2020年01月27日 18:01:34|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度新闻免费医生
Friday has long been regarded as an unlucky day. People have this superstition probably because they believe that Jesus Christ was put to death on the cross on Friday, and also because Friday was for many years the day of execution of criminals, commonly called “hang-man’s day”. Some people will not start a trip on a Friday, especially if it is the 13th day of the month, since 13 men were present at the Last Supper.Your happiness could be contagiousStudy shows friends and even strangers benefit from your cheery moodFeeling inexplicably cheery today? Thank your friends. And your friends’ friends. And your friends’ friends’ friends.New research shows that happiness isn’t just an individual phenomenon; we can catch happiness from friends and family members like an emotional virus. When just one person in a group becomes happy, researchers were able to measure a three-degree sp of that person’s cheer. In other words, our moods can brighten thanks to someone we haven’t even met.“Especially in the ed States, we’re very used to thinking of ourselves as rugged individuals. But even very small things that happen to us have big impacts on dozens and hundreds of other people,” says James Fowler, a University of California, San Diego, political scientist, who co-authored the study with Harvard University medical sociologist Nicholas Christakis. “The things that we do and the things that we feel are going to reverberate throughout our social network.”On average, every happy person in your social network increases your own chance of cheer by 9 percent — and the effects of catching someone else’s happiness lasts up to one year. The study, which looked at nearly 5,000 individuals over 20 years, was published online Thursday in the British Medical Journal.Fowler and Christakis were able to map the social networks of 4,739 individuals with data from the Framingham Heart Study, an ongoing cardiovascular study. Participants in that study listed contact information for their closest friends, family members and neighbors, connecting the pair of researchers to more than 50,000 social ties. Fowler and Christakis have used that data set for similar studies published in the last two years that showed how obesity and smoking cessation can sp throughout a social network. The researchers used the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Index — a standard set of questions psychologists use to measure happiness — to analyze the cheeriness of the study participants. They found that when someone gets happy, that person’s friend experiences a 25 percent increased chance of becoming happy. A friend of that friend experiences a nearly 10 percent chance of increased happiness, and a friend of that friend has a 5.6 percent increased chance of happiness.That means a stranger’s good mood can do more to lift your spirits than a ,000 raise, which only increased happiness 2 percent, Fowler and Christakis found.“Happiness is a social emotion. It's an emotion that we derive from social events, and very typically and it becomes important for cementing the social connections we have with others,” says Jack Dovidio, a Yale University social psychologist who was not involved in the study. “Happiness is not simply about me.”What’s more, all these happy people could be helping to keep each other healthy. Several recent medical studies have linked happiness and health, including a 2006 Carnegie Mellon University study that found buoyant personality types catch fewer colds than downers. And a 2001 University of Kentucky at Lexington study used the handwritten autobiographies of 180 Catholic nuns to judge the effect of happiness on longevity: The nuns who used more positive words to describe their lives lived about 10 years longer than those who used more negative words to describe their lives.