明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年11月20日 20:27:59
Analysis of an ancient thigh bone suggests that a species of early hominin may have survived as late as 14,000 years ago in southwest China.对一根古代股骨的分析表明,有一个早期人亚族物种可能在中国西南地区存活到了近至1.4万年前。The bone was discovered in 1989 along with other human remains at a site known as Maludong, or Red Deer Cave. Scientists have not yet ascribed the bone to a particular species.这根股骨和其他一些人类遗骸是1989年在一个被称为“马鹿洞”的地方发现的。科学家们一直没有把这根股骨归为一个特定物种。But in a study in the journal PLOS One, Darren Curnoe, a paleontologist at the University of New South Wales Australia, and his colleagues report that the thigh bone strongly resembles those of Homo erectus or Homo habilis, which lived around 1.5 million years ago or more in Africa.但在《科学公共图书馆-综合》(PLOS One)发表的一项研究中,澳大利亚新南威尔士大学(University of New South Wales Australia)古生物学家达伦·克诺伊(Darren Curnoe)及同事表示,这根股骨和直立人或能人的股骨非常类似,而他们大约150万年前或更早的时候生活在非洲。The finding suggests that early hominins may not have immediately disappeared in China after the appearance of modern humans.这一发现表明,现代人出现后,早期人亚族物种可能并没有在中国立即消失。“It seems likely now that there was extensive overlap in time between archaic and modern humans for tens of thousands of years,” Dr. Curnoe said.“很可能在大约数万年时间里,古人类和现代人一直共存,”克诺伊说。In 2012, he and his colleagues studied teeth and cranial and jaw bones from Maludong. Radiocarbon dating revealed the remains to be about 14,000 years old as well.2012年,他和同事研究了马鹿洞人的牙齿、颅骨和颌骨。放射性碳测年显示,这些遗骸距今有大约1.4万年历史。Next, the researchers would like to extract DNA from bones found in the cave. But because the thigh bone shows signs of having been burned, ancient human DNA may not have survived.接下来,研究人员想要从马鹿洞里发现的骨骼中提取DNA。但鉴于这根股骨上有被烧灼的痕迹,古人类DNA可能没能保留下来。 /201512/418060



  Apple is hiring a team of journalists to run its Apple News service, part of a broader push by the company to personalise the content it selects and delivers to users of its devices.苹果(Apple)正招聘新闻从业者组建编辑团队,运营其Apple News务。此举是苹果一项更宏大举措的一部分,目的是对选送给苹果设备用户的内容进行人工干预。The Apple editorial team will liaise with publishers, which include the Financial Times, New York Times, The Guardian and The Economist, which have signed up to provide content to the news service.苹果编辑团队将负责与出版商联络。这些出版商包括英国《金融时报》、《纽约时报》(New York Times)、《卫报》(The Guardian)和《经济学人》(The Economist),它们已和苹果签约,将为其新闻务提供内容。A job ad posted for Apple News, which replaces Apple’s Newsstand and will compete with Facebook’s new Instant Articles service, said successful candidates would “identify and deliver the best in breaking national, global, and local news”.在为Apple News发布的招聘广告上,苹果表示,符合条件的候选者应能“识别和发送最佳的国内、国际及地方突发新闻”。Apple News将取代苹果的虚拟报摊(Newsstand),并与Facebook新推出的Instant Articles务展开竞争。It is seeking candidates with more than five years of “newsroom experience” able to “recognise original, compelling stories unlikely to be identified by algorithms”. Apple declined to comment beyond the job ad.该公司希望找到这样的人选:拥有五年以上“编辑部工作经验”,能够“识别不太可能被算法识别出的、扣人心弦的原创性报道”。苹果拒绝就这个招聘广告以外的事情置评。One publisher that has had negotiations with Apple over the news service said the hiring of journalists was “jaw-dropping” and “a real surprise”.一个曾与苹果就新闻务进行过商谈的出版商表示,苹果聘用新闻从业者之举“令人大跌眼镜”、“着实令人意外”。Ken Doctor, an analyst with Newsonomics, pointed to other examples of technology companies hiring journalists, such as Flipboard and Yahoo. “Apple hasn’t done it so it’s a departure but it’s not a surprising departure,” he said. “To do curated distribution you either use algorithms, like Google News, or you use people.”Newsonomics分析师肯#8226;多克托(Ken Doctor)则提到其他高科技企业聘用新闻从业者的例子——比如Flipboard和雅虎(Yahoo!)。他说:“苹果以前没这么做过,因此这算是一次新的尝试,但它并不出人意料。做策划发行,你要么靠算法、就像谷歌新闻(Google News)那样,要么靠人。”Apple’s news recruitment drive is the latest example of a steady uptick in traffic from Fleet Street to Silicon Valley. In the last few years, social networks Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn have hired reporters and editors from the likes of News Corp and N to help broker relationships between media groups and their distribution platforms. Within the past six months, Snapchat has hired reporters from CNN and tech site The Verge.苹果招聘新闻从业者之举,是新闻业人士转投硅谷的步伐逐步加快的最新例。最近几年,社交网络Facebook、Twitter和领英(LinkedIn)已从新闻集团(News Corp)、美国全国广播公司(N)等机构招了不少记者和编辑,以帮助处理媒体集团与其发行平台之间的关系。过去六个月里,Snapchat也从美国有线电视新闻网(CNN)及技术网站The Verge聘用了多名记者。The launch of Apple News comes as the company tries to introduce more of a human element to its other services. Apple Music, which was unveiled last week, includes personally selected playlists and Beats 1, an international radio station staffed by newly hired DJs — including Zane Lowe, formerly of B Radio 1.苹果推出Apple News的同时,也试图向自己的其他务引入更多人的元素。上周推出的Apple Music务,就包括了人工挑选的歌单以及一个名为“Beats 1”的国际广播电台。该电台的人员由新近聘用的DJ组成,其中包括曾在英国广播公司广播一台(B Radio 1)工作的赞恩#8226;洛(Zane Lowe)。The publishers participating in Apple News will supply Apple with a few stories each day, which will be served as a stream from an icon on the homescreen of connected Apple devices. The publishers will keep any advertising revenue they generate from ads sold around these stories; if they want Apple to sell the ads the iPhone maker will keep a 30 per cent cut of any revenues.参与Apple News的出版商每天将向苹果提供数篇报道,这些报道将通过联网苹果设备主屏幕上的一个应用以流媒体的形式提供给用户。出版商自己围绕这些报道卖出的广告,收入全归它们自己所有。如果它们希望由苹果来卖广告,苹果将获得相当于收入30%的分成。 /201506/381139

  To fully grasp the prescience of Mihael Mikek, a co-founder of Celtra, the advertising technology company, requires an exercise of mental time travel.要完全理解广告科技公司Celtra联合创始人米哈尔#8226;米凯克(Mihael Mikek)的先见之明,就得先来场思想上的时光穿越。Return, for a moment, to 2005. The iPhone is still two years away and most of us are talking on BlackBerrys or flimsy flip phones. The biggest money to be made in mobile is in the sale of ringtones and screen wallpaper.让我们暂且回到2005年。当时iPhone还有两年才上市,我们大多数人用黑莓(BlackBerry)或者轻薄的翻盖手机打电话。移动业务中最赚钱的是销售手机铃声和壁纸。(上图为Celtra联合创始人米哈尔#8226;米凯克和马娅#8226;德罗克)But Mr Mikek, then a first-year MBA student atBabson’s Olin Graduate School of Business, sees an industry with enormous potential. Although it would be a few years before he and his co-founders — his wife, Maja Drolec, also a Babson MBA and the company’s chief financial officer, and Matevz Klanjsek, Celtra’s chief product officer — begin to focus on ways to make mobile advertisements more effective, they all saw the budding power of mobile.但当时还是巴布森学院奥林商学院(Babson Olin Graduate School of Business)一年级MBA学员的米凯克,看到了一个潜力巨大的行业。尽管他和其他合伙创始人在几年后才致力于提高移动广告的有效性,但他们全都看到了移动业务崭露头角的力量。米凯克的合伙创始人包括他的妻子马娅#8226;德罗克(Maja Drolec),她同样是巴布森的MBA学员,现在担任Celtra首席财务官;以及公司首席产品官马特兹#8226;克兰烈塞克(Matevz Klanjsek)。“We were looking for ideas and we all believed mobile was interesting,” says Mr Mikek. “But to catch a wave like this — to catch an industry that has disrupted so many things — that was big.”米凯克表示:“当时我们正在寻找创业点子,我们全都相信移动业务很有吸引力。但要抓住这样的浪潮,抓住一个颠覆如此多事物的行业,并不是一件容易的事情。”Founded in 2006, Celtra’s software AdCreator — now in its fourth iteration — helps businesses create rich media ads that use animation, audio, or other interactive elements, optimised for different devices and formats. Using data, other signals and triggers such as a mobile user’s location, Celtra’s platform also ensures marketers deliver relevant ads to their intended audience.Celtra创建于2006年,它开发的软件AdCreator(现在已是第四版)使用动画、音频和视频或者其他互动方式,帮助企业制作丰富多的媒体广告,并针对各种设备和格式进行优化。