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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年05月20日 20:42:39
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People start realizing that those miracle year papers of 1905 are probably right.人们开始意识到1905年的奇迹论文也许是对的。He starts getting invited to Solvay Conferences which are the gatherings of the greatest physicists in Europe.他开始被邀请去参加欧洲最伟大的物理学家的集会。Convened by the Belgian philanthropist Ernest Solvay,这次会议由比利时的慈善家欧内斯特·索拉维召集,this conferences bring together the greatest scientific minds in Europe and Albert Einstein is among them.这次会议召集了欧洲最伟大的科学头脑而阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦就其中。In fact, he is the youngest professor there.事实上,他是最年轻的教授。He made an impression.他给人留下了非常深刻的印象。He was friendly.他待人非常友好。He was funny.他很有趣。And he was smart, really smart.他很聪明,非常聪明。And people saw that.而人们看到了这一点。That was also a moment when Mileva Maric perceived that she was part,这也是一个米列娃·马里奇想置身于其中的时刻,still part of this small Bern world with Einstein had become part of a bigger world.她仍然是小伯尔尼世界中的一部分,而爱因斯坦已经成为一个更大的世界的其中一部分。She writes these plenty of letters, saying ;tell me about it.她写了很多信,称“给我讲讲。I wish I were there.我希望我也能在那儿。I would love to meet these great scientists.我想见见这些伟大的科学家。It was always my dream to meet these great scientists.;我一直梦想见见这些伟大的科学家。”She became jealous of not only the other physicists, but of physics itself.她变得不仅嫉妒其他的物理学家,而是物理本身。Einsteins lectures become the talk of scientific Europe.爱因斯坦的演讲成为科学欧洲的谈论话题。And hes invited to speak in Berlin, capital of the country in which he was born.他被邀请在柏林演讲, 这是他诞生的这个国家的首都。Berlin at the time was the most vibrant city in central.柏林在当时是最有活力的城市。注:听力文本来源于普特201204/176578SpermSniff Out Their Targets精子靠“嗅觉”发现卵子Scientists who study human sperm have long wondered whether human sperm could somehow sense the presence of an egg. Then, just about a decade ago, it was discovered that sperm have proteins on them that react to the presence of certain chemicals. In fact, these are the same molecules used by nerve cells in your nose when you sniff out a scent.研究人类精子的科学家们长期以来都很疑惑:精子是否能以某种方式察觉到卵子的存在。大约就在十多年前,人们发现精子本身含有一些蛋白质对某些特定的化学物质会产生反应。实际上,那些就是我们鼻子闻气味时需要的神经细胞。Nothing that looks like a nose of course, but these chemical-sensing proteins act like noses. Researchers call these sensory devices “olfactory receptors.” More recent studies have started figuring out what kind of chemical attracts a sperm.当然不是真正的鼻子,但可以嗅到化学五的蛋白质就像鼻子一样。研究人员把这些感知工具叫做“嗅觉感受器”。很多近代的研究已经开始弄清楚吸引精子的是那种化学物质。The most effective spermattractor is called “bourgeonal.” Bourgeonal is a floral scent. When sperm sense the presence of bourgeonal, they race toward it. Their speed goes from eighteen point three micrometers per second up to a whopping thirty point one. The most likely thing is that bourgeonal just happens to be structurally similar to another chemical produced by a female egg.最有效的精子吸引子叫bourgeonal。Bourgeonal一种花香化合物。当精子嗅到这种味道,就会迅速向它移动。精子的速度从每秒18.3微米上升到30.1微米。最有可能的是, bourgeonal与由卵子产生的一种化学物在结构上是相似的。 /201302/225415

American business in wartime美国的战时经济Democracys arsenal民主阵营的兵工厂Freedoms Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II. By Arthur Herman.《铸就自由:美国工业如何赢得了二战》亚瑟·赫尔曼(Arthur Herman)著。“WHAT is America but beauty queens, millionaires, stupid records and Hollywood?” asked Adolf Hitler in 1940. With hindsight, this ranks as just about the most foolish rhetorical question posed during the second world war. But it did not seem so at the time. As Arthur Herman shows in his wartime history, when Hitler mocked its prowess America had experienced not so much a double-dip as a double-dive depression. Yet somehow the country’s moribund military-industrial complex was able to respond with great force to President Franklin Roosevelt’s call to arms.