抚顺人民医院哪个医生看不孕不育好
时间:2018年12月10日 16:41:42

Science and technology科学技术Mass extinctions大灭绝Small but deadly陨石很小不过危害却很致命The biggest extinction in history was probably caused by a space rock that changed the climate历史上规模最大的一次物种灭绝,也许是由于陨石坠落导致的气候变化而造成AS EVERY schoolchild knows, the dinosaurs were wiped out in an instant, when a rock from outer space hit what is now southern Mexico.就像每个小学生知道的那样,当一块天外陨石坠落到现今的墨西哥南部地区之后,恐龙就那在一瞬间遭受了灭顶之灾。That happened 66m years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period.这一切就发生在6600万年前的白垩纪末期。Well-informed schoolchildren also know that this mass extinction was neither unique nor the biggest.一些学的小学生还知道这次物种大灭绝既不是历史上唯一的一次,也不是历史上最大的一次。The geological record speaks of four others since animal life became complex at the beginning of the Cambrian period 541m years ago.地质学档案记录了5亿4100万年前寒武纪物种多样化以来的另外四次物种大灭绝。What neither these clever schoolchildren nor anyone else knows, however, is whether these extinctions had similar causes.有些历史不论是那些聪明的小学生还是别的人都还不知道,比如,导致这些灭绝的原因是否相似?But evidence is accumulating that the biggest extinction of all, 252.3m years back, at the end of the Permian period, was indeed also triggered by an impact.不过有据不断地明发生在2亿5230万年前二叠纪时期的那次大灭绝也是因为陨石坠落而造成的。Nevertheless, though the trigger was the same, the details are significantly different, according to of the University of Western Australia.然而,按照西澳大利亚大学的埃里克·托瓦尔教授的说法,虽然两次大灭绝引发的原因是一致的,但是其中细节却大不相同。When the dinosaurs vanished they were accompanied by more than 70% of the other animal species on Earth.当时和恐龙一起灭绝的还有地球上超过70%的物种。At the end of the Permian, the extinction figure was more than 80%.在二叠纪末期,那场大灭绝带走了超过80%的物种。And just as the Cretaceous slate-clearing permitted the rise of a hitherto obscure group called the mammals,就如同白垩纪大灭绝成就了一个迄今为止都未被研究透彻的物种—哺乳类动物的崛起,so the Permian clearance permitted the rise of the reptiles,二叠纪大灭绝也成就了爬行类生物的崛起,one branch of which turned into Tyrannosaurus, Diplodocus and all the other names familiar from childhood.它们的一最后演化成了如今小学生们口中的暴龙、梁龙以及其它各种叫龙的动物。The idea that an impact caused the Permian extinction has been around for a while.导致二叠纪大灭绝的原因长期以来都没有一个定论。As at the end of the Permian, as at the end of the Cretaceous, huge volcanic eruptions had been going on for hundreds of thousands of years.在二叠纪和白垩纪末期,大量火山持续爆发了数百到数千年。These may have weakened the worlds ecosystems, making them vulnerable to an external shock.这可能破坏了地球的生态系统,使其难以抵御外来的破坏。But the abruptness of both extinctions indicates that the coup de grace was administered by something else,但是两次大灭绝来得如此突然,这说明了实施致命一击”的另有其人,and in the case of the Permian some fragments of meteorite of the correct age, found in rock in Antarctica, suggest that, as with the Cretaceous, that something was an asteroid or a comet.而且在南极洲的岩石里发现的一些陨星碎片与二叠纪的年代相吻合,这说明了地球在二叠纪与在白垩纪一样,遭受了小行星或是彗星的袭击。What was missing from the story, though, was a suitable crater.只不过这个故事里还缺一个部分—一个合适的陨石坑。Fracking hell!如同置身地狱一般的裂解反应Last year Dr Tohver and his colleagues thought they might have found it.去年,托瓦尔士和他的同事表示他们也许找到这个陨石坑了。They redated a hole that straddles the border of the states of Mato Grosso and Goias in Brazil, called the Araguainha crater, to 254.7m years, with a margin of error of plus or minus 2.5m years.他们重测了一个位于位于巴西马托·格罗索州和戈雅斯州交界的洞穴—阿拉瓜尼亚陨石坑,并确定其形成年代为2亿5470万年前,年代误差在正负250万年左右。