利用数据、信号、以及移动用户位置等其他触发信息,Celtra的平台还能确保营销人员向目标受众发送相关广告。Ad tech is a booming industry. According to eMarketer, the internet market research group, the global mobile advertising market is projected to surpass 0bn in 2016, of which mobile will account for more than 50 per cent. Celtra has a tiny but growing sliver of that market. This year the company, which is based in Boston, will serve more than 50bn ads and earn a projected revenue of m, nearly double what it earned in 2014.广告技术是一个蓬勃发展的行业。互联网市场研究集团eMarketer表示,预计2016年全球移动广告市场规模将超过1000亿美元,其中移动业务的比例将超过50%。Celtra在该市场只占非常小的份额,但规模却在不断增长。今年这家总部位于波士顿的公司将会为逾500亿美元的广告提供务,预计实现3700万美元收入,几乎是2014年收入的两倍。The rise of programmatic advertising, which uses automated computer systems and sophisticated algorithms to deliver ads across the internet, is another boon to Celtra.程序化广告的兴起对Celtra来说是另一个福音。程序化广告是指使用自动计算系统和复杂算法在互联网上投放广告。In some ways, the three founders make for an unlikely team. Mr Klanjsek studied architecture and design and previously worked in advertising. “I never had a desire to be an entrepreneur,” he says plainly. “I just wanted to do advertising.”从某些方面来说,这3位创始人不太可能组成一团队。克兰烈塞克学的是建筑和设计专业,早先从事广告设计工作。他坦率地说:“我从未想过当一名企业家。我只想做广告。”Ms Drolec also admits to being a reluctant entrepreneur and still talks enthusiastically about one day pursuing a career in social work. She also had reservations about starting a company with her husband. “To be frank, I didn’t think that us working together would be [for] the best,” she says.德罗克也坦承不想创业,仍然充满热情地说起总有一天会投身社会工作。她对与丈夫一起开公司也持保留态度。她说道:“坦率地说,我不认为我们合作将会得到最好结果。”However, Mr Mikek, the unabashed visionary of the group, insists: “We complement each other. Maya was always really good with numbers, Matevz wanted to change advertising for the better and I wanted to build a big business. When you put those things together, it becomes pretty powerful.”然而,作为团队中毫无疑问的远见者,米凯克坚称:“我们彼此互补。马娅一向精于数字,马特兹希望把广告变得更好,而我想创办一家大企业。当你把这些事情综合起来的时候,它就变得非常强大。”The founders all grew up in Slovenia and came of age when the country gained independence. “After [that] the world started to open up a little bit more,” says Mr Mikek. “Many people in our generation started to go out and study abroad.”几位创始人从小在斯洛文尼亚长大,在该国赢得独立之际成年。米凯克说:“那之后世界开始开放了一点点。我们这一代人有许多开始走出去,并去海外留学。”Mr Mikek was the first to enrol at US-based Babson, where he won a place in the school’s signature class — the Entrepreneurship Intensity Track — a specialised elective for those who plan to launch a venture shortly after they graduate. His class project was a mobile payments company, which Bill Bygrave, professor emeritus at Babson, admits he was dubious about. “It wasn’t obvious to me that there was a great market for it. But along came the smartphone and that changed the world,” he says.米凯克是首批进入美国巴布森学院学习的学生,并赢得了进入该校“特色班”——“创业强度追踪项目”(Entrepreneurship Intensity Track)——的一个名额,这是为那些计划在毕业后不久就创业的学员准备的专业选修班。他的班级项目是一个移动付公司,巴布森学院荣誉教授比尔#8226;贝格雷夫(Bill Bygrave)承认,他曾对此感到怀疑。他说:“我看不清这是否是一个大市场。但后来出现了智能手机,改变了世界。”After they graduated, Mr Mikek and Ms Drolec toyed with a range of mobile-related business ideas. They later met Mr Klanjsek on a trip to London and began to hatch the company that would eventually become Celtra.米凯克和德罗克在毕业后尝试过一系列移动业务的点子。他们后来在去伦敦的旅途中遇到了克兰烈塞克,并开始筹办后来的Celtra。Their initial idea was to create a web-based marketing platform for entertainment clients, mainly Hollywood studios, to publicise their films via social channels. “Quite honestly, we knew nothing,” recalls Mr Klanjsek. “In the early stage we had the freedom to explore. It was tough but it was magical in a way.”他们最初的想法是,为业客户(主要是好莱坞电影公司)创建一个基于网络的市场营销平台,通过社交渠道宣传他们的影片。克兰烈塞克回忆道:“说实在的,当时我们什么也不知道。一开始我们随便摸索。这很艰难,但在某种程度上来说也很神奇。”Having raised a modest round of seed money from their families, Ms Drolec and Mr Mikek worked from their flat in Cambridge and Mr Klanjsek worked from his in London and later San Francisco. They also commissioned a small group of developers in Slovenia to write code and hustled for every scrap of business. “We probably did 15 campaigns but we pitched hundreds,” says Mr Mikek. “We went to literally every company in Hollywood.”在从家里筹得一小笔种子资金之后,米凯克和德罗克在剑桥的公寓、克兰烈塞克在伦敦(后来在旧金山)的公寓开始了工作。他们还委托斯洛文尼亚的一个小开发团队写代码,并努力争取每一笔业务。米凯克表示:“我们大概做了15笔生意,但我们向数公司推销了自己。我们真的去了好莱坞的每一家公司。”Eventually big name studios, including 20th Century Fox, New Line Cinema, and Warner Bros, signed on to use Celtra’s service for movie release campaigns such asSex and the City and What Happens in Vegas.最终,包括20世纪福克斯电影公司(20th century Fox)、新线电影公司(New Line Cinema)以及华纳兄弟(Warner Bros)在内的大型电影公司,在《欲望都市》(Sex and the City)和《情迷》(What Happens in Vegas)等电影的发行活动中签约使用Celtra的务。In 2009, RSG Capital, a Slovenia-based venture capital fund, invested .2m in Celtra. Two years later, as Celtra expanded its client roster to include other companies such as Viacom, Pandora, and Shazam, it raised m from GrandBanks Capital and Fairhaven Capital, both Boston-based VC firms.2009年,总部位于斯洛维尼亚的风投基金RSG Capital向Celtra投资了120万美元。两年后,随着Celtra将其客户名单扩大至维亚康姆(Viacom)、潘多拉(Pandora)和音乐雷达(Shazam)等其他公司, 它从GrandBanks Capital和Fairhaven Capital这两家波士顿风投公司那里筹集了500万美元。It was “really tough to get the first believers”, says Ms Drolec, but their Babson roots helped pave the way for investment. “Business school gives you a passport to US business,” she says. “We’re immigrants, so venture capitalists and institutional investors can’t just call up three of their friends to check on us. [Babson] gave them a reference point. It made us legit.”德罗克表示,“说最初这批人真的非常难”,但他们的巴布森学院出身为获得投资铺平了道路。她说:“商学院为你进入美国商界提供了敲门砖。我们是移民,因此风险资本家和机构投资者不能只是叫上几个朋友来调查我们。(巴布森学院)给了他们一个参考标准。它让我们变得有资格。”The investment meant the business became much more real. “Everything needed to be done by the book: we needed structure and employment contracts,” says Ms Drolec, who found the financial skills she learnt at Babson useful. “Up until three years ago, I put together our consolidated financials. I needed to understand every line.”获得投资意味着公司更加接近现实。德罗克表示:“所有事情都得照章办事:我们需要架构和雇佣合同。”德罗克发现在巴布森学到的财务技能非常有用。“直至3年前我才完成了我们的合并会计报表。我需要理解每一行的意思”。In 2013, Celtra received another m in venture funding led by SoftBank Capital, and today Celtra has 140 employees and more than 400 clients.2013年,Celtra收到了软银资本(SoftBank Capital)领投的400万美元风投资金,现在Celtra有140名员工,以及逾400个客户。For now, the company is focused on “maximising shareholder value” and “constantly delivering” on its plans, says Mr Mikek.米凯克表示,就目前而言,Celtra致力于“股东价值最大化”和“不断实现”计划。 /201506/382731A patent dispute has dealt a blow to Xiaomi’s international expansion, leaving the fast-growing Chinese smartphone maker facing a temporary ban on sales in India and further pressure on margins.一场专利纠纷给小米(Xiaomi)的国际扩张造成打击,这家发展迅速的中国智能手机制造商在印度遭遇暂时禁售,利润率面临更大压力。Xiaomi, anointed a valuation in excess of bn at its latest fundraising in November, is keen to replicate its popularity in China into other major emerging markets. In April it unveiled plans to expand into as many as 10 foreign markets.小米希望将其在中国的受欢迎程度复制到其他主要新兴市场。在11月的最新一轮融资中,小米估值超过400亿美元。今年4月,该公司宣布了进军10个国外市场的计划。