“除了选美皇后、百万富翁、可笑的记录和好莱坞,美国还有啥?”阿道夫#8226;希特勒1940年这样问。现在回头看,这几乎可以算二战期间人们提出的最愚蠢的问题了。但当时情况看来并非如此。正如赫尔曼在他的这本二战历史著作中告诉读者的那样,当希特勒嘲讽美国最瑰丽的光环时,美国经济刚刚经历了一次二次萧条(不是二次探底)。但这个国家濒死的军工产业却依然能以浩瀚无匹的力量回应了弗兰克林#8226;罗斯福总统对武器的召唤。The production statistics cited by Mr Herman, a think-tank scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, still astound. Preparations for war got off to a stuttering start. But everything changed in 1941 when Germany invaded Russia and then Japan attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbour. By the end of 1942 America’s output of war materiel aly exceeded the combined production of the three Axis powers, Germany, Italy and Japan. By 1944 its factories built a plane every five minutes while its shipyards launched 50 merchant ships a day and eight aircraft carriers a month.作为美国企业研究所(American Enterprise Institute)的智囊学者,赫尔曼援引的生产统计数字至今仍让人震撼不已。战争准备在仓促间蹒跚起步,但到了1941年,当德国和日本先后入侵俄罗斯与偷袭珍珠港美国海军基地时,一切都发生了变化。到1942年年底,美国的战争物资产量已经超过了德国、意大利和日本三大轴心国的总和。到1944年,美国每5分钟就能生产一架飞机,每天能让50艘商船下水,每个月能让8艘航母投入战斗。As a combative anti-Keynesian, Mr Herman scorns the notion that such triumphs resulted from the dictates of an interventionist Roosevelt administration. He often cites instead the free-market ideas of Adam Smith to support his claim that it was the profit motive that inspired America’s feats of mass production.有人认为这样的胜利是持干涉主义理念的罗斯福政府独裁的结果。赫尔曼是凯恩斯理论的坚定反对者,他对此嗤之以鼻。反之,他时常引用亚当#8226;斯密(Adam Smith)的自由市场理念持自己的看法:是逐利的动机促成了美国大规模生产的壮举。The business heroes in his history are mostly immigrants or high-school dropouts and often both. Two tower above the rest: William “Big Bill” Knudsen, a General Motors executive who was once a teenage clerk in a bicycle business in Copenhagen, and Henry Kaiser, who began work at 16 as a travelling salesman for a dry-goods store in Utica, New York. Knudsen headhunted corporate innovators and persuaded them to give up their pay and perks to join him as “dollar-a-year men” in Washington. Kaiser recruited a can-do team from such blue-chip American companies as Lockheed, Bechtel-McCone, Chrysler, Boeing and General Electric to produce everything from dams to tanks to ships to steel. Each executive received an annual fee of .在他书写的历史中,创造经济奇迹的英雄多为移民或中学辍学者,而且经常是移民中的中学辍学者。其中有两位英雄的成就远超侪辈:一位是通用汽车(General Motors)高管威廉姆#8226;“大比尔”#8226;纳森(William “Big Bill” Knudsen),他十几岁时曾是哥本哈根一家自行车公司的职员;另一位是亨利#8226;凯泽(Henry Kaiser),他16岁开始工作时是纽约州尤蒂卡市(Utica, New York)一家装店的游动推销员。纳德森四出猎头,找寻企业创新者,说他们放弃工薪与额外收入去华盛顿,跟他一样做“年薪1美元的员工”。凯瑟尔则从洛克希德、贝克特尔、克莱斯勒、波音和通用电气(Lockheed, Bechtel-McCone, Chrysler, Boeing and General Electric)这样一些声名显赫的大公司中招募人员,成立了一万能团队。该团队生产人们需要的一切,从大坝到坦克到舰船到钢铁。两位高管的年薪都是1美元。Big business did not succeed on its own. It needed the help of small business. The Boeing B-29 bomber, for instance, had 40,540 different parts, and 1,400 sub-contractors provided most of them. The Research Institute of America spurred them on. In a booklet entitled “Your Business Goes to War” it asked its ers to consider switching from making vacuum cleaners to gas-mask parts. Or from shoes to helmet linings. Or from razors to percussion primers for artillery shells.大企业光靠自身是无法成功的。它需要小企业的帮助。例如波音的B-29轰炸机的40540种部件大多由1400个分包商提供。美国研究所(The Research Institute of America)鞭策这些企业努力工作。一份题为《您的企业要投入战事》的小册子敦促读者考虑从吸尘器转产防毒面具零件,或者从鞋子转产钢盔内衬,或者从剃须刀转产炮弹起爆管。Among those who gawped in wonderment was Joseph Stalin. When he met Roosevelt and Churchill in Tehran in 1943 he raised a glass to toast “American production, without which this war would have been lost.” His words were as wise as those of his rival tyrant, Hitler, were not.对此倍感惊讶的人中包括约瑟夫#8226;斯大林。1943年在德黑兰会见罗斯福和丘吉尔时他曾提议为“美国军工生产”干杯,因为“如果没有它,我们一定已经失败了。”与他同为暴君的希特勒的言辞有多愚蠢,他的言辞就有多睿智。201205/184281

