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来源:度排名养生交流    发布时间:2019年01月18日 01:53:45    编辑:admin         

栏目简介:《英语学习入门视频》是英语视频听力下面的子栏目,栏目内容适合刚刚接触英语学习不久的童鞋学习。视频内容比较简单易懂,是入门英语知识的基础,有助于帮助英语学习爱好者逐步掌握基本的英语知识。201512/413822。

Mice were divided into four groups to examine different doses of the colour additive.老鼠被分成四组以检验不同剂量的酒黄石效果Tartrazine was given to a total of 60 mice酒黄石分三种不同剂量摄入60只老鼠,at three different doses plus one control group from where they were 5 weeks to 9 weeks old.此外还有一对照组老鼠都是5周至9周大The tartrazine was mixed and given as an oral tablet.酒黄石与其他物质想混制成口药片After nine weeks researchers analyzed the mices function and behaviour specifically九周后研究者分析了老鼠的行为活动looked at how long it would take for the mouse to turn over to its feet when it was placed on its back,尤其观察当老鼠被躺着放置时,他们自己站起来所用的时长how long it took for the mouse to bring its head up when placed upside down on an incline,当老鼠被倾斜着倒置时他们抬起头所用时长placing the mouse on a platform to determine its cliff avoidance将其放在平板上观察其悬崖回避能力and how the mouse swam and behaved when placed in water将其放入水中时它们的游泳与反应状态and a test to determine the mouses sense of smell by evaluating exploratory behaviour.通过其探究行为探究老鼠的嗅觉The results of the study determined Tartrazine did not affect the mices food intake研究结果显示,酒黄石不会影响老鼠的进食体重,or body weight and the litter size of the offspring birth rate were also not affected.而且老鼠每窝的仔畜数也没有受到影响It was determined that tartrazine affected the mices exploratory behavoiur据断定。酒黄石影响老鼠的探究能力but was most significantly seen in juvenile mice但在幼鼠中表现明显which suggested that it would the most effect third generations.且第三代幼鼠可能受到影响最大Another finding was that tartrazine accelerated the mices swimming ability especially with male mice.另一发现是酒黄石会使老鼠游泳能力加强,尤其是雄鼠Overall the three doses that were used in the study总之,研究中这三种不同剂量的摄入did not have any negative effects on reproduction and only a few effects on behaviour.没有对其繁殖产生任何不良作用,仅对其行为产生一点影响The dose level had the most significance in male mice which were the amounts that were greater than the recommended adequate intake.如果摄入量比建议摄入量高的话,雄性老鼠受到的影响更大Researchers determined that the levels of tartrazine humans consume would not produce any adverse effects.研究者断定,人类食用的酒石黄量不会造成任何不良影响Another research article that was mentioned in the study above published in 2007 in the Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology journal这项研究于2007年发表在杂志《管制毒理学与药理学》上的另一篇文章concluded that from prior research that tested tartrazine in mice for two years reported that总结称先前长达两年的对老鼠食用酒石黄的探究显示the occurrence of tumours and disease are not related to tartrazine in the diet.肿瘤的发现与相关疾病和饮食中的酒黄石没有关系Another finding from the study was that这项研究中的另一个发现是tartrazine was not absorbed by the body and was easily metabolized in the colon and excreted.酒黄石不会被人体吸收,而是易在结肠处发生新陈代谢并被排出体外Other various studies have also concluded that tartrazine has no carcinogenic effects其他多项研究也得出结论,酒黄石没有致癌作用and does not affect development or reproductive behaviours.不会影响机体发展和繁殖行为Currently tartrazine is considered safe by the FDA.目前食药局认为酒黄石是安全的201602/426793。