However, a Delhi High Court case suggests that this march abroad may also open it to more patent disputes, with companies demanding it pay royalties — something that rivals are less keen to pursue in China where claims are harder to press. Such payments would, in turn, eat into margins or drive up handset prices. In a ruling on a patent dispute with technology group Ericsson, the court ordered Xiaomi to suspend sales until February, pending a further hearing relating to its dispute with the Swedish company.然而,印度案件预示着小米在进军海外路上可能还会遭遇更多专利纠纷,拥有专利的企业将要求其付许可费——竞争对手不太愿意在中国起诉,因为在中国索赔会比较困难。这些出将进而侵蚀利润率或推升手机价格。在一项有关小米与瑞典科技企业爱立信(Ericsson)专利纠纷的裁决中,德里高等法院下令小米在明年2月前暂停销售,等待有关其与爱立信诉讼的进一步审理结果。Wednesday’s ruling stated that Xiaomi was “restrained from manufacturing, assembling, importing, selling or advertising” its products in India pending a further hearing, while India’s customs authorities were “directed not to allow the import” of mobiles and other products that may infringe Ericsson’s patents.周三的裁决称,小米被“禁止”在印度“制造、组装、进口、销售或宣传”其产品,需等待进一步审理结果,同时印度海关被“指示不要放行”可能侵犯爱立信专利的手机和其他产品的“进口”。Without a trove of its own patents, manufacturers such as Xiaomi could ultimately see their costs inflated by 5-20 per cent due to licensing fees, according to some experts. Xiaomi says it acquired 1,141 patents last year, a number considered unimpressive in the tech industry.一些专家表示,在缺少自主专利的情况下,小米等制造商的成本最终可能会因为许可费而上升5%至20%。小米表示,去年该公司获得1141项专利,在科技行业,这一数字并不起眼。Experts said this appeared to be the first patent litigation targeting Xiaomi since it outlined plans to launch into up to 10 foreign markets.专家们表示,这似乎是小米宣布计划进军10个国外市场以来,首例针对该公司的专利诉讼。“It looks like Xiaomi is experiencing a bit of culture shock in India,” said Wang Yanhui, secretary-general of the Mobile Phone China Alliance, an industry lobbying group. He said Xiaomi was not the first Chinese smartphone maker to be sued in India, however, it was the first time imports had been halted.行业游说组织——手机中国联盟(Mobile Phone China Alliance)秘书长王艳辉表示:“看来小米正在印度遭遇文化冲击。”他表示,小米并非唯一一家在印度被起诉的中国智能手机制造商,但它是首个被暂停进口的中国企业。The Delhi court ruling is likely to raise new concerns about possible intellectual property challenges affecting other Chinese smartphone and device makers — a group that includes Huawei, ZTE and Lenovo, analysts said.分析人士称,德里高等法院的这项裁决,可能会重新引起外界对其他中国智能手机和设备制造商面临潜在知识产权挑战的担忧,其中包括华为(Huawei)、中兴(ZTE)和联想(Lenovo)。Manu Jain, head of Xiaomi in India, said the group had not received official notification of the ruling from the court, but that its legal team was “evaluating the situation”.小米印度分公司负责人马努#8226;贾因(Manu Jain)表示,小米尚未接到法院方面关于裁决的正式通知,但公司法律团队正“对目前的形势进行评估”。 /201412/348651Amazon AMZN -0.66% today unveiled Dash Buttons, an easy way for customers to order select bulk goods via an internet-connected button, and yesterday launched Home Services, an on-demand installation and handyman service. Combined, they show that the e-commerce giant has a clear understanding of how the Internet-of-things will benefit its business. And it isn’t going to be shy about capitalizing on connectivity to build its bottom line.4月1日,亚马逊发布了一键下单按钮Dash Buttons,通过这款联网的按钮,消费者可以轻松预订某种特定货品。而就在之前一天,该公司推出了家庭务平台Home Services,顾客可以按需定制安装、维修等务。这两项业务表明,作为电子商务巨头,亚马逊已清楚认识到物联网将给自身业务带来怎样的好处,并毫不犹豫地开始放手利用网络互连来创造利润。Dash Buttons are an adaptation of Amazon’s voice-controlled Dash ordering system that lets people speak to order new grocery items, and will allow Amazon Prime members to order one item with the push of an WiFi-based connected button. Amazon has 17 brands (including Bounty and Tide) on board at launch, so folks can re-order their bulk goods with a button-click.Dash Buttons按钮是亚马逊的声控下单设备Dash的一个衍生品,持用户通过语音下单,订购日杂商品,而且亚马逊Prime会员只需轻轻一按以WiFi联网的Dash Buttons,,即可订购某种商品。这款刚刚问世的产品覆盖了汰渍等17个品牌,只要按下相应的按钮,用户就可重复下单。Amazon also has advertised a developer program that allows companies to build re-ordering buttons directly into their own hardware. Listed on that page are partners such as Whirlpool (re-order laundry supplies), Brother (ink and toner), Brita (water filters) and Quirky (which is launching a line of appliances including a fancy pour-ver coffee machine). An Amazon spokesman says the first Dash-enabled devices will start showing up in the fall.此外,亚马逊已经开始大肆宣传其开发者项目。这个项目允许各厂商在自己的硬件产品里直接内置重复下单按钮。目前的合作伙伴包括惠而浦洗衣机(再订购洗衣用品)、兄弟打印机(墨水和碳粉)、Brita净水器和Quirky手冲咖啡机等产品。亚马逊一位发言人表示,首批具有此项功能的产品将在今年秋季问世。So what Amazon has is a retrofit strategy for connecting smart appliances to its e-commerce operations and a future-facing strategy for the coming flood of connected devices. And all of this is geared around making buying products from Amazon as easy as possible. The plan aly was somewhat validated by the popular Internet-of-things startup If This Then That, which in February launched a one-button app that let users assign one task to a single button. For example, one of my one-button tasks was was posting a message to Slack whenever I left my desk.也就是说,为了应对未来大量联网设备上市的浪潮,亚马逊已经调整了战略,以便将智能设备和其电商业务连接在一起。而所有这些都围绕着一个核心,那就是尽量让购物变得简单。这项计划在一定程度上已经被热门物联网创业公司If This Then That验过了: 今年2月, If This Then That推出了一款一键触发应用,功能是让用户把一项任务绑定到一个按键或按钮上。比如说,我绑定的一键任务之一是当我离开办公桌后,在企业通信工具Slack上发布提示信息。The simplicity of one-button tasks are appealing, although it could lead to a mess of packages ending up at people’s doors if Amazon doesn’t try to minimize waste on its end, by grouping shipments together when possible. People on Twitter seem mostly concerned about pets and small children playing with the Dash Buttons and ordering multiples of their Kraft Macaroni and Cheese boxes, although Amazon notes that if the button is pressed more than once, the order doesn’t go through on the second time, and you’ll get a smartphone notification about it.尽管一键下单的便捷性令人着迷,但是如果亚马逊不设法减少终端的浪费、尽可能地合并发货,这个功能或许会导致用户家门口被杂乱的包裹堆满。Twitter上的反应表明,人们最担心家里的宠物或小孩子乱动Dash Buttons,重复订购卡夫通心粉或芝士粉等商品。但亚马逊声明,多次按动下单按钮生成的订单并不会即刻通过,用户的智能手机将先收到相应的下单提示信息。Amazon also recently launched Home Services, following up on last year’s opening of a home automation e-store devoted to connected gadgets for the home — many of which require a professional installer. So now Amazon can sell these devices along with the person who can install them.另一项亚马逊刚推出的Home Services务也与它先前的业务有关。去年,亚马逊建立了家庭自动化电子商铺,旨在向家庭用户出售联网设备。而这些设备均需要由专业人士安装。现在有了Home Services,亚马逊在销售这些设备的同时,也开始向用户提供专业的安装务。It also is focusing on maintenance, via a network of service providers that it can call on for its network of suppliers or for its own planned connected home play –something I’ve previously advised companies interested in the connected home to do as a way of closing the loop. Because while data and the algorithms that will be used to detect when there is actually a problem in the home are going to be an essential ingredient, we will still need the people on the ground to fix those problems for a long time to come.这项务的另一个重点是维修,它通过一个务提供商网络来实现,务对象则包括亚马逊的供应商及其计划中的互联家庭。此前我曾建议,有意于互联家庭市场的企业可以这样做,以便形成完整的业务链。我这样说的原因在于,要想即时发现家里出了问题,数据和算法固然必不可少,但在今后很长一段时间里,仍需要有人来切实解决这些问题。So far, Amazon is impressing me with its understanding of how the Internet-of-things can affect its business. With Dash, it’s making an offensive play to ring up more sales as devices come online. With Amazon Home Services, it’s making a defensive play as other large companies try to become more vertically integrated. My only question is where does the voice-activated Amazon Echo speaker fit into all of this? Is it, like the original Dash, more of a pilot devices designed to gather usage data to build other products, or is it an integral element for home control as I’m hoping?截至目前,亚马逊对物联网将如何影响自身业务的理解让人印象深刻。随着各种设备开始联网,亚马逊可以借助Dash硬件主动出击,提升销售额。同时,在其他大公司进一步进行业务垂直整合之际,Home Services让亚马逊有了抗击打能力。对我来说,唯一的问题在于亚马逊的语音助手硬件Echo怎样和这些务项目融合在一起?它是不是和原来的购物助手Dash一样,更多地是一款引导性性产品,用于收集使用数据,以便制造其他产品?还是说,它和我希望的一样,是智能家居控制中不可或缺的一环? /201504/369353