Obituary;Nancy Wake; 讣告;南希·威克;Nancy Wake—saboteur and special agent, died on August 7th, aged 98.南希·威克——二战间功勋卓越的英国间谍特工,8月7日去世,享年98岁。Convivial, and not averse to a drink, Nancy Wake could often be found cheering up a cocktail bar. In the late 1940s, and again towards the end of her life, it might have been the American Bar of the Stafford Hotel, just across the road from The Economist’s offices in London. In 1940, when she was living as a newlywed in Vichy France, it could have been another American Bar, this one in the H?tel du Louvre et de la Paix in Marseilles. It was a chance encounter here with an English officer, interned by the French authorities but that day on parole, which led to her membership of the resistance, and then to her role as an agent of the British Special Operations Executive in occupied France. Of the 39 SOE women infiltrated into France, 11 of whom would die in concentration camps, she was perhaps the most redoubtable.热衷于聚会派对,从不拒绝美酒的南希·威克经常出现在鸡尾酒会。到她生命的最后一段时光也是如此,可能她就出现在伦敦《经济学家》杂志社办公大楼对面的斯塔福耶酒店的美国酒馆。上世纪40年代时亦是如此,1940年她刚刚结婚,嫁到维希政权下的法国,那时她经常出现在另一家美国酒馆,在巴黎卢浮旅馆里或者在马赛和平旅馆里。在那里,她很偶然地碰到一位被法国当局保释的在囚英国军官。 这位军官后来带领她加入了抵抗德国纳粹的运动中,也使她成为了英国特别行动处驻占领的法国的一位特工。而在特别行动处39位渗入法国的女特工中,11名没有在德国纳粹集中营中丧生,而她也许是其中最令人敬畏的那个。From her earliest days, Miss Wake combined opposing qualities. She was disciplined, but at the same time a free spirit. In Sydney, to which her large family had moved after leaving her birthplace in New Zealand, she twice ran away from home. As soon as she could, she made her way to London, then to Paris to work as a freelance journalist. There it was her cheerful independence as much as her good looks that caught the eye of the rich French industrialist, Henri Fiocca, who would take her to Marseilles as his wife.早在还是个女孩的时候,威克身上就有了相反的特质。她遵守纪律,同时却又热爱自由。她随大家庭从家乡新西兰搬到悉尼后,就离家出走过两次。她一长到足够负担自己的生活的年纪,就自己去了伦敦生活,然后又到巴黎做了自由记者。她那值得庆贺的独立以及她夺人眼球的美貌,捕获了一位法国企业家亨利·费奥卡的心。随后他们结了婚,来到了马赛。She enjoyed her new life of luxury while it lasted, but she was no flibbertigibbet. Soon after meeting the interned British officer, she was helping to get similar Allied airmen, refugees and escaped prisoners-of-war out of occupied France and into Britain. She took a flat, ostensibly for a lover, in fact for the resistance, sheltered men on the run and became a crucial part of the southern escape line to Spain, travelling all over southern France from Nice to Names to Perpignan, with clothing, money and false documents.她很享受奢华的新生活,但她并不是那种只知享乐的肤浅的人。在她遇到那名被拘禁的英国军官后不久,她就帮着将与他情况相似的盟军飞行员、难民和在逃战俘逃从被占领的法国转移到英国。她买了栋公寓,表面上看是为了会情人用的,但实际上是为了庇护抵抗军。她带着衣物、钱和假造的公文,从尼斯到尼姆再到配里皮昂在法国南部来回奔走,成为法国南部向西班牙逃亡路线的一个关键部分。Inevitably, she was arrested. Beaten up and questioned for four days, she revealed nothing. It was this steadiness and loyalty to her comrades that most appealed to the British officers who later agreed to train her to become an SOE agent.不可避免地,她被逮捕了。敌人鞭打拷问了她四天,她却什么都没有泄露。正是这种坚持稳定和对同志的忠诚打动了那位英国军官,成为他后来同意将她训练为一名特别行动处特工的最重要原因。Other qualities were evident by then. Her femininity was never in doubt. It helped her escape capture, not just because she could on occasion flirt her way out of trouble, but also because her Gestapo pursuers assumed any woman as skilful in evading them must be a butch matron (though because of her ability to scuttle off the Germans called her “the White Mouse”). When she was with the Maquis, silk stockings and Elizabeth Arden face cream were often dropped for her by parachute, along with Sten guns, radios and grenades. Yet she conformed to no stereotype, swearing in the vernacular in the coarsest of terms, living for months in the woods and fighting, in the words of a confrère, not like a man but “like five men”.