Previous estimates had suggested Araguainha was 10m years younger,早期研究所估计的阿拉瓜尼亚陨石坑的形成时间要较这个数据晚1000万年,but Dr Tohver has put it within geological spitting distance of the extinction date, which itself has a margin of error of plus or minus 200,000 years.不过托瓦尔士把这个时间差归结于大灭绝发生的具体时间本身就有一个范围,大概是正负20万年的误差。Which would all be fine and dandy, except most people think Araguainha is too small to be the culprit. It is a mere 40km across.除开大部分人觉得阿拉瓜尼亚实在太小,不足以成为元凶以外,这对大灭绝来说会是个很好的解释。The Chicxulub crater in Mexico, which did for the dinosaurs, is 180km in diameter, and it may have been paired with an even bigger impact in the Indian Ocean.导致恐龙灭绝的墨西哥希克苏鲁伯陨石坑,其直径有180公里,而且它可能与同时期在印度洋产生的另一个更大的碰撞共同作用,从而导致白垩纪大灭绝。Dr Tohver, however, has an answer to this criticism.面对质疑,托瓦尔士有着合理的解释。His latest paper, just published inPalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, describes the rock in the area in which Araguainha resides.他最近在古地理学,古气候学,古生态学”杂志上发表的一片文章详细描述了阿拉瓜尼亚附近的岩石性质。After an extensive geological survey, he and his team discovered that a sizeable amount of this rock is oil shale.经过了广泛的地质学研究调查后,他和他的团队发现这些岩石很多都是油页岩,Any hydrocarbons in the crater would certainly have been vaporised.这说明所有的碳氢化合物已经被汽化。More intriguingly, the researchers calculate that the impact would have generated thousands of earthquakes of up to magnitude 9.9 for hundreds of kilometres around.更有趣的是,研究人员通过计算发现撞击所产生的能量足以在附近数百公里的范围内产生几千次9.9级地震。In effect, it would have been the biggest fracking operation in history, releasing oil and gas from the shattered rock in prodigious quantities.从效果上来说,这也许是历史上最大的裂解工程,它将数量惊人的石油和天然气从岩石中释放出来。The upshot, Dr Tohver believes, would have been a huge burp of methane into the atmosphere.托瓦尔士相信,这导致了巨量的甲烷被排向大气层。Since methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, that burp would have resulted in instant global warming, making things too hot for much of the planets animal life.而甲烷是很强的温室效应气体,它就使得全球气温瞬时上升,过高的气温危及了许多物种的生存。Presto! The Permian mass extinction is explained.是的!这就是二叠纪物种大灭绝的解释。Determining whether this was really what happened will take a lot more digging, of course.当然,要确认这是不是造成这一切的真实原因还有待更多的探索研究。Even now, there are those who think the formation of the Chicxulub crater was a coincidence, and that what did for the dinosaurs was actually the volcanoes, so Dr Tohver will have to work hard to convince the sceptics.直到今天还有人认为希克苏鲁伯陨石坑的形成只不过是个巧合,真正让恐龙消亡的原因是火山爆发,所以托瓦尔士还需要加把劲来明他的假设。If he does, though, he will have proved himself a great geological detective, for he will have been responsible for solving one of the biggest puzzles in palaeontology.如果他做到了,他将明他是一个伟大的地质学发现者,因为他解开了古生物学中的一个最重要的谜题。 /201308/252459

Online business and security网络商业及网络安全A digital heart attack电子心脏病A flaw in popular internet-security software could have serious consequences for all sorts of business广泛使用的网络安全软件出现漏洞,可能会殃及几乎所有企业THE Heartbleed bug sounds like a nasty coronary condition. But it is in fact a software flaw that has left up to two-thirds of the worlds websites vulnerable to attack by hackers. “This is potentially the most dangerous bug that we have seen for a long, long time,” says James Beeson, the chief information security officer of GE Capital Americas, an arm of GE. Since its existence was revealed on April 7th by researchers at Codenomicon, a security outfit, and Google, countless companies around the world that rely on the internet for part or all of their business have been scrambling to fix the flaw.