  Altered gene leaves people totally painfree改变的基因导致人们完全感觉不到疼痛Naturally occurring changes in a previously unstudied gene can prevent people from experiencing pain. And that#39;s not good. It can leave them dangerously unaware of harm.如果先天自然形成的基因发生自然性的改变,那么人类感受疼痛能力将会受阻,导致他们意识不到伤害,这样很危险!Researchers presented the finding May 25 in Nature Genetics.5月25日研究者在自然遗传学上递交了这篇报告。The gene#39;s name is PRDM12. Pain is the body#39;s way of signaling that something is wrong. Certain mutations- naturally occurring changes - in that gene keep people from feeling pain. Robbed of this warning, affected people may fail to protect themselves from unintentional injuries. Such injuries could range from skin burns or scratched eyes to missing digits.该基因叫做PRDM12,疼痛是身体意识危险的信号。特定基因突变---自然发生的改变---导致人类感受不到疼痛。这一预警信号被;劫持;后,那些受影响人将不能在无意识的伤害中保护自己。这些伤害包括皮肤灼伤,被抓挠的眼睛,甚至还包括丢失的脚趾手指等等。However, there is some good news in the finding. Better understanding of how a mutated PRDM12 gene blocks pain might one day lead to better treatments for people who suffer from too much pain.但幸运的是在这项调查中还有好消息,即更好地了解突变的基因PRDM12是怎样阻止疼痛或许某天会应用到那些正在遭受极大痛苦的人身上。;It#39;s promising, but there#39;s a long way to go,; says Simon Halegoua. He#39;s a neuroscientist at Stony Brook University in New York who did not work on the new study.前途是光明的,但仍然还有很长的路要走,纽约石溪大学神经系统学家Simon Halegoua表示,但是他没有参与到新研究中。Scientists aly knew that mutations in another gene caused a similar birth defect: this insensitivity to pain. In their new study, Geoff Woods of the University of Cambridge in England and his colleagues identified 11 families with mutated forms of the PRDM12 gene. The gene normally instructs cells on how to make a protein that helps pain-sensing nerve cells develop. These pain-warning nerve cells, or neurons, are called nociceptors (NO-see-SEP-terz). People born with some mutations to PRDM12 lack some nociceptor neurons that carry pain signals to the brain. The new study suggests ;You need PRDM12 present to grow your pain neurons,; Woods says.科学家已经知道另一个基因突变会引起类似的先天缺陷:感觉疼痛迟钝性,在他们的新研究中,英国剑桥大学的Geoff Woods和他的同事对11家家人的PRDM12基因变异形式进行了鉴定。基因通常会指引细胞产出蛋白质来帮助触痛神经细胞发育。这些预示疼痛的神经细胞,也叫神经元,被称为伤害感受器。一些天生PRDM12基因突变的人缺乏能将疼痛信号传输给大脑的伤害感受器神即经元。Woods表示;新研究明人们需要PRDM12来助长其疼痛神经原;。译文属 /201506/378318Credit Suisse says its Asia Tech Team has confirmed that Apple#39;s has recently lowered its orders from suppliers, and that Apple now plans to build 70 million to 75 million iPhones in December and 45 million to 50 million iPhones in March..瑞士信贷表示,苹果的亚洲科技团队已确认,最近苹果已经削减了供应商的订单,并计划在12月生产7000万到7500万部手机,在明年3月生产4500万到5000万部手机。But a potential miniature iPhone, rumored to be released early next year, could help boost iPhones sales, Credit Suisse says in the report.瑞士信贷的报告中表示,传闻可能会在明年初发布的迷你手机,将有助于提升iPhone的销量。In a previous report, Credit Suisse blamed the softer demand for the iPhone 6S on the lack of apps that really take advantage of the phone#39;s new ;3D Touch; feature.在之前的报告里,瑞士信贷曾谴责6S需求减弱是由于缺乏能充分发挥它新的“3D触控”特色的应用。But not all is lost, Credit Suisse says: People who have iPhones tend to keep them, and Apple#39;s new iPhone installment plan program will put it into the hands of more people than ever before.但苹果6S也并非输的一塌糊涂,瑞士信贷称,那些拥有iPhone的人还是倾向于持有一台6S,并且苹果最新推出的分期付款计划,将会把它送到比以往任何时候都都要多的人群手中。Plus, if Apple follows through with the rumors and releases a smaller, lower-cost four-inch-screen iPhone in the first half of next year, Credit Suisse says, it could open up the market and make the device appealing to a larger audience.并且,如果恰如传闻那样,苹果公司能在2016年上半年发布一款更小巧,更低成本的4英寸手机,那么它将进一步打开市场,吸引更多的用户群体。And unlike what happened with Apple#39;s iPhone 5C flop, a smaller iPhone would be enough unlike the current flagship 6S that it wouldn#39;t confuse the market, according to the analysts.据分析专家称,新的迷你iPhone和曾经遭遇的失败的iPhone 5C不同,更完全有别于当前的旗舰6S,它不会引起苹果手机市场的混乱。 /201512/413654

  They are the new favourite toy of the rich and famous, but it seems the likes of Lauren Goodger, Brooklyn Beckham and Rochelle Humes will no longer be able to use one to glide along the street.悬浮滑板是富人和名人们的新欢,劳伦·古杰(Lauren Goodger)、布鲁克林·贝克汉姆(Brooklyn Beckham)和罗谢尔·休谟(Rochelle Humes)都对它喜爱有加,但是现在看来,他们再也不能踩着悬浮滑板在大街上滑来滑去了。That#39;s because prosecutors have revealed that futuristic #39;hoverboards#39; - also known as self-balancing scooters - are illegal to ride on public roads or pavements in Britain.这是因为据检察官透露,在英国的公路或人行道上使用这种未来派的“悬浮滑板”(也称为自平衡滑板车)是违法的。The #163;400 vehicles, which feature a platform with a wheel on each side, can only be used on private property because they are too dangerous to ride in public, the Crown Prosecution Service says.英国皇家检察署(Crown Prosecution Service,CPS)表示,悬浮滑板只能在私人财产的土地上使用,因为在公共场所使用太危险了。这种滑板价值400英镑,有一个平台,两侧各有一个轮子。The scooters, which are also known as #39;segways#39;, have become increasingly popular with actors and footballers over the past year - with many stars seen riding them both in public and at home.在过去的一年里,这种也被称为赛格威平衡车的滑板车越来越受到演员和足球运动员的欢迎,很多明星经常在公开场合或家里玩这种滑板。The CPS guidance was originally issued for Segways, which include a handlebar and are also not permitted on roads - but the Metropolitan Police said that it also covers hoverboards.CPS的指南最初是针对赛格威(Segway)平衡车发布的。这种平衡车还有一个把手,也不允许上路,但是伦敦警察厅(Metropolitan Police)称,这一规定也适用于悬浮滑板。It is an offence under section 72 of the Highway Act 1835 to ride them on the pavement in England and Wales - and, north of the border, under section 129(5) of the Roads (Scotland) Act 1984.根据1835年颁布的《高速公路法案》第72条,在英格兰和威尔士的人行道上使用滑板车是违法的,而在英国北部边界的苏格兰这一行为也是非法的,违反的是1984年颁布的《苏格兰公路法》第129条第五款的规定。Meanwhile it is also illegal to ride them on a public road because they are not approved by the European or British test schemes for road-legal vehicles.同时,在公路上脚踏滑板车出行也是违法的,因为它们没有通过欧洲或者英国的公路合法行驶工具准入测试。CPS guidance states: #39;You can only ride an unregistered self-balancing scooter on land which is private property and with the landowner#39;s permission.CPS发布的指南规定:“未经登记的自平衡滑板车仅可在私人财产的土地上使用并需获得土地所有人许可。”#39;The Department for Transport would advise that appropriate safety clothing should be worn at all times.#39;“英国交通部(Department for Transport)建议使用滑板车时穿着适当的防护装。”Simon Benson, from hoverboard distributor Ghetto Gadgets, claimed that the legal clarification could boost the vehicles#39; profile and lead to them becoming even more popular.悬浮滑板经销商Ghetto Gadgets的西蒙·本森(Simon Benson)称,这项明文规定会提升悬浮滑板的形象,使其更受欢迎。#39;Clearly customers need to take advice, but millennials are not going to take kindly to the authorities using a law that pre-dates the penny-farthing to tell them what they can or can#39;t do on the streets of Britain.#39;“顾客当然需要遵循建议,但是当局援引比古董自行车还久远的法律来告诉千禧一代在英国大街上什么能做什么不能做,这些年轻人可不会买账。”