“It does appear possibly to be a causal affect — that being happier actually makes you healthier,” Fowler says.But it seems you can’t catch happiness over the phone. Fowler and Christakis found that the increase in happiness only affects friends who live within a mile away from each other. “For emotions, it appears that distance is really important,” Fowler says. “Friends who are close have an affect; friends who are far away don’t. The less you’re in contact with somebody the less likely you are to catch their happiness.”The one-mile finding in the study is sure to sound odd to close friends who may live across town from each other. But Fowler says the key seems to be in how frequently you see your friends and those living closest saw each other the most often. (He says when they looked at the effect of happiness on friends who lived more than a mile apart, the results were too inconsistent to be anything more than chance.)Sadness isn't as catchingOn the flip side, if you’re feeling blue, you’ve only yourself to blame. Sadness doesn’t infect a social group as reliably happiness does, researchers found. Within some friendship networks, sadness had a significant effect on the members of the group, but on others, the effect was very small.“With sadness, rather than pulling you in to your social network you often push people away,” says Emory University psychologist Nadine Kaslow, who wasn’t involved in this study. “Even though we know social support is really good for us when we’re sad, when we need it the most, we tend to push people away.” It might be a matter of private, personal emotions versus those that are meant to be shared. Anger, for example, might be another outward emotion that would sp within a group the same way happiness does, suggests Dovidio.“When we are close to somebody, we actually have kind of a merging of our self image,” Dovidio says. And an infectious case of cheer can help cement connections within a group of friends, he adds, because it can re-affirm how close those relationships are.“People often get a sense of happiness, even though they don't know where it comes from; it's probably very likely to come from the happiness of other people,” Dovidio says. “If I can't locate where my happiness came from it's likely that it came from another person.”Once Fowler realized how far-reaching his own good cheer actually is, he has begun to make some changes to ensure he’s in a chipper mood more often. Lately, in the evenings on the drive home from work, just before pulling up to his house, he turns on a tune that’s almost too happy: Hoku’s “Perfect Day.” By the time he gets home, he has a giddy, goofy mood to match the pop song, and he hopes that his happiness will rub off on his two boys, 8-year-old Lucas and 6-year-old Jay.“I’m not just going to make my sons happy — I could potentially make my sons’ friends happy,” Fowler says. “These little things I thought I was doing for myself turn out to be for hundreds of people.” /200812/59760