“心脏流血”,听起来像是某种严重的心脏病的名称。但事实上,它是一个软件漏洞的名字,此漏洞使得全球三分之二的网站暴露于被黑客攻击的危险之中。“这可能是近些年来发现过的最危险的漏洞了,”通用电气旗下的通用电气金融务公司的首席信息安全官詹姆士·比森说道。这个漏洞是由网络安全研究团队Codenomicon和谷歌于四月七日发现的,自从那时起,全球范围内,只要是或多或少依靠互联网的公司,都火急火燎地在修补漏洞。Ironically, the bug was discovered in OpenSSL, encryption software that was designed to make the internet more secure. Available free, this open-source code is popular with businesses and governments, which use it to help secure everything from online credit-card transactions to public services. On April 9th, for instance, Canadas tax authority shut off public access to its online services while it checked the security of its systems in the light of news about the bug.讽刺的是,这个漏洞是在OpenSSl中发现的,而后者是一个用于提升网络安全的加密软件。OpenSSL是一个免费的开源软件,被企业和政府部门广泛使用,用于保护信用卡交易或公共务的安全。比如加拿大税务部门的提供的公众网络务就使用了OpenSSL,在得知漏洞的存在后,税务部门便在四月九日关闭了务。The flaw makes it possible for hackers to trick a server into spewing out data held in its memory. OpenSSL has a feature known as a “heartbeat” that allows a computer at one end of an encrypted link to send occasional signals to the computer at the other end of it, to check that it is still online. The researchers discovered that a hacker with knowledge of the bug could replicate this signal and use it to steal all manner of data from a remote computer.“心血”漏洞增加了黑客套取存储在务器上的数据的可能性。OpenSSL有一个名为“心跳”的功能,允许加密链接一端的电脑随机发出一条信息,确认另一端的电脑是否仍然在线。研究人发现,一个熟悉“心血”漏洞的黑客,可以通过复制这个信号来盗取远程计算机上的所有数据。Those data could include encryption keys that let hackers decipher traffic. To make matters worse, the researchers found that the bug, which is present in some versions of OpenSSL that have been available since March 2012, allows attacks to be mounted without leaving a trace in targeted computers “server logs”, so victims are unaware their systems have been compromised. That means it is impossible to tell for sure what damage has been done.这些数据可能包括可以让黑客解码之前通信内容的密钥。更糟糕的是,研究人员发现,此漏洞从2012起就开始在OpenSSL的一些版本中出现;而且,黑客通过此漏洞攻击时不会在其目标计算机的“务器日志”中留下痕迹,所以,受害者无法察觉到自己的系统已经被入侵了。The bug has forced companies to find out fast how many of their systems employ the vulnerable versions of OpenSSL. “Everyone knows they have to patch their customer-facing internet websites, but that is only the tip of the iceberg,” says Jonathan Sander of STEALTHbits Technologies, a security firm that is helping one of Americas biggest banks work out where it has deployed the buggy software. Web-connected systems that handle things such as accounting and personnel data will also need to be checked for the bug.这个漏洞促使企业迅速查明它们自己有哪些系统使用了存在漏洞的OpenSSL。“所有人都知道要去修补他们面向客户的网站,但那些只是冰山一角,”安全公司STEALTHbits Technologies的乔纳森·桑德说。该公司正在帮助美国的一家大型定位其系统上的漏洞。其他联网系统,例如处理帐务和私人信息的联网系统,都有必要检查一下是否有漏洞。Mr Sander likens the discovery of the Heartbleed bug to finding a faulty part in nearly every make and model of car. The problem is that the internet cannot be recalled. Big web companies such as Google and Yahoo have moved fast to deal with the bug. But millions of smaller e-commerce sites and other businesses face the worrying prospect of being attacked by hackers alerted to the bugs existence as the firms race to fix the problem.桑德说,发现“心血”漏洞,就好比汽车厂商在它的每款车里都发现一个同一个缺陷。但问题是,互联行业里没有召回这一说。像谷歌和雅虎这样的大型网络公司已经立即处理了漏洞。但是还有大量的小型的电商网站和其他类型的小公司只能一边抢修,一边担心被那些获悉漏洞存在的黑客的攻击。