The boards are also becoming massively popular in the US, with hundreds of different products now available in response to huge demand following their use by the likes of actor Jamie Foxx and singer Justin Bieber.悬浮滑板在美国也掀起了一股热潮,演员杰米·福克斯(Jamie Foxx)和歌手贾斯汀·比伯(Justin Bieber)等人都是悬浮滑板的拥趸,从而带动了巨大的市场需求,成百上千种悬浮滑板产品琳琅满目。American stars such as Kendall Jenner are being sent free samples of the boards by companies scrambling for market share and using celebrity endorsement to raise awareness of their products in a crowded marketplace.悬浮滑板公司向肯达尔·詹娜(Kendall Jenner)这样的美国明星发放免费样车,以在竞争激烈的市场中争夺更多的份额、利用名人效应提高本公司产品的知名度。The 19-year-old model posted on Instagram about how she was using the PhunkeeDuck board, and it got more than one million likes - sending demand through the roof.这名19岁的模特在Instagram上贴出一张照片,展示了她是如何使用PhunkeeDuck滑板车的,获得了一百多万个赞,大大推高了市场需求。There has also been a dispute between makers of the IO Hawk and PhunkeeDuck hoverboards over who invented the vehicle in the first place.悬浮滑板生产商IO Hawk和PhunkeeDuck之间也就究竟谁最先发明了悬浮滑板而发生争端。Last month Wal-Mart announced that it would be stocking the vehicle from November, saying that it expects it to be a big seller for Christmas.上个月,沃尔玛宣布将从11月起储备悬浮滑板,表示沃尔玛预计悬浮滑板将在圣诞节大卖。The law on using hoverboards in the US is not entirely clear, but 45 states are said to permit #39;electric personal assistive mobility devices#39; - including Segways - on public rights of way.悬浮滑板的相关法规在美国并不完全明确,但是据说有45个州依据公众通行权,允许“电动个人辅助移动设备”上路,包括赛格威。Among the other products companies are using in an attempt to corner the market are the Hovertrax, Cyboard and Future Foot.试图垄断悬浮滑板商品市场的公司推出的产品还有Hovertrax,Cyboard和Future Foot。The CPS advice comes after a teenager was beaten in the face and robbed by four men for his #163;300 hoverboard in Enfield, north London - the first case of its kind in the capital.CPS发布这项指南前,一个少年在伦敦北部的恩菲尔德(Enfield)被四个男人打伤面部,价值300英镑的悬浮滑板也被抢走了,这在伦敦是首例。Police said the 18-year-old victim was riding the hoverboard when a car stopped in front of him and the gang surrounded him, before one of the attackers hit him and stole the vehicle.警方表示,这名受害者18岁,当时他正在街上踩着滑板车滑行,一辆车停在他前面,一群人下来围住了他,之后一个人袭击了他并偷走了他的车。USrapper Wiz Khalifa, whose real name is Cameron Jibril Thomaz, was handcuffed by customs officials in August after refusing to get off his hoverboard at Los Angeles Airport in California.美国说唱歌手维兹·卡利法(Wiz Khalifa),本名卡梅伦·吉布里尔·托马兹(Cameron Jibril Thomaz),8月份时因为在加州的洛杉矶机场拒绝从悬浮滑板上下来,被海关官员铐上了手铐。 /201510/404366

  Apple has trimmed the prices of its newest iPhones in a country where their cost is beyond the reach of most consumers, according to a news report.根据一项最新报告显示,由于印度多数国民的购买力与最新款iPhone的价格相差太远,苹果日前降低了其产品在印度的价格。The company has lowered prices on its iPhone 6S and iPhone 6S Plus by up to 16 percent in India as demand for the devices fell, the India-based Economic Times reported Monday.据印度经济时代报道,由于对设备需求的下降,苹果公司在印度将iPhone 6s和iPhone 6s Plus的售价最多削减了16%。The 16GB iPhone 6S now sells for 52,000 to 55,000 rupees, down from 62,000 rupees two months ago, four large retailers told the Economic Times. The price cuts extend to all models and capacities.四大零售商告诉经济时代,16GB的iPhone 6S现在售价已经从两个月之前的62000卢比下降到大约在52000到55000卢比。并且降价的幅度已经扩大到所有型号和容量的机器。Apple apparently needs to be more price competitive in India, the world#39;s third largest smartphone market behind China and the US. Indian consumers typically gravitate toward phones priced under 0, such as those made by Chinese vendor Xiaomi and local brand Micromax. Apple has been grappling with weaker demand for its iPhone 6S lineup in India and just a 2 percent market share as chief rival Samsung leads the field with lower-cost phones manufactured in the country.苹果公司这一做法很明显是要让iPhone在印度更有竞争力,印度也是除了中国和美国之外的第三大智能手机市场。印度消费者愿意购买的手机通常在300美元以下,比如来自中国的小米手机和印度当地品牌Micromax。目前,苹果在印度的市场份额仅占2%,而其主要对手三星则凭借在当地生产的低价手机成为;行业大哥;。With a population of more than 1.2 billion people, India is a critical battleground for smartphone makers. It became the world#39;s fastest growing smartphone market last year, research firm IDC said in November 2014. India is expected to surpass the US as the world#39;s second-largest smartphone market behind China in 2017, Strategy Analytics said in July.拥有超过12亿人口的印度无疑是智能手机厂商极其重要的战场。2014年11月,IDC公司的报告指出,印度在该年已经成为了世界上智能手机数量增加最快的国家。而今年的7月份,Strategy Analytics表示,在2017年,印度将会超越美国,成为紧随中国之后的世界第二大智能手机市场。 /201512/417736。

  It wasn’t his first broken condom, so Rafael didn’t worry. But three weeks later, the man he’d met in a bar called to say that he had “probably been exposed” to H.I.V.拉斐尔不是头一回碰上保险套破了这种事,所以一点儿也没放在心上。但三个礼拜后,他在酒吧遇到的那人打电话来说,他“可能接触到了”艾滋病病毒。Rafael, a muscular, affable 43-year-old, went to a clinic and within 45 minutes learned he was infected. Although it was aly closing time, a counselor saw him immediately and offered him a doctor’s appointment the next day.43岁的拉斐尔是为人友善的肌肉猛男。他去了一家诊所,过了45分钟得知自己确实被感染了。尽管当时已经是下班时间,一名顾问立即跟他碰面,并马上为其预约了第二天的医生看诊。At Ward 86, the famous H.I.V. unit at San Francisco General Hospital, the doctor handed him pills for five days and a prescription for more. Because he was between jobs, she introduced him to a counselor who helped him file for public health insurance covering his ,000-a-year treatment.在旧金山市综合医院(San Francisco General Hospital)著名的86号H.I.V.病区(Ward 86),医生给了他五天的药量,又为他开了处方好让他可以买到更多药。因为他暂时赋闲在家,这名大夫将他介绍给了一名顾问,后者帮助他申请了一份公共医疗保险,每年报销3万美元的治疗费。“They were very reassuring and very helpful,” said Rafael, who, like several other men interviewed for this article, spoke on condition that only his first name be used to protect his privacy. “They gave me the beautiful opportunity to just concentrate on my health.”“他们很帮忙,这让我感到宽慰,”拉斐尔说。出于隐私考量,他与本文其他几位接受采访的男性都坚持仅以姓氏相称。“他们提供给我一个很好的机会,让我能够全心专注于自己的健康。”Despite bad luck in sex-with-strangers roulette, Rafael did have some good fortune: He lives in San Francisco, which is turning the tide against H.I.V. and serving as a model for other cities. The city that was once the epidemic’s ground zero now has only a few hundred new cases a year, the result of a raft of creative programs that have sent infection rates plummeting.尽管在一夜情的轮盘赌中撞上霉运,但拉斐尔也有幸运之处:他住在旧金山,这是一座扭转了防治艾滋病颓势、堪为其他城市效仿的楷模城市。这里曾经是艾滋病的重灾区,多亏实施了一系列富有创意的方案,感染率急剧降低,现在这里每年只有几百例新病例。“I love the San Francisco model,” said Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. “If it keeps doing what it is doing, I have a strong feeling that they will be successful at ending the epidemic as we know it. Not every last case — we’ll never get there — but the overall epidemic. And then there’s no excuse for everyone not doing it.”“我大爱旧金山市的这个模式,”美国国家过敏症及传染病研究所(National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)所长安东尼·S·福西(Anthony S. Fauci)士说。“如果坚持目前的做法,我坚信他们一定能成功地终结现在的疫情。我不是说这样就能消除所有的病例——恐怕我们永远也做不到这一点,但大体上消灭疫情是完全可能做到的。没有理由不这么做。”Last week, the World Health Organization essentially agreed. Issuing new guidelines for the treatment and prevention of H.I.V., the agency called on the rest of the world to do much of what San Francisco is aly doing: Every H.I.V. patient should start antiretroviral drugs as soon as they test positive rather than waiting for measures of immune system strength to drop, the agency said, and everyone at risk of infection should be offered preventive drugs. San Francisco adopted the first practice — “test and treat” — five years ago and the second in 2013. It has bolstered those efforts with others, like the rapid-doctor’s-appointment program that swept Rafael in, and another to track difficult patients.