这些有关人名的俗语,你知道吗?1.a cup of Joe一杯咖啡。A cup of Joe也就是a cup of coffee。 这个说法是从纽约一家公司Martinson's Coffee的Joe Martinson的名字得来的,据说当时临近街区都弥漫着咖啡的芳香,所以人们都称咖啡为 a cup of Joe。 Martinson's Coffee在美国历史悠久,它的追随者25%都是纽约人。2.average Joe平常人,普通人。An average Joe refers to someone who is just like everyone else; a normal person.'Average' means 'in the middle' or 'not extreme', and 'Joe' is a common male name. So 'average Joe' refers to a man who is not extremely different from everyone else.www.rr365.comAverage意思是“平均的,一般水平的”,而Joe又是一个极其常见的名字,所以人们就用average Joe来表示很普通的一个人。例如我们会说,雷·罗马诺是这个时代全美最受欢迎的电视明星之一,可他却似乎不把自己当成什么大人物,仿佛就是与你生活在同一座城市里的 “average Joe”。3.not know Jack about对某事一无所知。如: I don't know Jack about fishing意思就是 I don't know anything about fishing(我对钓鱼一无所知)。而I don’t know Jack的意思就是“我什么也不知道”。关于Jack,还有两个常见的句子。Do you know Jack shit? 意思就是问别人, “你知不知道什么叫无知? 在美国的口语中, Jack shit 算是一句粗话,意思是什么也没有。4.John Q. Public普通人。在美语中,John Q. Public也是指“普通人,民众”。类似的词组是:John Q. Citizen. 美语里还有很多与John有关的词组,如:big John(新兵),cheap John(乱杀价的商人; 叫卖小贩),honest John(诚实的人; 容易上当的人),square John(诚实可靠的人; 奉公守法的人)。5.Jeez Louise表示惊讶。如:One million? Jeez-Louise! You get any of that? ( 一百万?老天!有你的份吗?)Jeez Louise, don't you know that all banks are closed today? It is Saturday.(天啊,你难道不知道今天不营业吗?今天可是周六)。6.For Pete’s sake感叹词,用以强烈表达情绪,意为“哎呀,天哪”,有些地方也译作“看在上帝面上;千万;务必” 等。在这个短语中,Pete是耶酥大弟子St.Peter的昵称。常在恳求或请求他人时使用。如:For Pete's sake,stop making so much noise.(哎呀,天哪!别弄出那么讨厌的声音啦!) 此外,它还应用于其他种种不同的场合。假设你向别人道了歉,他还没完没了,这时你可以说:I said I was sorry.What else do you want me to do, for Pete's sake?(我已经说对不起了,拜托,你还想叫我怎样啊?)7.a doubting Thomas生性多疑的人。源自《圣经·新约·约翰福音》第20章。该篇讲到耶稣复活后出现在众人面前,十二门徒之一托马斯没有亲眼见到,声称除非看到他手上的钉痕,用手探入他的肋旁,否则不信他已复活。后来人们用“doubting Thomas”指那些不肯轻易相信别人的人。8.a plain Jane长相不起眼,外貌平凡的女人。这里的plain是“不惹人注目的,朴素的”,而Jane是一般女人名,plain与Jane合辙押韵。如:I wonder why a handsome man like Jeff married such a plain Jane.我很奇怪像杰夫这样出色的男子怎么与一个不怎么起眼的姑娘结婚。9.Joe Blow老百姓,普通人。Joe Doakes也可以表示这个意思。美国口语中,Joe College指典型的美国大学生,Joe Miller则指滑稽书,笑话集。10.Sheila在口语中表示少女,年轻貌美的女子。一般为女子英文名,译为希拉,类似于Shelly, Cecilia.11.No way, Jose“不可能的荷西”,常用于熟人之间拒绝做某事。Jose并不表示叫这个名的人,而是跟way押韵,说起来响亮,好听。这种说法始于20世纪60年代美国乡村。12.not know a person from Adam不知(某人)模样如何,与(某人)素不相识。源自《圣经·旧约·士师记》第2、3章。上帝创造了世界上的第一个男人,取名为亚当(Adam)。因为亚当非女人所生,所以没有肚脐,是最容易辨认的人,“not know somebody from Adam”就表示“完全不认识某人”。Mrs. Smith is a friend of mine, but I don’t know her husband from Adam.史密斯太太是我的朋友,但我完全不认识她丈夫。13.Jack of all trades万事通。一般指杂而不精,也就是我们平时所说的“三脚猫”。Jack of all trades and master of none.门门精通,样样稀松。14.Uncle Sam美国。它源自1812-1814年间美英战争时期的一个历史传说。相传在纽约州的特洛伊城(Troy))有位年长的肉类加工商,名叫山缪尔?威尔逊 (Samuel Wilson)。他勤劳、诚实、能干,很有威信,人们亲切地叫他山姆大叔 (Uncle Sam)。他也是一位爱国者,与父兄曾参加过美国独立战争。在1812年的美英战争中,他的工厂与政府签了一份为军队生产桶装牛肉的合同,美国政府每当收到他交来的经其亲自检验合格的牛肉,就将肉装入特制的木桶,并在桶上盖上US的记号。由于Uncle Sam的首字母是US,而美国 (The ed States)的缩写也是U.S.,于是人们便把这两个名称合二为一了。当地的人们就把“山姆大叔”当成美国的绰号,并逐渐流传开来。15.John Hancock亲笔签名。John Hancock是在 The Declaration of Independence(美国独立宣言)上署名的独立战士中,将自己的名字签得又好又大的一个人,他的签名美观大方而且个头也比别的签名大。所以美国人常把John Hancock当作signature(署名,签名)的意思.。如:I need your John Hancock.我需要您的签名。16.Johnny One Note五音不全的人。也可以指思想狭隘,看问题片面的人。Note在这里的意思是音符。 /200911/88456