The cure includes applying a software “patch” and then choosing new encryption keys to replace those that may have been compromised. Once this has been done, customers will often need to change their passwords too. Tumblr, a blogging service owned by Yahoo, has urged its users to change the passwords they use for all of the secure online services that hold sensitive data about them. Some companies even chose to suspend services while they were working on a fix. Bitstamp, a Bitcoin e-currency exchange, temporarily suspended new account registrations and logins to its existing accounts.补救的办法包括给软件打“补丁”,然后用新密钥替换那些可能被盗取的密钥。完成了这两步之后,用户通常还需要更改他们的密码。雅虎旗下提供务的Tumblr就强烈建议用户更改所有包含他们敏感信息的务的密码。有些公司甚至在其修补漏洞期间暂停了务。比特币交易网站Bitstamp就暂时关闭了注册和登录务。Another Y2 K?另一个千年虫?Perhaps the risk posed by the Heartbleed bug will turn out to be overblown. But if it emerges that companies systems have indeed been hacked because of it, this could open a legal can of worms. Firms could argue that they ought not to be punished for using widely trusted security software. But aggrieved customers—and their lawyers—may see things differently.也许,“心血”漏洞可能造成的风险被夸大了。但是一旦真的有公司因此漏洞被黑客入侵了,就可能引起极为棘手的法律纠纷。企业可能会自辩说其不应该因使用被广泛信任的安全软件受罚。但受害的用户和他们的律师可不会这么想。Quite how the bug got into the OpenSSL software in the first place is a mystery. Bruce Schneier, an internet-security expert, argues in a blog post that “the probability is close to one” that intelligence agencies have exploited the glitch to nab the encryption keys needed to decipher information about their targets. His guess is that the glitch is the result of a coding error rather than the handiwork of spies, though he says he cannot be sure.至于究竟这个漏洞最初是如何出现在OpenSSL中的,这还是一个谜。网络安全专家布鲁斯·施奈尔在他的一篇客里称,“毫无疑问”,情报部门已利用此漏洞盗取密钥以获取其监控目标的信息。虽然他不能完全肯定,但他认为漏洞是编程失误的结果,不太可能是间谍的杰作。No matter who is to blame, this episode is another reminder of the security challenges companies face as ever more economic activity shifts online. According to eMarketer, a research outfit, worldwide business-to-consumer e-commerce sales are likely to grow by just over a fifth this year, to .5 trillion. That is a huge commercial opportunity, but it will also encourage cyber-crooks to target businesses even more vigorously. Expect more computer-security heartburn in boardrooms.不管幕后黑手到底是谁,这个事件再一次提醒我们,在企业不断将经济活动向线上转移的过程中,它们将面临大量的安全挑战。据一个名为eMarketer的市场调查公司称,今年全球B2C电商的销售总额将有望达到1.5万亿美元,同比增长超过五分之一。这是巨大的商机,同时也会让网络罪犯们更坚定地咬住企业这块肥肉。就让董事会的老爷们为此烧心窝火吧。 /201404/288732

Business商业报道Technology and luxury goods科技时尚单品Catwalk credentials优雅融合Why Burberrys boss is a perfect fit for AppleBurberry老板与苹果如此合拍,秘密何在?AMONG stewards of big luxury brands Angela Ahrendts, the boss of Burberry, is probably the geekiest.Burberry的老板Angela Ahrendts可能是所有的大型奢侈品牌管理者中最不招人喜欢的。Her main achievement has been to make the 150-year-old British company the most technologically savvy of its peers.他的主要成就就是使这所150年历史的英国老牌企业成为同行中的技术型企业。Burberry plans to be the first luxury company that is fully digital end to end, she boasts.她夸口说Burberry计划成为第一家完全数字化的奢侈品企业。But what can she do for Apple, which on October 14th said it would poach her to run its retailing operations?但是苹果于10月14日宣称会插手她的零售业务,对此她又能有什么办法呢?Probably the opposite: revive a sense of style at a tech firm that has lately looked a bit dowdy.也许相反,在一家科技公司恢复一种风格有点过时。Many purveyors of luxury fret about cheapening their wares by selling them online.很多奢侈品供应商担心在网上销售会降低商品价格。Of the 100 biggest luxury brands just 56 have transactional websites, according to Exane BNP Paribas, an investment bank.