上周,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization, W.H.O.)对旧金山模式表示了基本的赞同。该机构印发了新的H.I.V.防治指南,呼吁世界其他地区以旧金山为榜样:一旦H.I.V.检测呈阳性,患者就应该尽快开始用抗逆转录病毒药物,而不是等到免疫系统功能指标衰退后再治疗;此外,该机构还指出,应该向所有高危人群提供预防性药物。5年前,旧金山市已经率先实践了上面的第一条——“检测即治疗”,2013年又实施了第二条。这又带动了其他的一些措施,比如预约医生的快速通道、跟踪比较麻烦的患者等,拉斐尔正是受益于前者。The results have been striking. Last year, San Francisco had only 302 new H.I.V. diagnoses, the lowest recorded number. In 1992, at the epidemic’s peak, there were 2,332.这些举措成效惊人。去年,旧金山市仅新增了302例H.I.V.确诊病历,创历史新低。而在疫情最严重的1992年,曾达2332例。In 1992, the city had 1,641 deaths from AIDS. Last year, just 177 San Franciscans with H.I.V. died, and most of them actually succumbed to heart disease, cancer or other old-age ills, said Dr. Susan Buchbinder, the head of H.I.V. prevention research for the city health department.1992年,该市有1641人死于艾滋病。到了去年,只有177名艾滋病病毒感染者死亡,而且其中大多数实际上是死于心脏病、癌症或其他老年病,旧金山市卫生部H.I.V.预防研究的负责人苏珊·布赫宾德(Susan Buchbinder)士如是说。By other measures, too, San Francisco is ahead. According to a 2012 estimate by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only 39 percent of all infected Americans had seen an H.I.V. doctor, and only 30 percent were taking their pills consistently enough to be “virally suppressed,” meaning they were not infectious. By contrast, in San Francisco, 82 percent of residents with H.I.V. were in care, and 72 percent were suppressed. In Ward 86 — all of whose patients are uninsured or on public assistance — suppression has reached 84 percent.用其他指标衡量,旧金山市同样居于领先地位。美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, C.D.C.)2012年估计,在所有受到H.I.V.感染的美国人中,只有39%曾到专科医生处就诊,只有30%能坚持药直至达到“病毒抑制”(此时他们不再具有传染性)。相比之下,在旧金山的居民中,82%的H.I.V.感染者都接受了治疗,72%达到了“病毒抑制”状态。86号病区中的患者要么没有医疗保险,要么依靠公共救济过活,但他们中的抑制率也已达到了84%。San Francisco has some natural advantages: wealth, political leaders who consistently back the fight — in part because the gay vote is so big — and a close-knit medical community in which many of the top officials in the fight against H.I.V. have studied together, trained each other and done research projects together through the University of California, San Francisco.旧金山市具备一些天然的优势:有钱、一贯力挺抗H.I.V.斗争的政治领导人(他们这么做的部分原因是因为同性恋人群是一大票仓)、密切合作的医学界。许多抗艾领域的高官都曾在加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco)一起学习、培训,并共同完成研究项目。Because of the tech boom, City Hall’s budget grew from billion to nearly billion in 10 years. For patients not eligible for federal or state aid, the city has its own health insurance: Healthy San Francisco. And it has been able to counter every cut in federal AIDS funds.借助科技繁荣的东风,10年之内,市政厅的财政预算从50亿美元增长到了近90亿美元。对于无法获得联邦或州府医保救助的患者,该市提供了自己的医保计划:健康旧金山(Healthy San Francisco)计划。目前它已足以应对联邦政府AIDS基金的削减。“One of my first budget questions is always, ‘Are they cutting our Ryan White money again?’ ” Mayor Edwin M. Lee said in an interview, referring to the 1990 law that pays for AIDS drugs. “Since 2011, we’ve backfilled more than million — with very little debate.”“我面临的最重要的预算问题始终是:‘按照瑞安·怀特法案(Ryan White,瑞安·怀特是美国抗击艾滋病和消除艾滋病歧视的标志性人物,1990年他去世之后,美国国会通过了美国最大的针对艾滋病患者及携带者的免费治疗法案——译注)我们应该得到的拨款是不是又被砍了?’ ”市长李孟贤(Edwin M. Lee)在接受采访时说。“2011年以来,我们补上了2000多万美元的资金空缺——几乎没有引发什么争议。”Wealth also eases the burden in a harsher way: Soaring rents have driven out many poor residents. Two-thirds of San Francisco’s infected are white or Asian; nationally, 63 percent are black or Hispanic. Older, wealthier, openly gay white men are more likely to be insured and well-informed about risks than young black and Hispanic men, the epidemic’s fastest-growing subgroup.与此同时,金钱也在以一种更为残酷的方式减轻该市的负担:飙升的房租令许多贫困居民不得不离开此地。旧金山三分之二的H.I.V.感染者是白人或亚洲人。而纵观整个美国,63%的感染者是黑人或西裔美国人。与年轻黑人和西裔男性这个疫情增长最快的人口亚群相比,年龄较大、较为富裕、且已经出柜的白人同性恋男性拥有保险的可能性更高,对各种风险了解得也更加充分。But the city’s chief strength has been a willingness to go first, to rapidly adopt tactics that work in pilot projects or clinical trials, before they are endorsed by public health organizations like the C.D.C. and the W.H.O.但该市最大的优势之源是愿意先行一步,在C.D.C.和W.H.O.这样的公共卫生机构认可之前,就迅速应用那些在试点项目或临床试验中有效的策略。In 1983, the city opened the first dedicated AIDS ward. In 1987, it tested the first antiretroviral drug, AZT. In 1992, it began distributing clean needles to drug addicts.1983年,该市开设了第一个艾滋病专用病房。1987年,它试用了第一种抗逆转录病毒药物AZT(叠氮胸苷)。1992年,它开始向瘾君子们分发洁净的针头。In 2010, it adopted “test-and-treat” — antiretroviral drugs given as soon as a patient tested positive. In 2013, it started the preventive drug program, PrEP — pre-exposure prophylaxis with Truvada, a two-drug pill — at no charge to the uninsured. By some estimates, 15 percent of the city’s gay men are now taking Truvada.2010年,该市推行了“检测即治疗(test-and-treat)”策略,只要患者的检测呈阳性即尽快给予抗逆转录病毒药物治疗。2013年,它开始实施预防用药方案,即使用特鲁瓦达(Truvada,一种抗逆转录病毒药物,主要成分为恩去他滨和提诺福韦——译注)为无医保人群免费提供暴露前预防(PrEP)。据估计,该市的男同性恋中有15%正在用特鲁瓦达。Numerous recent studies have shown that people taking antiretroviral therapy every day not only live longer, but also have so little circulating virus that they are highly unlikely to infect others even through unprotected sex.近期的众多研究显示,每天接受抗逆转录病毒治疗者不仅寿命更长,其循环系统中的病毒也极少,即使发生了无保护的性行为,传染他人的可能性也很小。But the shift to immediate drug treatment was a struggle. Dr. Grant Colfax, who was then the city’s director of H.I.V. prevention, met resistance from doctors arguing that drug side effects were too harsh to begin immediately and that patients not yet motivated by brushes with death might take medicines carelessly and develop resistant strains.然而,将防治策略转变为立即上药仍然困难重重。该市H.I.V.预防部门的负责人格兰特·科尔法克斯(Grant Colfax)士遇到了来自医生们的阻力,他们反对的理由是:药物的副作用太厉害,不适合推行发现后立即治疗的原则;一部分未感到死亡威胁的患者治疗的积极性不高,很可能不好好药,以致因此产生耐药性病毒株。Community groups were also angry. Many had lucrative city contracts to hand out condoms and advice, which the city rewrote to require they do tests and provide medical care.社区团体也不高兴。之前许多社团都跟市政签订了利润丰厚的合同,负责分发安全套和宣传抗艾指南。根据该市重新起草的新指南,他们还需要协助进行检测,并提供医疗务。“We were accused of ‘medicalizing H.I.V.,’ ” Dr. Colfax said. “Which I found ironic.” But the new-infection rate had not budged for 11 years. “We couldn’t keep doing the same old thing,” he said.“别人指责我们‘对H.I.V.过度医疗化’,#39;“科尔法克斯士说。“这让我觉得很有讽刺意味。”新发感染率11年未变过。“我们不能再继续过去的做法了,”他说。He persisted, and won.他坚持了下来,并取得了胜利。To identify infected people, the city increased testing and created a program called Rapid, the one that helped Rafael: It guarantees a quick doctor’s visit, with cab fare to get there if necessary, and help finding insurance.为了甄别感染者,该市增强了检测力度,并创建了快速通道(Rapid program),确保受感染者可以尽快得到医生的看诊(如有必要,甚至还报销去医院的出租车费),并帮助他们获得医疗保险。拉斐尔就是该方案的受益者之一。The Magnet Clinic, where Rafael was diagnosed, did 9,600 H.I.V. tests last year. It lies in the heart of the Castro, the city’s rainbow-flag-bedecked gay mecca, and resembles a cheery cellphone store: The waiting room has couches, flowers, disco music and photographs of the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence, a campy drag troupe. A mobile of smiling penis toys dangled over one examination table.为拉斐尔诊断的磁铁诊所(Magnet Clinic)去年进行了9600例H.I.V.检测。这家诊所坐落在旧金山市挂满了虹旗的同性恋者圣地——卡斯特罗街区(Castro)的中心地带,外观就像一个明快的手机店:候诊区里设有沙发、鲜花、迪斯科音乐和“无尽耽溺”(Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence,一个男扮女装的同性恋者剧团——译注)的照片。