So, the next step on our alien hunt is因此,我们寻找外星人的下一步to find a place, or places,是找一个地方,或几个地方where organisms might find food and replicate and evolve.上面的生物可以找到食物,繁衍进化And as far as we know, that requires one thing.我们都知道,这需要一点Like most people, I find water both beautiful and fascinating.和大多数人一样,我觉得水很美很神奇But its also the key to all known forms of life,同时它也是所有已知的生命形式的关键from bacteria to blue whales.从细菌到蓝鲸Find water elsewhere如果在外星球上找到水 and aliens could exist nearby.那附近就可能存在外星生命The good news is that water is very common indeed out in space.好消息是,水在外太空中确实很常见Frozen water litters the universe,固态水散布在整个宇宙中 from tiny, single crystals to icy comets the size of mountains.从微小的单晶,到山那么大的冰态彗星But to find liquid water, we need somewhere at the right temperature.但是要想找到液态水,必须找到合适的温度Around every star is a region where its每颗恒星周围都有一个区域not too hot or too cold, but just right.既不太冷也不太热,而是刚好合适Like the porridge in the story of goldilocks and the three bears.像《金发姑娘与三只熊》中的麦片粥一样Around our sun, there are two planets在我们太阳周围,有两颗行星that lie in this ;goldilocks; zone --就位于这个;金发姑娘;地带the earth and Mars,地球和火星which is why one day Im sure well pay it a visit.因此我确信我们迟早会去拜访火星Robots have been exploring mars since the 70s,从70年代开始就有机器人探索火星but they have yet to find life.但是它们还未发现生命I dont think we should give up.我不认为我们该放弃Beneath the martian surface,在火星表面之下NASAs Spirit Rover discovered these white salts美国国家宇航局的勇气号发现了这些白盐which are formed in contact with liquid water.它们的形成与液态水有关Satellite images reveal drainage patterns卫星照片显示出有水系构型and erosion of the kinds caused by rivers and oceans.以及由河流和海洋冲蚀后的痕迹There may well still be moisture under Mars surface --火星表面以下很有可能仍有液态水moisture that perhaps could support life.这些液态水也许足以维持生命I hope one day we will find the money to send men and women to Mars.我希望有一天能有足够的资金送人们上火星It would capture the publics imagination just as the这足以吸引公众的眼球Apollo moon missions captured mine back in the 60s.就像60年代阿波罗登月吸引我眼球一样201505/377201。

The north of England, 1768.Richard Arkwright.1768年 在英格兰北部 有一位名叫理查德·阿克莱特的人Self-taught, ambitious, a natural entrepreneur.他自学成才 雄心满满 是个天生的企业家The root of civilization is the driving of certain people at certain times to create something new. 文明的根源源于特定时间特定的人 想要创造新生事物的 那种驱动力Something drives certain people.Its not in most of us.有种力量推动着这些人 但大多数人并没有这种力量Arkwrights goal is to create a machine To stretch and spin cotton perfectly.阿克莱特的目标是要造出一种机器 能够完美准确地拉伸棉花 纺纱John Kay, clockmaker,Brings the skills of the precision engineer.约翰·凯是一位钟表匠 他带来了作为一名工程师的精密技术The two men work at night, and in secret.他们二人利用夜晚 暗中通力合作Neighbors suspect theyre practicing witchcraft.左邻右舍甚至怀疑他们在施巫术But the device theyre making will give birth To the age of industry and the consumer society.但他们正在制作的装置即将开启 工业时代 和消费社会的篇章Now you begin to get a whole group of people who can afford to get products如今 一大群人 可以买得起这些商品that once upon a time were really only available to the wealthy.而曾经 这些商品只有有钱人 才买得起We can now enjoy things that we could never have before.我们如今所享的是之前从不可能拥有的We can eat things, wear things, play with things.我们吃穿不愁 其乐无穷We can produce so much more stuff,and almost all of this stuff is what people actually want.我们生产出众多商品 几乎都是人们真正所需的201604/435382。