据Exane BNP Paribas ,一家投资称100家顶级奢侈品牌中只有56家有网上交易平台。Ms Ahrendts, an American who took over Burberry in 2006, had no such hangups.Ahrendts女士,这位于06年接管Burberry的美国人不这么认为。Not content with flogging calfskin trench coats online, she has deployed every platform, device or bit of software she could think of to romance customers and spark collaboration among employees and suppliers.不满足于仅在网上出售皮制品,她已在各个平台全面铺开,用所能想到的一切设备吸引顾客,希望与顾客擦出火花。iPad-wielding salespeople in Burberry stores can look up what customers have aly bought, and suggest what might take their fancy next.Burberry的店员手持IPAD随时记录顾客的购买信息,并预测他们的可能喜好。Ms Ahrendts should add pizzazz to Apples bricks-and-mortar shops, which are the most profitable in America measured by sales per square foot.Ahrendts应该投入更多精力在美国每季度盈利最多的苹果实体店上。But that seems a small job for a woman who last year was the highest-paid chief executive of a company in the FTSE 100 share index.但对于一个进入去年福布斯百位收入最高企业高管的女士而言,这似乎是小事一桩。At Apple, from next spring, she will merely be a senior vice-president.至于苹果,从下个春季开始她就仅仅是一个部门副主席So the odds are that her brief will go well beyond managing Apples stores. She can help it crack the Chinese market, where its iPhones are also-rans in the race against cheaper smartphones from Samsung and local manufacturers.所以很有可能她的表现会比在苹果时更好。她能帮助苹果打开竞争激烈的中国市场,这竞争来自于三星和中国国产智能机对IPHONE的竞争。Burberry earns more than a third of its revenue in Asia compared with Apples 28%.较苹果的28%,Burberry的亚洲市场盈利超过其总盈利的1/3。A bigger job will be to y Apple for the coming fusion of fashion and technology.苹果已经准备好了面对即将到来的时尚与科技融合的浪潮。The most talked-about new devices are wearable.现在被广泛谈及的新设备都是可戴式的。Googles Glass smuggles a smartphone into a pair of spectacles.谷歌眼镜将智能机植入眼镜。Samsungs Galaxy Gear squeezes some smartphone functions into a wristwatch.三星是能表将智能手机与手表融合。Apple is also keen to surf the wearable wave.苹果也想赶上这一穿戴式科技浪潮。An iWatch, which Apple may launch next year, would pull it towards Ms Ahrendtss home turf, since it would compete with fashionable timepieces like Burberrys.苹果可能会明年推出iWatch,鉴于可能与时尚腕表比如Burberry展开竞争,他可能会推向Ahrendtss女士的主场。Apple has long been something of a fashion house.苹果现在已成为时尚工厂。Its product launches are choreographed like catwalk shows.他的项目都是精心设计的就像时装秀一样。But its glamour has faded since the death of Steve Jobs, its founder, in 2011.但是自从创始人乔布斯在2011年死后他的魅力正在逐渐削减。His successor, Tim Cook, is striving to regain it.而继任者Tim Cook则在努力重获魅力。He recently hired Paul Deneve, the boss of Yves Saint Laurent, a French fashion house.最近他雇了法国时尚工厂Yves Saint Laurent的老板Paul Deneve。Sir Jony Ive, Apples design guru, now oversees the look of software as well as hardware. Ms Ahrendts brings another eye for beauty, and a knack for seducing consumers.Jony Ive苹果首席设计师如今不仅要负责软件也要负责硬件外观。Ms Ahrendts则从另一个角度带来美,吸引顾客。 /201310/261550

Science and technology科学技术Prospecting for oil石油勘探Grains of truth千虑一得之法Putting rocks in medical scanners may help the search for oil and gas采用医学扫描仪对岩石样本扫描,可帮助寻找石油和天然气STRIKING oil is one thing.开采石油是一回事。Getting it out of the ground in economic quantities is quite another.然而从经济角度考虑,能从地下开采出多少石油又完全是另一回事。Doing so depends on understanding the granular structure of the rock it is trapped in,要做到这点,人们需要对某些岩石的颗粒结构有所了解,而这些岩石是有石油困于其中的。分and analysing that is a tedious business of placing countless samples in pressure vessels to assess their capacity to hold hydrocarbons and to estimate the flow rate of those hydrocarbons through them.