在检查台上方,还悬挂着一些带有微笑表情的阴茎玩具。“We didn’t want it to feel like a jail cell,” said the nursing director, Pierre-Cedric Crouch, wearing the clinic’s signature “No Blame/No Shame” T-shirt. “And we have no stigma. You can come in saying you just slept with 20 guys and don’t know what a condom is, and we don’t criticize you. We help you out.”“我们不想让人觉得这里像是牢房,”护理部主任皮埃尔-塞德里克·克劳奇(Pierre-Cedric Crouch)身着诊所标志性的“不责备/不羞愧(No Blame/No Shame)”T恤说道。“我们这里不做评判。你走进来说你跟20个男人上过床,而且从不知安全套为何物,我们也不会责难你。我们只提供帮助。”Magnet’s social workers will enroll patients in insurance or, if they have coverage, fight to make sure it covers what they need.磁铁诊所的社工会动员患者参加保险,如果他们已经参保,则会争取确保它可以报销他们的所需开销。Jayne Gagliano, the benefits manager, said she regularly had to explain to out-of-state insurers that using Truvada to prevent infection was, in fact, F.D.A.-approved.福利经理杰恩·加利亚诺(Jayne Gagliano)说自己经常需要向外州的保险公司解释使用特鲁瓦达预防H.I.V.感染实际上已经经过了美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration, F.D.A.)的审批。“The fragmented American insurance system is one of our biggest obstacles,” said Dr. Diane V. Havlir, the chief of the H.I.V. division at San Francisco General, who has seen patients stop taking their pills because of coverage lapses.“离破碎的美国保险体制是我们最大的障碍之一,”旧金山市综合医院H.I.V.部门的负责人黛安娜·V·哈夫利尔(Diane V. Havlir)士说道,她曾目睹一些患者因为医保报销问题而被迫停药。East of the Castro is the Tenderloin — a grim neighborhood peppered with single-room-occupancy hotels, homeless shelters and liquor stores. More than a quarter of the city’s homeless are gay or transgender, and many are found here. Some trade sex for drugs or a place to sleep, and end up infected.卡斯特罗区的东面是田德隆,一个充斥着单身公寓旅馆、无家可归者收容所和酒类专卖店的可怕街区。这个城市中超过四分之一的无家可归者是同性恋者或变性人,其中许多人都生活在这里。有的人用性来交换毒品或落脚地,结果感染了H.I.V.。Four years ago, San Francisco created Linkage into Care teams — Lincs for short — to track such patients.四年前,旧金山市创建了联动护理团队(Linkage into Care teams,简称Lincs)来追踪这类患者。In 2012-13, Lincs “navigators” searched for 315 missing H.I.V. patients and enrolled 116 of them — the rest were not found, or were jailed, dead or refused help. Navigators call and text patients, visit them and even escort them to doctors.2012-13年间,Lincs的“领航员”对315名失踪的H.I.V.患者展开了搜寻,并将其中116人纳入了医护项目,其余的人要么是没找到,要么是已经死亡或被关进了监狱,也有的拒绝接受帮助。“领航员”们给患者们打电话、发短信、看望他们,甚至陪他们去看医生。Some 73 percent of the Lincs patients stayed in care, and they were twice as likely to be virally suppressed as similar patients who were not in Lincs.在Lincs的患者中有约73%坚持了治疗,且达到病毒抑制状态的可能性是出于类似状况的非Lincs患者的两倍。Recently, Erin Antunez, a Lincs navigator, spent her day focused on three: a young man released from jail that morning, a drug injector living in a Market Street hotel, and a 36-year-old mother staying in a former AIDS hospice.不久前的一天,Lincs的一名“领航员”埃琳·安图内斯(Erin Antunez)在当天的工作主要围绕着三个人展开:一名当天上午刚从监狱释放出来的年轻男子,一个住在市场街旅馆里的瘾君子,还有一个是生活在曾经的AIDS安养院的一位36岁母亲。The former prisoner “was not a big red flag,” she said. He usually took his pills and had a clinic appointment that afternoon.那个刑满释放人员“不是什么大问题”,安图内斯女士说。他经常领取药物,而且还预约在当天下午接受诊疗。The drug user often disappeared. He recently had texted her: “Where can I get an abscess drained without all the red tape?” but then had not answered several messages.瘾君子经常玩失踪。前一阵子他还发短信问她:“在哪儿做脓肿引流可以不用忍受那些麻烦的繁文缛节?”她给他发了若干消息,但之后就杳无回音了。“A lot of this work is ‘Where’s Waldo?’ ” Ms. Antunez said.安图内斯女士说:“我的工作有很多时候都像是在玩《沃尔多在哪里?》(‘Where’s Waldo?’,由英国插画家Martin Handford创作的一套儿童书籍,读者需要在人山人海的图片中找出沃尔多——译注)”Her first visit was to the Maitri Hospice, a haven on a residential block. Founded, according to its website, by a “drug-addled drag queen turned Zen master,” it has a Buddha and origami cranes for décor, and separate smoking porches for tobacco and medical marijuana.这一天,她首先前往某住宅区一家名为Maitri 临终关怀中心(Maitri Hospice)的安养院。网站介绍其创办者“原先是个吸毒成瘾的男扮女装者,后来成为禅宗大师”。安养院里装饰着佛像和纸鹤,还设有独立的吸烟门廊以供吸烟和医用大麻。The young mother was not dying, although she had survived two types of AIDS-related pneumonia.她要探视的这位年轻母亲并无性命之忧,不过之前熬过了两种不同的AIDS相关肺炎。Rather, she “just needed a break,” Ms. Antunez said, from methamphetamine binges in her housing project, during which she slept on any free couch and neglected her pills.更确切地说,她“只是需要从她住处的甲基苯丙胺狂欢节中脱身,好好休息一下”,因为她只能随便找张空沙发睡觉,完全忽略了吃药这件事。Today, she was waiting in a turquoise tank top, floral shorts and a white Tilley hat, y to ride a city bus to Ward 86.她今天穿上了绿松石色的背心和印花短裤,还戴了一顶白色的Tilley帽子,正等着乘坐城市公交车前往86号病区。Ms. Antunez asked about her new tattoos. Deeply shy, the woman focused on her phone and mumbled childlike answers — until she mistakenly thought a reporter was a supervisor assessing Ms. Antunez, and leapt to her defense: “Erin is great! You can tell some people don’t want much to do with you, but she knocks on doors, she calls me, we play phone tag.”安图内斯女士问起她的新纹身。她很害羞,一直看着手机,喃喃地述说着孩子般天真的,直到她误以为记者是来评估安图内斯女士工作的主管,一下子跳了起来,为她辩护道:“埃琳很棒!你看得出来有些人其实并不心甘情愿想跟你扯上关系。但她来敲我的门,打电话给我,我们还一起玩电话捉迷藏的游戏。”Ms. Antunez’s afternoon client was not in his room at the Donnelly Hotel although she knocked loudly in case he was in a stupor.然而,安图内斯女士下午要拜访的客户却没待在唐纳利酒店(Donnelly Hotel)他的房间里。她大声地敲他的房门,怕他是昏过去了。A manager said he had “shown everyone his abscess” and then left.酒店经理说他“向所有人展示他身上的脓肿”,然后就走了。Worried that he would lance his own abscess, she checked restricted databases that Lincs has access to, including all public clinic visitors and all H.I.V. tests ordered.安图内斯女士很担心他会自己去挑脓肿,于是她利用Lincs的权限访问了数个数据库,查看了公共门诊的所有就诊者和已安排好的所有H.I.V.检测。They revealed that her ex-prisoner and the drug user had seen doctors that afternoon. “Yeah!” she cried, waving her fists and doing a dance in her chair. “That’s a good navigation day.”结果显示,她负责的那个刑满释放者和瘾君子在那天下午都接受过医生诊查。“好极了!”她挥舞着拳头喊道,在椅子上手舞足蹈。“真是顺利的一天”。In 2013, shortly after the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of Truvada to prevent H.I.V. infection San Francisco started offering it to everyone at risk. Some gay men called others “Truvada whores” for avoiding condoms.2013年,就在F.D.A.批准使用特鲁瓦达预防H.I.V.感染后不久,旧金山市开始向整个高危人群提供这种药物。有些男同性恋者管用了特鲁瓦达就不使用安全套的人叫“特鲁瓦达男娼(Truvada whores)”。The backlash has mostly faded, said Dr. Bradley C. Hare, the director of H.I.V. for Kaiser, which also offered PrEP early. The first adopters, he said, “were the equivalent of the people who camp outside the Apple store for the latest iPhones.” Now a “second wave” has emerged, he said. “It’s people who needed a little more education but now say, ‘My friend is using it, and I’m doing the same things he’s doing, so ...’ ”凯萨医疗机构(Kaiser)也是最早提供预防药物的组织之一,其H.I.V.部门的负责人布拉德利·C·黑尔(Bradley C. Hare)士说:抵触情绪基本已经消退了。他将首先尝试预防药物者“比作在苹果零售店外面彻夜排队等着买最新款iPhone手机的人”。如今,“第二次浪潮”已经出现,他说。“这些人需要更多的教育,现在他们终于意识到:‘我的朋友正在使用它,既然我们总是在做同样的事情,那么……’ ”Dr. Lisa Capaldini, a popular doctor in the Castro, said she was “still ambivalent” about PrEP. Avoiding condoms, she said “makes it a Trojan horse for syphilis and gonorrhea, so if I had an 18-year-old gay son, I’d say, ‘I’d rather you used condoms.’ ”在卡斯特罗区颇受欢迎的医生莉莎·卡帕尔迪尼(Lisa Capaldini)士说自己对预防药的态度“仍摇摆不定”。因为很多人用预防药后就不使用安全套了,她认为“这就像特洛伊木马一样给了梅毒和淋病可趁之机。所以如果我有一个18岁的同性恋儿子,我会对他说:‘我宁愿你使用安全套’。”Dr. Buchbinder, of the health department, disagreed, saying, “Denying PrEP to patients because they might have unsafe sex makes about as much sense as our colleagues who treat high cholesterol denying statins to theirs because they might eat more ice cream.”