那时她的其它优秀品质也已经非常明显。她的女性魅力是毋庸置疑的。这帮助她成功逃离拘捕,并不只是因为他能偶尔靠美人计脱险,还因为她的那些盖世太保追求者们认为任何擅长回避他们追求的人必定是个男人婆 (不过因为她非常善于逃跑,德国纳粹称她为“白鼠”)。 在法国抗德游击队工作那会儿,组织经常空降丝袜、伊莉莎白·雅顿的面霜,以及斯特恩式轻机关、收音机和手榴弹给她。然而,她绝不是一般的女人。她可以用最脏的法国方言骂人,她也可以在茂林作战数月。用一位同事的话说,她根本不像一个男人,她“像五个男人”。Her fearlessness seemed to come from a total lack of self-doubt. The certainty with which she held her beliefs—she hated the Nazis, having seen them whipping Jews in Vienna before the war, loved France and was intensely loyal to Britain—freed her of any sense of guilt. This in turn enabled her to act as though she were utterly innocent, even when claiming to be the cousin of an imprisoned Scottish captain, or chatting to a Gestapo officer with 200lb of illegal pork in her suitcase.她的英勇无畏似乎因为她从不自我怀疑。她那种斩钉截铁的确定和由此而来的信念——对战前在维也纳鞭笞犹太人的纳粹的痛恨、对法国的热爱以及对英国无比的忠诚——使她从不愧疚。因此,即使她公开撒谎自己是一名囚禁的苏格兰上校的表,或者是在包里藏着两百磅非法猪肉与一名盖世太保军官交谈,她也表现地底气十足、气定神闲。It was sheer guts, though, that got her over the Pyrenees in her espradilles when the Germans were at her heels. And back in Britain in 1943 it was her character rather than her skills or physical abilities that got her through her training in grenade throwing, silent killing and parachute jumping. As for violence, she hated it—until she became hardened.然而,完全是巨大的勇气,使得她在德国纳粹紧跟其后的情况下,穿着她那破旧的帆布鞋,穿越了比利牛斯山。而再往前,1943年在英国时,正是因为她的顽强的性格,而不是她的技术或身体素质,使她通过了扔手榴弹、无声杀人和跳伞训练。她痛恨暴力,直到她变得无坚不摧。That began in April 1944, when Captain (as she now was) Wake and another SOE agent were parachuted into the Auvergne in south-central France. Their immediate job was to work with the local Maquis to cause as much disruption as possible before D-day five weeks later. Now the fighting began, and Captain Wake showed herself more than willing to take part, ily joining raiding parties, blowing up local Gestapo headquarters and ambushing German patrols.那是1944年4月,威克成为了上尉(到现在一直是),她和另外一位英国特别行动处特工空降在法国中南部的奥弗涅。他们当时的任务是与当地的抗德游击队员一起,尽可能多地制造混乱,为五周后的诺曼底登陆做准备。现在斗争开始了,威克上尉显然不只是要去参与其中,她自愿加入了突击队,端掉了盖世太保的总指挥部,并突袭了德国巡逻兵。She did not enjoy killing a German sentry with her bare hands, but she was unsentimental. Likewise, she saw the necessity of killing a German woman captured by some of her Maquis colleagues who admitted to being a spy. Though she had been raped and tortured, Captain Wake ordered her to be shot—or, if the captain’s later suggestion is to be believed, she herself shot her, since the Maquisards’ sense of honour permitted her rape but not her killing.她不喜欢用徒手杀掉一名德国哨兵的感觉,但她并非冷血无情。同样地,在与她共事的马基队员抓到一名承认自己是名间谍的德国妇女时,她知道必须杀了她。尽管这女人已经被强暴过、折磨过,威克上尉还是命令杀掉她。甚至,人们都不敢相信她后来这个提议:由她亲手干掉她——因为法国抵抗成员的荣誉感使他们只允许自己强暴她,而不允许自己杀掉她。In spite of such horrors, and in spite of such feats as bicycling over 500km in under 72 hours to find a radio operator, Captain Wake was having the time of her life. She was still only 26, a woman among 7,000 (mostly) admiring men, carrying out daily acts of derring-do and revelling in a job she had plainly been born for. Although she lived with the constant possibility of capture, it held no fear for her, and she did not yet know that her husband, rather than betray her, had been arrested by the Gestapo, tortured and killed. Decorations galore—from Britain, France, America and Australia—awaited her, but life would never be as good again.尽管经历着类似的恐怖事件,尽管曾经有过许多惊人壮举,比如为寻找一个收音机操作员72小时内骑车500公里,威克上尉依然享受着女人生命的黄金时光。她毕业是个26岁的年轻女性,军营中的7000男人大多都是她的倾慕者。在这群男人中,每天英勇地执行任务,完全陶醉于这一她天生注定要从事的工作。尽管随时都有可能被捕,她却从不害怕。那时她还不知道,她的丈夫并不是背叛了她,而是被盖世太保抓了起来,折磨致死。战争结束后,各种荣誉从英国、法国、美国和澳大利亚向她涌来,但她生命最美好的时光已一去不返。201206/187927

  