Lets look at our example one more time.让我们再看一下第一个例子Again, focus on the right hand side of the food label, highlighted here in purple.同样,还是关注食物标签右侧的紫色区域The percent daily value heading is at the top of the column日营养摄入比例最高的列在该栏的最上端as listed below are the percentages of nutrients.下面是各种营养物质百分比You can see that for one serving of macaroni and cheese你可以发现对于2000卡里路饮食建议的脂肪总量来说you would consume 18% of your total daily allotment for what is recommended in a 2000 calorie diet for total fat.每份通心粉奶酪提供了日摄入脂肪量的18%Similarly one serving of macaroni and cheese will yield 15% of your daily limit of saturated fat.相似地,每份通心粉奶酪中含有的饱和脂肪占建议日摄入量的15%Another nutrient to notice here is sodium,另一项要注意的营养物质是钠with just one serving of this food you would have 20% of your daily limit for sodium.每份该食物中其占有建议日摄入量的20%As mentioned in the previous slide, 20% or more is considered high.如上张课件中提到的20%及以上就被认为是高含量了So this food product has a high amount of sodium.因此这种食物钠含量较高Even though this product has a lot of sodium and nutrients that you should limit尽管该食品含有高量的钠和应有限量食用的营养物质it also has 20% daily value of calcium.它还含有20%的钙建议日摄入量This means that one serving of macaroni and cheese has a high amount of calcium,也就是说每份通心粉奶酪含有大量钙which is a nutrient to be sure you consume enough of.这是人体应当摄取足量的物质One of the best uses of percent daily values is that日营养摄入比例it allows a quick way to compare one food product to another.最好的用途之一就是可以比较不同产品If you are in the grocery store and wanted to find out如果你在杂货店想知道if this particular brand of macaroni and cheese is a healthier choice than the next brand on the shelf,是否这种牌子的通心粉奶酪比另一种牌子的更健康you can easily compare the percent daily values for each of the nutrients and get a quick idea.只要简单地比较日营养摄入比例,就能快速知道结果For instance, if the other brand has a daily value of 16% for total fat,比如,如果另一种品牌的产品中全部脂肪摄入量占日营养摄入的16%14% for saturated fat and 17% for sodium,饱和脂肪占14%,钠占17%it would likely be that the other brand is a healthier choice than the brand shown here on the slide那么这个牌子就比我们上张课件中讲到的那个牌子更健康since the percent daily values are all based on the same common denominator,因为日摄入营养比例的分母相同which is a 2000 calorie diet即2000卡热量的食物you can compare one food product to another by comparing the percent daily values listed on the food label.因此你可以通过比较食物标签上的日营养摄入百分比来比较不同产品This presentation has explained how to a food label该讲介绍了如何阅读营养标签and hopefully has made understanding these food labels a bit easier.希望你能对此有一个更清楚的了解Food labels contain a wealth of information if you know what to look for, how to understand it,如果你知道怎样阅读理解食品标签并将其用于健康食品的选择and then apply it to making healthy food choices.那么它提供的信息还是很丰富的The US food and drug administration dictates that food labeling is required for most prepared foods美国食品及药物规定大多数预加工食品如各种面包such as bs, cereals, canned and frozen foods, snacks, deserts, drinks and many more.谷类食品,灌装及冷冻食品,小吃,点心,饮料等都需要提供食品标签However nutrition labeling for raw produce such as fruit and vegetables and fish is voluntary.而未加工产品如蔬菜水果鱼等的营养标签则不是必须的Reading a nutrition facts label or food label can be easily broken down into six sections,营养标签或健康标签可以分为六个部分which are serving size, calories, nutrients to limit, nutrients to get enough of, footnote and percent daily value.食用分量,热量,需限量食用的营养物质,需足量食用的营养物质,补充说明和每日摄入百分比It is best to start at the top of the food label and then work your way down,你最好从食物标签最顶端一步步向下看noticing all the sections we have discussed.这些我们都已讨论Remember the percent daily value offers a quick and easy way to compare one food product to another记住,日摄入营养百分比提供了一个快捷简单的方法来比较不同商品so that you can select the product that is the most healthy choice.因此你可以选择最健康的那些食品201603/431038。

Your Wishes Delivered: Driver for a Day小卡森的快递梦I made deliveries to Carson probably two or three times a week. When I first started off, he wouldnt even come out of the house. He would just look at the truck from inside the window. Theres a picture window. He loved just trucks in general, but for some reason, the UPS truck really captivated him. Hes just intrigued by it.我大概一星期送货给 Carson 二或三次。我刚开始时,他甚至不会从屋子出来。他就只会从窗户内看着卡车。那有片大玻璃窗。他只要是卡车都爱,但因为某种原因,UPS 的卡车真的很吸引他。他就是被它给迷住了。Who is that guy?那是谁啊?Mr. Ernie and me.Erine 先生和我。Yeah, its pretty neat to see him all the time with his UPS uniform on. He is always looking really sharp. You know, with his hat and his boots and his...I mean the whole outfit.对啊,看到他总是穿着他的 UPS 制还蛮棒的。他总是看起来十分有型。你知道,戴着他的帽子和他的靴子以及...我是指整套装。Whos that? Mr. Ernie!是谁?Ernie 先生!Hey!嗨!Every single day, like I said, I can come here, you know, three times in a week, and I get the same reaction every single time—all that excitement, you know. So...and he is always y, waiting.每一天,像我说过的,我可以来这儿,你知道,一星期三次,而我每一次都得到同样的反应--那整个兴奋之情,你知道。所以...他一直都准备好、等待着。I cant see! I cant see. Oh, my god... That has a pedal in there. Oh, my gosh! Oh, my gosh...我看不到!我看不到。喔,我的天... 那有个踏板在里面耶。喔,我的天!喔,我的天...Well, are you y to do some deliveries?嗯,你准备好要送些货了吗?Carsons always wanted to be a UPS driver. And today, were gonna make his wish come true.Carson 一直都想要当个 UPS 驾驶。而今天,我们将让他的梦想成真。Its locked. One, two, three, four, five...锁上了。一、二、三、四、五...Is this trick-or-treat again?这又是不给糖就捣蛋吗?Its package day.是包裹日。Its... Its what day?是... 是什么日?Package.包裹。Package day.包裹日。You can pretend youre signing. Okay.你可以假装你在签名。好。Okay!好了!We got a bone for Miko.我们有根给 Miko 的骨头。Oh...thank you!噢...谢谢你!Thank you.谢谢你。Well, Ive been driving for over 25 years. You know, everything is different every single day. And theres a lot of really neat people, but nobody, you know, stands out like Carson does. Yup, hes really special.嗯,我已经开车超过二十五年了。你知道,每一天每件事物都不一样。而有很多真的很美好的人,但没有人,你知道,像 Carson 这般与众不同。没错,他真的很特别。I really like Mr. Ernie.我真的很喜欢 Ernie 先生。201508/392984。