New research from the Children of the 90s project suggests that teenage girls who are too thin may be at risk of osteoporosis in later life.最新研究发现,90后的女孩子如果太瘦,她们日后患骨质疏松的风险可能会增大。It has long been known that the amount of muscle in the body is related to bone growth, but the new study shows that fat mass is also important in building bone, particularly in girls.众所周知,人体的肌肉与骨骼生长密切相关。最新研究显示,脂肪组织同样对骨骼发育起着重要的作用,而且这一作用在女孩子身上尤为明显。The researchers looked at over 4,000 young people aged 15 and found that those with higher levels of fat tended to have larger and thicker bones. This connection was particularly marked in the girls.研究人员对四千多名15岁大的青少年进行了研究。结果发现,那些脂肪较多的孩子骨骼较大,而这种联系在女孩中尤其明显。Building strong bones in youth is particularly important for women, as they are three times more likely to develop osteoporosis, and they suffer two to three times more hip fractures than men.在年轻时让骨骼得到充分发育对女性来说尤为重要,因为女性出现骨质疏松的几率是男性的三倍,发生髋部骨折的风险也是男性的二至三倍。Jon Tobias, Professor of Rheumatology at the University of Bristol and leader of the research, said: "There is a good deal of pressure on teenage girls to be thin, but they need to be aware that this could endanger their developing skeleton and put them at increased risk of osteoporosis."布里斯多大学领导这项研究的风湿病学教授乔恩·托比亚斯说,“现在的年轻女孩面临着巨大的瘦身压力,但她们需要知道,这会威胁她们的骨骼发育,加大她们患上骨质疏松的风险。”"Many people think that exercise is the key to losing weight and building strong bones at the same time--but this may only be true up to a point. If you do a good deal of low impact exercise, such as walking, you will certainly lose fat but you may not be able to put enough stress on the bones to build them significantly."他还说,“许多人以为锻炼既可以减肥,又可以强骨,但这可能只对了一部分。如果你做的是大量低强度的运动,比如步行,那么你可以减去脂肪,但却不能对强骨有什么助益。”"To offset the detrimental effect of fat loss on your bones, it may be important to include high impact exercise as well, such as running or jumping."“为了降低减脂对骨骼造成的危害,建议从事诸如跑步和跳跃等高强度的运动。” /201108/149941

Earthquakes are a common occurrence, rumbling below Earth's surface thousands of times every day. But major earthquakes are less common. Here are some things to do to prepare for an earthquake and what to do once the ground starts shaking.Marina District home damageSafety Tips#8226; Have an earthquake iness plan.#8226; Consult a professional to learn how to make your home sturdier, such as bolting bookcases to wall studs, installing strong latches on cupboards, and strapping the water heater to wall studs.#8226; Locate a place in each room of the house that you can go to in case of an earthquake. It should be a spot where nothing is likely to fall on you.#8226; Keep a supply of canned food, an up-to-date first aid kit, 3 gallons (11.4 liters) of water per person, dust masks and goggles, and a working battery-operated radio and flashlights.#8226; Know how to turn off your gas and water mains.If Shaking Begins#8226; Drop down; take cover under a desk or table and hold on.#8226; Stay indoors until the shaking stops and you're sure it's safe to exit.#8226; Stay away from bookcases or furniture that can fall on you.#8226; Stay away from windows. In a high-rise building, expect the fire alarms and sprinklers to go off during a quake.#8226; If you are in bed, hold on and stay there, protecting your head with a pillow.#8226; If you are outdoors, find a clear spot away from buildings, trees, and power lines. Drop to the ground.#8226; If you are in a car, slow down and drive to a clear place. Stay in the car until the shaking stops. 地震是一种经常发生的自然现象,地表之下每天要发生几千次的震动,但大地震还是比较少见的。下面给大家介绍一些地震预防准备以及一旦地震发生时的应对方法。滨海区房屋受损安全贴士* 做好预防地震的准备计划。* 请教专业人士,学习如何把家变得更牢固,比如将书架钉在立柱墙上,在碗碟橱里安装牢固的门闩,把热水器捆在立柱墙上。* 在屋里的每间房间中都确定有一个在地震发生时可以躲的地方,在那个地方不会有东西砸到你。* 准备好罐装食品,新式急救箱,每人3加仑(11.4公升)的水,防尘面具和护目镜,还有电池型收音机和手电筒。* 知道如何关闭煤气和水管的总开关。如果地震开始* 卧倒;躲在课桌或餐桌下,保持不动。* 直到震动停止前呆在室内,确定安全后再逃出。* 远离书架和家具,它们可能会压倒你。* 远离窗户。在高楼大厦里,火警和洒水装置在震动中可能会启动。* 如果你躺在床上,躺在原地保持不动,用枕头保护头部。* 如果你在室外,找一块远离房屋,树木和电线的空地,然后蹲在地上。* 如果你在车里,减速开到空地上。直到震动结束前呆在车里。 /200805/39980

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