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  How Neanderthals Fought Disease穴居人怎样抵抗疾病Every year people are encouraged to get their annual flu shots. Signs are posted at drug stores and clinics. Get your shots here. Modern preventive medicine has saved millions of lives. But you may be surprised to hear that Neanderthals may have helped ancient humans prevent disease. Not with medicine but with immunity genes.每年人们都会被鼓励去打流感疫苗。告示会被贴在诊所和药店里:在这儿打疫苗。现代预防医学挽救了数百万人的生命。但是当你听到穴居人可以帮助过去的人预防疾病时,你可能会感到很吃惊,不是利用药物而是通过免疫基因。Humans have a group of about two hundred genes that keep our immune system running smoothly. These genes allow our bodies to respond to a large number of disease causing agents and adapt to new disease. One of those genes has an allele, HLA C0702, that can be found in many European and Asian people, but not in Africans. Another allele, HLA A11, is found mostly in Asians.人类有一组基因,大约200个,它们让我们的免疫系统正常地运转。这些基因使我们的身体对大量的病源物质做出反应,并且适应新的疾病。这些基因中的一个有 等位基因,HLAC0702,这种基因可以在许多欧洲或者亚洲人身上找到,但无法在非洲人身上找到。另一种等位基因HLA A11则在亚洲人身上最为常见。Both alleles were found in Neanderthal DNA. Scientists studying ancient Neanderthals believe they may know why some modern people have the immunity alleles while others do not. When humans moved out of Africa one hundred thousand years ago, their immune systems were adapted to fight African diseases. Neanderthals on the other hand had aly been living in Europe and Asia for thousands of years. They had been exposed to different diseases, and different alleles had evolved to combat them.这两种等位基因在穴居人的DNA中却都可以找到。研究古穴居人的科学家们相信他们可能知道为什么一些现代人有免疫等位基因,而其他人没有。十万年前,当人 们搬离非洲时,他们的免疫系统就已经适应了同非洲疾病对抗。然而,穴居人在欧洲和亚洲已经生活了数千年。他们被暴露在不同的疾病之下,并且进化出不同的等 位基因同疾病对抗。Scientists aly know that the modern human genome is somewhere between one and four percent Neanderthal in origin. It is not a far leap to speculate that inbreeding may have resulted in shared immunity genes, too. More research is needed to determine if the gene alleles came from a common ancestor, or directly from Neanderthals. In either case, the story of inheriting disease resistance is important in understanding modern man’s survival and migration around the world.科学家们已经知道现代人类基因组在某种程度上1%到4%是起源于穴居人。不难推测,近亲繁殖也许是造成免疫基因共享的原因。但我们还需要更多的研究来确定 是否等位基因来自于人类共同的祖先,还是直接来自于穴居人。在任何一个情况下,遗传抗病性在理解现代人生存和在全世界范围内迁徙都是十分重要的。 /201206/187426

  One Step Closer to Living Longer人类接近长寿的又一步D: You know, when I watch futuristic sci-fi movies, I notice everyone has a normal aging pattern. You dont encounter people who just having been107 years old. Thats probably a mistake.我看未来派科幻电影的时候,发觉里面的人物年龄都是很正常的,就像我们普通人一样,活不了特别长。在这种电影里,你根本就不可能会看到一个活到一百多岁的人。我个人觉得这有问题。Y: A mistake? Why?有问题?你又有何凭?D: Because science is giving us longer lifespans all the time. Researchers these days are even starting to understand how the body sends signals to itself, determining how it ages.因为科学一直以来都致力于延长人们寿命的研究。近日,又有了突破性的进展。Y: Now, that sounds like science fiction!这样听来倒真的像是科幻小说了!D: Its true. A study conducted by James Carey and his colleagues at the University of California, for example, found a link between how long a mouse lives and its ovaries.这可是真的。比如说吧,加利佛利亚大学的James Carey和他的同事们进行了一项研究,他们发现老鼠的寿命和它的卵巢有很大关联。Y: Its ovaries? What do they have to do with the aging?卵巢?卵巢和寿命会有什么关系啊?D: The researchers removed the ovaries of one set of mice when they were a few weeks old. Those mice didn’t live as long as mice who still had their ovaries. Another group of mice had their ovaries removed but got young ones later.The mice with the young ovaries implanted into them lived forty percent longer than the ones who kept their original ovaries, and sixty percent longer than the ones with no ovaries at all!研究人员准备了三组老鼠。在老鼠几星期大的时候,他们将一组老鼠的卵巢切除。结果表明,被切除卵巢的一组老鼠没有未被切除卵巢的一组老鼠长寿。