Wildlife on earth is disappearing.In the last century,Hundreds of weird and wonderful species went the way of the dodo.Today over 20000 more species are risk of dying out,but we simply dont have the time or resources to rescue them all.地球上的野生动植物正在消失。上个世纪,无数神奇而美妙的物种成为了历史.如今,两万多的物种濒临灭绝,但我们根本没有拯救它们的时间和金钱。Its a tough situation,but not a unique one-military medics,first responders,and ER workers regularly make dicisions like these,and a medical triage-like approach could help us decide which species to save first.形势极其严峻。无独有偶,军事医疗人员,现成急救者和急诊工作者都会按照医疗分类系统,决定救援的轻重缓急。我们也可以按照这种方法决定先救哪些物种。For example,we could prioritize those who need help stat!like the last 60 wild Javan rhinos teetering on the edge of extinction.Alternatively,we could take a kind of save-the -president-first approach and focus on species vital to entire ecosystems,like mangroves,whose groves support over a thousand species or otters,whose urchin-eating keeps kelp forests healthy.例如,我们可以先救那些情况迫在眉睫的动物!比如现在仅存60只,身处灭绝边缘的爪哇犀牛。或者,我们可以采取先救统帅的策略。先救那些对生态系统影响重大的物种,例如红树林,它可以供养超过千种生物以及水獭,而且还能保护海草林不被海胆吃光。Or,we could prioritize patients that have the bext and cheapest chance of long term survival;New Zealands Maud Island frogs,for example,could be rescued from their invasive nemeses for the cost of keeping a panda alive in captivity for about half a year.But so far,conservation decisions havent been so calculated.又或者,我们可以排个先后顺序。先救那些花一点点钱就能长期存活的物种;例如,新西兰的莫德岛青蛙,将他们从入侵敌人的手中救下来所需费用 仅为圈养一只熊猫半年的花费。但是目前,保护决策还缺乏计划性。For instance,giant pandas arent nearly as rare as Javan rhinos or as critical to their ecosystems as otters and mangroves.Plus,theyre such reluctant breeders and their bamboo forests are so fragmented that saving them has aly required billions of dollars and may mean keeping the species on permanent life support.例如,熊猫的濒危程度就不及爪哇犀牛,而它对生态系统的贡献也不如水獭和红树林。另外,它们繁殖力低,它们的竹林又分散,拯救它们需要数以亿计的费用,这笔钱足以让许多其他物种长久地生存下去。And yet these fuzzy-wuzzy bundles of cuteness pull at our heartstrings-and our wallets.As the literal faces of conservation,pandas pull in big bucks for wildlife protection.And they do share-a little.Money raised by the World Wildlife Fund does go to dozens of conservation projects,but the majority of campaigns fronted by pandas or other charismatic creatures are solely devoted to saving their symbolic species.这些毛茸茸的小可爱,紧拽着我们的心弦。动物保护的现实就是。熊猫为野生动物保护拉来了大笔的基金。而它们享用的只是其中一小部分。野生动物保护基金筹集到的钱,被用于众多项目,但是大部分针对熊猫和其他可爱动物所展开的活动,却只专注于保存几只物种代表。Whats more,keeping the spotlight focused on the plight of a few celebrities means the demise of species with homelier faces-or no faces at all...youve probably never seen a campaign to save the stinking cedar or the pygmy hog-sucking louse.But unlike the celebrities,underdog species like these are often ideal triage candidates:they can be simpler to resuscitate,less expensive to protect,and vital to their ecosystems-their only flaw is inferior cuteness.此外,将聚光灯聚集在少数特定的物种身上,意味着无视其他普通物种的死亡。。。你大概从没见过,拯救美洲榧或是猪虱的行动。与聚光灯下的名流不同,这些无名物种往往才是理想的救援对象;它们可以很快恢复生机,救援花费少,对生态系统贡献大,唯一的缺点就是长得不够可爱。Should we really let appearances decide who live and who dies,or should we take a more rational approach?The tradeoff is this:thinking rationally when it comes to saving species may mean asking ourselves whether a world without pandas issomething we can bear.所以,我们真的要通过脸蛋来决定物种的死活吗?还是应该更理性地考虑这个问题?权衡之法就是;在拯救物种时理性地思考,扪心自问。一个没有熊猫的世界会让你无法忍受吗?201505/376899。