析岩石颗粒结构是极其枯燥乏味的事情,研究人员需要将无数个样本放置在压力容器内以评估它们含纳碳氢化合物的能力并估計其中蕴藏的碳氢化合物的产量。This can take years.这可能需要花费数年的时间。Help, though, is at hand.然而可施之法即在眼前。Computerised tomography scanning has been used in medicine for several decades.计算机X线断层照相扫描术在医学领域应用已有几十年时间。Now it is being applied to geology.目前它正被应用于地质学。In alliance with electron microscopy, the geological use of CT scanning has given birth to a new field, digital rock physics.在与电子显微镜配合使用下,CT扫描术在地质上的应用育了一个新的领域—数字岩石物理。The fields proponents believe it will let oil companies decide far more quickly than they could in the past which strikes are worth exploiting, and which should be abandoned.该领域的倡导者认为,该项技术能使石油公司较之以往更加快速地判断哪些石油矿值得开发,哪些应该放弃。One of those proponents is Amos Nur, chief technology officer at, a company based in Houston, Texas.科技公司Ingrain总部设在得克萨斯州休斯敦,其首席技术官阿莫斯?努尔是该技术倡导者之一。His firm is one of three independent digital-rock-physics laboratories in the world.他所在公司是全球三家独立数字岩石物理实验室之一。According to Dr Nur, the new technology is capable of creating three-dimensional pictures of a samples structure with a resolution of 50 nanometres.努尔士表示,这项新技术能为岩石样本结构创建分辨率为50纳米的三维立体照片。That is enough to work out how oil and gas trapped in the pores between the grains of such a rock might be expected to behave.这足够预测出困在岩石颗粒细孔间的石油和天然气的表現方式。Most of the samples analysed by Ingrain start as cylindrical cores brought up from deep below the Earths surface by drills.开始分析的大部分样本都来自于地下深层钻探得到的圆柱形岩石核。A typical core is several metres long, so it is first subject to a rough and y CT scan using a standard medical scanner.典型的岩石核有几米长,因此首先要采用标准医学扫描仪对其进行粗略的CT扫描。The scanner is fitted with calibration rods made of a proprietary material whose properties provide reference points for the creation of an image.该扫描仪安装了许多由专利材料制成的调校棒,这种材料有为图像创建提供参考点的属性。This initial scan yields a picture that has a resolution of about 500 microns.初始扫描会得到一张分辨率为500微米的图片。That done, sections of the core 2-3cm long, whose porosity is of particular interest, are subject to further study.这些完成之后,将一些长度在2至3厘米间,其孔隙度有特殊研究价值的小岩石块做进一步研究。This involves scanning them in a special micro-CT machine, of a sort developed originally to look at computer chips.这包括将岩石核样本放入一台特殊的微CT机进行扫描—微CT机原是为了观察电脑芯片而研制的。The sample is placed on a turntable and rotated inside this microscanner.将小岩石核样本放置在微扫描器内部的转盘上并使其旋转,The result is a 3D image with a resolution of 40 microns.结果得到一个分辨率为40微米的三维图像。This allows sections requiring further study to be identified.这就使得需做进一步研究的小岩石块能够被标识。These sections are dissected, using a laser, into slices a millimetre or less thick, and then scanned again, either with the micro-CT or with a scanning electron microscope.采用激光将这些小岩石块切分成一毫米或不太厚的薄片,然后用微CT机或电子显微扫描镜对其再次扫描。That brings the resolution to half a micron, or 500 nanometres.这样便将图象分辨率提高到了0.5微米或500纳米。Finally, the image is cleaned up by a computer program and the 50-nanometre-resolution picture emerges.最后,将该图像进行计算机降噪去斑处理,得到一张50纳米分辨率的图片。This image, which shows the porosity of the rock, and the channels between the pores,然后将能够显示岩石孔隙度和岩石内部毛孔间通道的图像用计算机分析,is then subject to a computer analysis that reveals how easily hydrocarbons will flow through it under pressure—and thus the likely productivity of a well dug at that site.结果会显示在有压力情况下碳氢化合物在岩石块内部流动的容易程度—从而得知样品来源之处那口钻探井的可能产量。Whether digital rock physics will actually replace traditional methods is unclear.