另外还有一组老鼠被切除了卵巢,但后来又被植入了年轻的卵巢。被植入年轻卵巢的一组老鼠比未被切除卵巢的一组老鼠寿命长40%,比被切除卵巢的一组老鼠寿命整整长了60%!Y: Yalza! Sixty percent longer!?啊!60%!?D: Some chemical message is being sent from the ovaries to the rest of the body, telling it what stage of life it is in. By renewing their ovaries, the scientists were essentially able to set the clock back.卵巢可以将某些化学信息传送至身体的其他部分,生命究竟处于哪个阶段。科学家们再将卵巢植入老鼠体内,可以说是让时光倒流了。Y: So who wants mice to live longer?谁那么无聊,想要让老鼠长寿啊?D: Mice are just test. If we could understand how the body tells itself to age, maybe we could make other species live longer…like people.老鼠只是试验品。如果说我们能搞清楚老鼠的身体是怎样来发送有关年龄的信息的,有可能,我们就能使其他物种长寿些……比如,人类! /201301/219198

  Pens in Space太空笔Legend has it that NASA spent a million dollars developing a pressurized ballpoint pen that astronauts could use in space, while the Russians merely opted to use a pencil. Embarrassing, right? Luckily, though, this is nothing more than a myth.太空笔的发明是一个传奇:美国宇航局耗资百万美元,研发宇航员可以在太空使用的“封闭式气压”圆珠笔;而面临着同样难题的苏联,则选择了一铅笔。情何以堪?好在这只是谣言。Hold on. How come astronauts can’t use regular ballpoint pens?等等,为什么宇航员不用普通圆珠笔呢?Because ordinary pens rely on gravity, while you write, gravity forces the ink down onto the ball, which rolls inside its socket and sps the ink on your writing surface. In space, of course, there isn’t enough gravity to force the ink out, so the pens reservoir needs to be pressurized.因为普通圆珠笔在有重力的情况下方可工作。主要是重力作用油墨,使圆珠在球座内滚动,带出笔芯内的油墨或墨水,以达到书写的目的。而在太空上,没有足够的重力带出油墨,需要气体压力把油墨推向笔尖。If thats the case, why not use pencil?如果是这样,为什么不用铅笔呢?Paul Fisher, the guy who produced the space pen, noted that when astronauts used lead pencils, and the pencils broke, the lead floating around became a safety hazard. Plus, both pencil lead and wood burn rapidly in pure oxygen environments.Paul Fisher指出宇航员使用铅笔十分不安全,使用中产生的铅笔屑会四处漂浮。此外,铅笔的笔芯和木屑在纯氧环境中还易快速燃烧。Paul Fisher后来生产了太空笔。After the Apollo 1 disaster, NASA required writing instruments that wouldn’t burn in these conditions. This space pen is made of metal, and the ink has a much higher ignition point than regular ink.在阿波罗一号的惨剧发生后,美国航天局规定书写工具不得在无氧环境中燃烧。所以太空笔由金属制造,油墨的燃烧点也高于普通油墨。So you have convinced me space pens have got the right staff, but they still much of cost bundle to develop.你成功说我,太空笔选材正确,但是,太空笔的花销确实不菲。Maybe so, Paul Fisher financed their development entirely on his own.也许正因为如此,Paul Fisher自己承担了太空笔研制的费用。In fact, after sinking a million dollars into all that research, the first order was for 400 pens that he sold for .95 each. On the bright side, today all astronauts use these pens, and plenty of ordinary people do too.事实上,在百万美元投入这项研究后,首批订单是400太空笔,每售价2.95美元。值得庆幸的是,如今所有宇航员在用太空笔,不少普通人也在使用。 /201211/207768

  

  First relief, then reflection. Investors greeted Spains request for aid with glee only to lose their appetites upon a myriad of unknowns.先救援,后反思。投资者先欢迎西班牙政府的经济求助,欢欣过后才发现这是个无底洞,进而对其失去信心。In a way, the bailout itself is a reminder of that you know, Spanish sovereign debt continues to be under a lot of pressure in the crisis of financing, this is due to the government sovereign would have been prohibitively high. Well up to 125 billion dollars, some say that Spains bailout raises more questions than it answers. Indeed its government doesnt yet know how much money will be needed. But for the time being, the eruozones fourth largest economy says it is solvent even if its banks are odd.在某种程度上,救助计划本身就是一个提醒,在金融危机背景下西班牙国债继续承受很大压力,这要归咎于高的惊人政府权力。救助款直逼1250亿美元,有人说西班牙的救助计划引起的麻烦比解决方案更多。实际上,政府也不知道到底需要多少救助款。但是就目前为止,欧元区的四大经济体表示即使西班牙出现异常,但还是有偿还能力。 I am not going to get into stic arguments, what I know is Europe is going to make available to the financial, Spanish financial system that it needs to lend credit that will have to be returned.