卫生部的布赫宾德士表示了不同意见,她说:“因为担心患者会发生不安全的性行为就拒绝对其应用预防药,就像治疗高胆固醇症的同行因为怕患者有了他汀类药物后会使劲吃冰淇淋而不肯给他们开药一样。”A recent study of the first 657 Kaiser patients on PrEP found that their condom use had indeed gone down and more had caught venereal diseases — but in two years, not one had caught H.I.V.最近的一项研究考察了Kaiser的前657名接受预防药物的患者,发现他们的安全套使用率确有下降,且更容易患上性病——但两年内这些人中无一感染H.I.V.。Stephen, a slim, soft-spoken 24-year-old Chicago native, just got on Truvada. He delayed for a year, he said, until he found a job with health insurance. He had been on his parents’ policy and feared their seeing the prescription. They are conservative Roman Catholics who know he is gay but dislike it. “My father offered to buy me hookers,” he said, shaking his head.斯蒂芬(Stephen)是一个24岁的芝加哥小伙子,身型单薄,说话轻声细语,他刚刚开始用特鲁瓦达。他不得不推迟一年用药是因为他需要先找到一份带医疗保险的工作。之前,他的保险附带在他父母的保单上,他生怕他们会发现特鲁瓦达的处方。他的父母都是保守的天主教徒,知道他是同性恋后非常不满。“我的父亲甚至给我钱让我去招妓,”他摇着头说。Stephen first heard of the drug through a gay student group at his Catholic college. “But my friend said it means you’re super-slutty, that it’s for people who bareback, or go into dark rooms for sex,” he said. “I didn’t want to associate with it.”斯蒂芬第一次听说这种药是在他所在的天主教学院的同性恋学生社团里。“我的朋友说,这种药是给那些超级放荡、做爱不戴套或者一有机会就钻进小黑屋做爱的人用的,”他说。“我一点儿也不想跟它扯上关系。”Now, he said, he considers it another form of protection, “something I definitely want to add to my bag of goods.”但现在他知道这是另一种形式的保护,“是应该毫不犹豫照单全收的东西。”If he had grown up in San Francisco, he probably would have learned of it earlier. Discussion of PrEP is now mandatory in public school ninth-grade sex-ed classes.如果他从小在旧金山长大,很可能早就明白了这一点。如今,围绕预防药物的讨论是公立学校九年级性教育课程的必修内容。The city’s success is not only shrinking the epidemic. It is changing the psychology of gay sex here in unexpected ways. The fear of death — so long a part of being gay in America — appears to be receding.旧金山的成功不仅在于它控制并缩小了疫情,还在于它以一种出人意料的方式改变着这里的同性恋者对性行为的心态。长期以来,美国的同性恋者已经习惯于生活在死亡的阴影之下,如今,这种恐惧正在逐渐消散。Take Bradley and Paul, a couple visiting the Magnet clinic for gonorrhea tests. Paul, 53, a ruddy and weather-beaten Hawaii resident who called himself “one of the dinosaurs,” said he had probably been infected with H.I.V. as a teenager. Many friends died decades ago. “It’s crazy I’m still alive,” he said.就拿布拉德利和保罗(Paul)这一对前往磁铁诊所接受淋病检测的恋人来说吧。保罗现年53岁,是个面色红润、皮肤黝黑的夏威夷人,自称“大恐龙”。他说自己大概在十几岁时就感染了H.I.V.。很多朋友在数十年前就已经去世了。“我居然还活着,这简直太好了,”他说。Bradley, who resembled a prep-school athlete about 20 years younger, was from Atlanta and uninfected. They felt safe together, Paul explained, because he takes Complera, a triple-therapy pill, while Bradley takes Truvada.布拉德利来自亚特兰大,他看起来就像是一名年轻20来岁的在读预科学校的运动员;他未受感染。保罗解释道,因为他自己在用三联制剂Complera,而布拉德利在接受特鲁瓦达,所以他们在一起感觉很安全。“PrEP has really changed the game,” he said. “Bradley was the first guy I knew who was on it. He’d prefer to be with someone with an undetectable viral load than with someone who says, ‘Well, I assume I’m still negative.’ It blows my mind to be positive and not feel like a pariah.”“是预防药改变了一切,”他说。“布拉德利是我认识的第一个在使用它的人。他说自己宁愿选择一个检测不出病毒载量的人,也不要跟一个自称‘哦,我猜我应该还没被感染’的人在一起。这让我心态积极,不会感觉自己像一个社会弃儿。”“It’s really nice to still be around now and see a younger generation go through what we did,” he added. “I grew up in the ’70s with no fear. The guys in the ’90s were full of fear. Now guys are growing up with no fear at all.”“现在还能活蹦乱跳地看着年轻一辈重温我们的经历,感觉真不赖,”他补充道。“我成长于20世纪70年代,当时人们并不知道有什么需要害怕。到了90年代,人们满心恐惧。现在,年轻人又可以无所畏惧地安心长大了。” /201510/405823


  Ling Xian(Mystical Laws)《灵宪》A monumental astronomic works,Ling Xian,translated as Mystical Laws is a distillation of the years of practice and theoretical research by Zhang Heng,a famous astronomer of the Eastern Han Dynasty.Dealing with such topics as the formation and structure of the heaven and earth and the cosmicevolvement as well as the nature and movement of celestial bodies,the book pro-moted the level of ancient China’s astronomical level to a new high and cast a pro-found impact on the following generations.《灵宪》是东汉著名天文学家张衡积多年的实践与理论研究写成的一部天文巨著。该书全面阐述了天地的生成、宇宙的演化、天地的结构、日月星辰的本质及其运动等诸多重大问题,将中国古代的天文学水平提升到了一个新阶段,并对后世产生了深远的影响。The astronomical achievements of Lang Xian are as follows:《灵宪》的天文学成就如下:First, Ling Xian discusses the origin and structure of the cosmos. In terms of the formation of the heaven and earth,Ling Xian believes that the heaven .the earth,and all the other things have their origins in primitive and chaotic yuanqi(vi-tality).ft further holds that,instead of staying permanently unchanged,the struc-ture of the cosmos is constantly developing. These views,basically, are similar to modern theories on the evolution of the cosmos.第一,论述了宇宙的起源和宇宙的结构。关于天地的生成问题,《灵宪》认为天地万物是从原始的浑沌未分的元气发展来的。这种天体演化思想,是从物质运动的本身来说明宇宙的形成,认为宇宙结构不是亘古不变的,而是不断发展变化的。这些观点,与现代宇宙演化学说在基本原理上是相通的。Second,based on the theory of sphere heavens,the book scientifically elabo-rates on the lunar eclipse.、。。explanation of the phenomenon,Zhang Heng wrote in the book“The moon itself is not luminescent, but rather reflecting the sunlight. The part of the moon where the sunlight fails to reach will not give out light. If the moon into the shadow of the earth,a lunar eclipse occurs.第二,在浑天说的基础上,科学地阐述了月食的原因。张衡在《灵宪》中写道:“月光生于日之所照;魄生于日之所蔽。当日则光盈,就日则光尽也。”(大意为:月亮本身是不发光的,而是太阳光照射到月亮上,月亮才折射出光,太阳光照不到的地方则出现亏缺。如果月亮进人地影,就会发生“月食”。)Third,in relation of the finity and infinity of the cosmos,Zhang Heng com-pared the heaven to an eggshell,and the earth to the egg yolk.Zhang Heng,however , did not believe the eggshell to be the boundary of the cosmos.He viewed the cosmos that people could see with the naked eye as limited while the part that could not be seen as infinite.第三,宇宙的有限性和无限性。张衡把天比作一个鸡蛋壳,把地比作蛋壳中的鸡蛋黄,但他并不认为硬壳是宇宙的边界。张衡认为,人们目之所及的宇宙世界是有限的,但在人们目之所及之外的宇宙世界则是无限的。Fourth,Zhang recorded his measurement of both the sun and the moon’s an-gular diameter,which is 1 /736 of the celestial sphere,or rather 29度21(or 29度21),an absolute difference of 20from the modern average value of 31度5(or 31度5).Considering the scientific level and observatory conditions of over 2000 years ago,the number is fairly precise.第四,张衡实测出日、月的角直径是整个周天的1/736,即29021,这与近代天文测量所得的日和月的平均角直径值3105,相比,绝对误差仅有2。由于2000多年前的科学技术水平及观测条件,这个数值可以说是相当精确的。Fifth,based on his careful observation of the celestial bodies,Zhang Heng sorted out the various star charts made by his predecessors and re-established a new chart, recording the position of over 3,000 stars.第五,张衡在认真观察天体的基础上,对前人留传下来的好几种星表作了整理、汇总,建立了恒星多达三千的新星表。The last but not the least, concerning the movement of the five planets,Zhang worte:‘The sun,the moon and the flue planets all move in-between the heaven and earth rather than on the wall of the celestial sphere. Moreover the seven ce-lestial bodies move at different speeds.’第六,关于五星的运动问题,张衡提出:日、月、五星是在天地之间运行,而非在天球壁上运行。并且,这七个天体运动的速度各不相同。Ling Xian,is one of the most outstanding astronomic works in the history of ancient Chinese astronomy,represents a milestone in the development of Chinese astronomy. Its importance in the astronomical history is not lessened at all by its mistakes and shortcomings.《灵宪》是中国古代天文学史上最杰出的天文学著作之一,也是中国天文学发展的一个里程碑。虽然其中还有一些错误和不足,但在天文学史上、的意义并不因此而逊色。 /201511/409377

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