“数字岩石物理”技术是否能够取代传统方法,目前尚无定论。Sceptics, such as Anthony Kovscek of Stanford University, think the claims being made for it are exaggerated.许多人对此持怀疑态度,斯坦福大学的Anthony Kovscek就是其中之一,他认为该技术的声明有夸大成分。Though analysis of a rocks structure in this way will, in his opinion, be able to tell you that a strike is unlikely to yield a commercial return,在他看来,尽管采用这种方法得出的岩石结构分析结果能够告知人们哪个钻探点不可能产生商业回报,the reverse is not true.但其反面结论却未必正确。He does not believe that the technique can predict flow rates,他不相信这种技术能预测石油的流量,even from rock that contains a lot of hydrocarbons—and flow rates are crucial to an oil fields economics.即使对于含有大量碳氢化合物的岩石也无法预测—石油流量是油田经济中至关重要的指标。The new discipline of digital rock physics has, nevertheless, attracted considerable attention within the industry.但是“数字岩石物理”这门新学科在行业内引起了相当大的关注。Smaller oil companies are using the facilities of Ingrain, Numerical Rocks and Digitalcore.小型石油公司正在使用Ingrain、Numerical Rocks和Digitalcore的设备。Larger ones, such as BP, Chevron and Shell, are setting up their own digital-rock-physics laboratories.而大型石油公司—如BP、雪佛龙和壳牌正在创建自己的数字岩石物理实验室。As the supply of crude oil dwindles and the price thus rises, anything that makes the process of prospecting new wells cheaper is to be welcomed. This new technique may be such a thing.当原油供应下降并导致价格上升之时,任何能使新井勘探成本更低的技术都将受到欢迎。“数字岩石物理”可能就是满足此要求的新技术。 /201305/239868

If you have a dog, you may have noticed that sometimes it seems to be smiling.如果你养,你可能已经有所发觉,这只汪星人有时似乎在微笑。But, of course, we know that dogs dont really smile.但是,当然,我们清楚是不会笑的。Thats just how dog mouths appear sometimes, right? 的嘴有时会张开,对吗?Perhaps, but according to neuroscientist Jaak Panksepp of Bowling Green State University, some animals do laugh.也许的确如此,但按照林格林州立大学神经系统科学家贾克·潘克斯皮的理论,一些动物确实会笑。When chimps play, Panksepp notes, they make panting sounds that could be a form of laughter.当黑猩猩玩耍的时候, 潘克斯皮指出,他们发出气喘吁吁的声音可能就是一种形式的笑声。Even rats have a way of laughing-by chirping when theyre playing with each other or being tickled by humans.即使老鼠也有办法—彼此嬉戏或被人类逗乐时候通过鸣叫就可以愉悦自己。But, if animals do in fact laugh, what are they laughing at?但是,如果动物事实上真的在笑,他们是在笑什么?Scientists have long known that for many animals, life isnt all about hunting, foraging, fighting, and sleeping.科学家已经知晓对于许多动物而言,生活不仅仅是狩猎,觅食,争斗及睡觉。Young animals also play a lot, which suggests that animal laughter is related to playful joy.年轻的动物也会玩耍,这意味着动物笑的原因与嬉戏快乐有关。How is this possible?这怎么可能?Human laughter originates in very ancient areas of the brain.人类的笑声起源于大脑非常古老的区域。This suggests that mammalian brains were wired for playful joy long before the rise of modern humans.这表明,哺乳动物的大脑在现代人类崛起前就已经对嬉戏快乐有所感觉。So its not too much of a stretch to claim that pre-human forms of laughter may exist.因此,对于可能存在的远古人类的笑没有太多的观点延伸。To be clear, its not certain that animals really laugh like humans, at least not in response to humor.需要明确的是,动物的笑不一定像人类一样,至少不是对幽默的回应。However, many studies suggest that animals are capable of complex emotions such as fear, anger, and even joy and sadness.然而,许多研究表明,动物本身拥有如恐惧、愤怒,甚至快乐和悲伤等复杂的情绪。So your dogs grin may not be a real human-type smile.所以你的咧开嘴并不是真正意义的微笑。But it now seems likely that deep in brain regions that animals share with humans, the ability for joy and ancients forms of laughter do exist.但现在看来动物和人类共享大脑的深处区域,高兴的能力及远古笑的形式的确存在。 201310/259915


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