我不打算陷入那种争论中,我所知道的是欧洲将要给西班牙金融系统提供其需要的信贷业务,而且必须得偿还。 Among the issues that yet to emerge, how to feed funds to Spains financial sector without jeopardizing the countrys credit rating. Also unclear the terms other eurozone members could impose and possible sources of friction with blocs previous bailout recipients.然而还没出现的问题之一,即如何在不影响西班牙信用评级的条件下,向该国的财政部门提供基金。其它欧元区成员国将要强加的条款,以及与之前救助对象之间可能引起擦的根源也都未知。 Spanish is sucking its second recession in three years, output is expected to shrink by 1.7% to the end of 2012 and ongoing crisis has wiped nearly 25% off the value of Spains largest listed companies. Despite its call for aid, Fitch Ratings still downgraded two Spains biggest banks to within a whisker of junk status and that in turn could make Spains bailout yet more expensive before it even begun.西班牙在三年内被经济衰退拖垮,生产总值有望在2012年底下降1.7%。持续的危机也将西班牙最大的上市公司价值抹去了近25%。尽管呼吁援助,但是惠誉国际评级还是将西班牙两大的评级下调至垃圾级别,这反过来使西班牙的救助计划比开始之前的代价更高。原文译文属!201207/189609

  They were also important, because they coincided with a period when the military government in Brazil was trying to open up Brazil to outside investments. 他们也很重要,因为在那段时期巴西的军队政府试图打开巴西对外投资的大门。The military wanted to provide an image of Brazil that was progressive, that Brazil could take its part amongst the nations of the world. 军方想要营造的巴西是一个进步的,可以在世界上的国家利用其自身的部分。For the moment at least, there was no censorship. 至少就目前来说,没有审查。The festivals included protest singers along with pop stars. 这些节日包括歌手及流行的明星。And a new wave of singer-songwriters, who were given the uninspired title MPB, Popular Brazilian Music, and included musicians who would dominate the Brazilian music scene for the next three decades. 而新一波的歌手被授予平凡的头衔,而这其中就包括在接下来的三十年主宰了巴西音乐的音乐家。For the TV companies, the festivals were a massive success.对于电视公司而言,这些节日是一次巨大的成功。People used to gather around, in bars, on street corners, and watch the festivals in groups, because not everybody had television sets. 以前人们聚在一起,在酒吧,在街角,组织观看节日,因为不是每个人都拥有一台电视机。They were still quite expensive. 它们仍然很昂贵。But people would gather and they would support their own particular performer. 但是人们会聚在一起持自己的特定的表演者。They would support in much the same way that they would support a football team. 他们将以持一足球队的同样的方式持这些歌手。注:听力文本来源于普特201302/226505

  Books and Arts; Book Review;Bulgakov and Stalin on stage;文艺;书评;舞台上的布尔加科夫与斯大林;Men and monsters;Two new plays explore the relationship between art and tyranny;人与怪物;探讨艺术与极权统治之间关系的两部新剧;Even without the constraints of censorship, Stalins reign lends itself to surrealism. How else to convey its mad caprices, the incomprehensible scale of his cruelty and the spiralling paranoia? Two new London productions that, coincidentally, involve Stalin and the novelist Mikhail Bulgakov, make apt use of surreal fantasia. Catch either, or ideally both, if you can.即便没有审查制度,斯大林的统治之下,艺术也会走向超现实主义。不然还有什么方式,可以表达其统治的反复无常,以及其人不可理解的残酷程度和日益增强的偏执呢?伦敦最近的两部新剧,恰好以超现实的幻想曲,让斯大林和小说家米哈?布尔加科夫走到了一起。两者中任一方面都值得玩味,如果你能,也可以兼顾双方。The new version of “The Master and Margarita” by Complicite, a British company justly renowned for its daring theatre, is set to tour Europe after a short, triumphant run at the Barbican. The unwieldy zaniness of Bulgakovs great novel—whose action involves the devil and his retinue visiting Stalins Moscow, the blighted affair of the eponymous characters, and the masters novel about Pontius Pilate and Jesus—somehow hasnt deterred stage adaptations. In this one, Simon McBurney, Complicites director, doubles down: rather than trying to simplify, he mashes up the stories, echoing and embellishing them in multimedia. There are projections, sound loops, puppetry and nudity: a painfully emaciated Christ; a flying, nude Margarita.