时,他们的步态模式也改变了。发短信的人走的步伐明显变小,速度放慢。研究的作者在论文中指出,他们同时“常常偏离直线”,这指的是参试人员每走一步,步子都会往路边凑近一点。These adjustments, although relatively slight, could result in both immediate and longer-term physical consequences, Dr. Schabrun said. In the short term, they increase the likelihood that you will trip, and not merely because you neglect to look where you are going while texting. ;Previous studies, many in elderly populations, have shown that a more rigid posture, such as this, can put you at greater risk of falling,; Dr. Schabrun said.斯格布兰士说,这些调整尽管较为微妙,但可能会产生即时和远期的生理后果。短期来说,这会加剧人们绊倒的可能性,而且这不仅仅是因为你在走路时没看路。“此前很多在年长人群中进行的研究已经显示,出现这一类僵硬体态,更容易加大你摔跤的危险,”斯格布兰说。Frequent peripatetic texting also may cause or worsen neck and shoulder pain, Dr. Schabrun suggested, by reducing the neck joint#39;s natural range of motion. If you walk and text, occasionally move out of pedestrian traffic and gently tilt your head forward and back, an easy exercise to combat neck stiffness.斯格布兰士还认为,频繁在走路时发短信会限制脖子的自然活动范围,引发或加剧脖子和肩膀疼痛。如果你非得走路时发短信,那么最好是能不时离开人行道,轻轻地前后扭动头部,这种简单运动可以应对脖子僵硬。This brief intermission from texting may also reorient your body#39;s relationship with space, Dr. Schabrun said. Normally, the body prioritizes maintaining balance over almost all other demands, she pointed out. But in perhaps the most significant implication of her study, her volunteers#39; bodies and brains appeared to be ;prioritizing texting.;斯格布兰说,发短信时短暂休息下,还有可能让你的身体调整与空间的关系。她指出,我们的身体通常把保持平衡放在其他所有需求之上,但在她的研究中,一个最重要的发现也许在于,参试者的身体和大脑似乎把“发短信视为重中之重”。 /201409/331471。