以大胆的舞台著称的英国Complicite公司推出了新版《大师与玛格丽特》,在巴比肯的短暂上演大获成功,计划接下来去欧洲巡演。布尔加科夫这本伟大的小说带有一种不受配的癫狂:魔鬼极其随从造访斯大林的莫斯科,同名人物的事迹以及大师所著关于比拉多和耶稣的故事。但这些都没有阻碍舞台剧本的改写。Complicite公司的总监Simon McBurney认为,不应当简化原著,而是把整个故事融为一体,并通过多媒体手段加以呼应和装饰。电脑投影,环绕音响,木偶人像和大胆裸露都得以应用。瘦骨嶙峋的耶稣痛苦地受难,还有赤身裸体悬在空中的玛格丽特。The result is a dark carnival of theatrical effects, which is demanding, sometimes overwhelming, only occasionally misfiring. Like ers of the book, some members of the audience may yearn for more of the comic demons, in particular the giant, lecherous cat. But the overall impact highlights the novels underlying themes: the hypocrisy of many but compassion of some; the way craven people get the callous rulers they deserve, yet now and then rise to a nobility that deserves better.这一切的结果便是各种舞台特效在黑暗中的狂欢。全场气氛被跳动起来,有时甚至无法抵抗,只有某些时刻会显得过火。和原著的读者一样,现场的一些观众可能也会渴望看到更多动画制作的怪物,尤其是那只巨大的充满色情意味的猫。但总体效果还是突出了小说暗藏的主题:多数人的伪善和少数人的悲悯;懦弱的民众从暴君是自食其果,虽然不时的那点高尚,似乎值得更好的统治。“Collaborators”, a coruscating new play at the National Theatre, imagines a relationship between Stalin and Bulgakov himself. Directed by Sir Nicholas Hytner and written by John Hodge, previously best known as the screenwriter for “Shallow Grave” and “Trainspotting”, the production will soon transfer to the Nationals main Olivier stage after opening at the smaller Cottesloe. Bulgakov (Alex Jennings) is coerced to write a play about the dictators early years to celebrate his 60th birthday. In return, along with his life and his wifes, he is promised the un-banning of his subversive drama about Molière—grotesque, masked scenes from which intrude on the main story, as do comically appalling passages from the Stalin tribute.在国家剧院上演的《合作者们》也是一部引人注意的新剧,假想了斯大林与布尔加科夫之间的故事。导演是Nicholas Hytner,编剧是John Hodge,之前凭借《浅坟》和《猜火车》为人所知。这部新剧在Cottesloe开演之后,很快会转至更大的国家奥利弗主剧院演出。剧中布尔加科夫(Alex Jennings饰)被迫写一部关于独裁者早年经历的剧本,以庆祝他的60岁诞辰。回报就是他得到允诺,他关于莫里哀的反动剧作不会被禁演。于是这个剧作中的奇怪晦涩的场景会不时插入到为斯大林献礼的剧作中,传达出既滑稽又恐怖的信息。That, in the event, is written by Stalin, who summons Bulgakov to secret meetings. The actual Bulgakov did write a never-performed play about Stalins youth; Stalin telephoned and took an interest in him, though there is no record that they met. Simon Russell Beale (pictured above) is a chillingly hilarious Stalin; substituting a West Country burr for the original Georgian accent, he is cunning and charming, manipulative, menacing and intellectually insecure. While Stalin hammers out the script, Bulgakov, struggling with his compromises and conscience, is obliged do his collaborators paperwork, which slides from steel-factory targets, to grain allocations, to death as.这一段在剧中,是由斯大林所写,他召见布尔加科夫密见。现实中布尔加科夫的确写过一部关于斯大林青年时期经历的剧本,但从未被搬上舞台。斯大林和他通过电话并表示过赞赏,但并没有他们会面的记录。Simon Russell Beale(如图)扮演了一个冷酷却又惹人发笑的斯大林,用西方粗喉音代替了他原来的乔治亚时期的口音。他世故圆滑,富于魅力,控制欲强,具有威慑力同时又反复无常。在剧中,当斯大林敲定剧本台词时,布尔加科夫在妥协和良知之间摇摆挣扎,但不得不完成这一合作的剧本,内容涉及炼钢厂目标,谷物分配,甚至死刑名额。Both productions explore the relationship between tyranny and creativity: the artistic kind, but also the humbler urge to create private love and lives in crushing times. “The Master and Margarita” proclaims that “manuscripts dont burn”. “Collaborators” is less sure of arts resilience: “the monster always wins”, Stalin insists. “Collaborators” hints at the structural similarities between writing and governing. Both are lonely work, requiring the imposition of an arbitrary order on unseen, notional individuals—only, in the case of the tyrant, the people are real.两部新剧都探讨了集权统治和艺术创造之间的关系:在集权压制的时代,关于个人情爱和生活的艺术创作的动力极其微弱。《大师与玛格丽特》宣称“手稿不可被真正焚毁”。《合作者们》则并未如此确定艺术的自我恢复能力,毕竟“怪物们总是胜利”,这是剧中斯大林坚持的台词。这两部作品都算是脱离现实,涉及到对那些未见的个体施加强制命令,只有在暴君统治之下,居中的人民才活在真实当中。 /201209/200626

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