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Informal Language 美语中的非正式用语 Ever go jogging in a business suit? What about going to a job interview in pajamas? Dressing appropriately is a lot like using a foreign language in the right way. It all depends on the situation. People in America use formal English for making speeches and writing business letters. But they prefer informal language when they talk to friends. Americans are fairly laid-back, both in styles of dress and in language. So to understand their culture, it pays to know something about informal language-in other words, English in blue jeans and a T-shirt. 你曾经穿著办公的西装慢跑吗?或者穿著睡衣去应征工作?得体的穿著很像正确地使用外国语言,都得视情境而变化。美国人使用正式的英文作演说和写商务信件;但是当他们和朋友谈话的时候,则较喜欢使用非正式的语言。美国人不论是在穿著的风格或是语言上,都是非常轻松自在的。所以要了解他们的文化,就得认识他们的非正式用语,换句话说,就像穿著牛仔裤和T恤的英文。 English, like every language, is always changing. New slang terms are created all the time. Often they're here today, gone tomorrow. For instance, if you wanted to call something exciting in the 1960s, you would say it was groovy or far out. Today you might describe it as cool or even bad. Each sub-group of American society-from teenagers to soldiers to thieves to ethnic groups-has its own slang. People who aren't a part of the "in-group" can't understand the meaning, even though the words are "English." So it's not easy for outsiders to use slang correctly. 英语就像每一种语言一样是一直在变。新的俚语不断地出现,常常今天还在使用的,明天就被淘汰了。例如,在一九六O年代你若要形容一件很兴奋的事,你会说很「groovy」美好的,或是「far out」走在时代尖端的。而今天会形容为「cool」很酷,甚至「bad」好菜喔。从青少年、军人、小偷、到少数民族,美国社会中每一种附属团体都有自己的俚语。即使它们确实是英语,但是不属于那个团体的人就不会明白它的意思。因此局外人要正确地使用俚语实在不容易。 Like many languages, American English has numerous idioms that paint word pictures. These colorful expressions come from everyday life and add spice to language. When Americans want to make a good first impression on someone, they try to put their best foot forward. That way, they won't get off on the wrong foot in their relationship. Learning about idioms in a language and culture can be difficult, but don't get cold feet. Just be careful when using these expressions. Otherwise, you might put your foot in your mouth. 就像许多的语言一样,美语中也有许多的成语,刻画出文字的图像。这些多样化的表达方式来自于每天的生活,并为语言增添了许多风味。当美国人想要给某人良好的第一印象时,他们会先「伸出最好的那一只脚」(表现较好的一面);如此,在他们的关系上就不会「下错脚」(搞砸)了。学习一个语言和文化中的成语可能相当困难,但是也不要「让脚发寒了」(恐惧、受挫),只要在用的时候小心一点就是了。否则你可能会「把脚放进嘴巴里去了」(说错话)。 Americans enjoy making things easy on themselves. Even their pronunciation is relaxed. Sounds or syllables that are not stressed are shortened or combined with other sounds. As a result, "What do you want to do?" becomes "Whaddaya wanna do?" And "I don't know" sounds like "I dunno." See if you can understand the following conversation: Gene: Jeet yet? Tim: No, ju? Gene: Skoeet! Now let's translate it into regular English: Gene: Did you eat yet? Tim: No, did you? Gene: Let's go eat! School teachers probably cringe at this kind of pronunciation. But the fact is, that's how Americans often talk in real-life situations. /200803/32555If you’ve been searching for a reason to pick up that latest gadget, then what better time than Christmas? There’s no shortage of innovative, forward-thinking and *futuristic products on the market today, as technology takes center stage on many people’s festive wish lists. 如果你正在找理由购入一些最新的高科技硬件,还有什么时机比圣诞节更好呢?现今市场上不乏创新、前端又未来派的产品,而科技产品也占据了许多人节日礼物心愿单的中心位置。Here, we offer a festive gadget guide that will help you take a closer look at four of tech’s hottest categories.我们在此提供一份假日数码小产品指南,帮你更清楚地了解以下四种最火爆的数码产品。Virtual realityVR头显Probably the most exciting tech development of recent times, virtual reality (VR) has arrived, with *ample options available to the consumer who’s searching for an extra dose of high-tech fun this Christmas. 虚拟现实(VR)或许是近期最激动人心的科技发展潮流了,而它也为想要在今年圣诞节来点额外高科技乐趣的顾客们提供了多种多样的选择。The cheapest way to get a high-end VR experience comes courtesy of Sony. 想要享受高端的VR体验,最便宜的方法来自于索尼公司。Its PlayStation VR doesn’t require a tricked-out PC or expensive phone – it works with the Playstation 4 console and comes with a few great games in its library. 它的PlayStation VR无需豪华配置的电脑或是昂贵的手机 —— 它能在Playstation 4游戏机上运行,并自带一些超棒的游戏。There are some accessories you can purchase to enhance the experience, but if you’ve aly got a PS4 you can enter the world of VR for just 0 (2780 yuan). 你还可以买一些其他的配件来提升游戏体验,但如果你已经有了一台PS4游戏机,你只需再花400美元(约2780人民币)便能进入VR世界。2016 has been the year of VR and as such many alternatives to Sony’s creation exist. 2016年是VR年,因此除了索尼之外,还有许多其他的选择。High-end offerings like the HTC Vive and Oculus Rift, as well as mobile options like Samsung’s Gear VR, will get your head in the game.HTC Vive、Oculus Rift等高端头显产品,以及三星的Gear VR眼镜等移动设备,都能让你全身心地投入游戏中。Wireless headphones无线耳机Combining ease of use with the ability to move *uninhibited around your home, gym or workplace, wireless headphones just make sense. 使用简单,能在家、健身房或工作场所中不受限制地自由移动,这就是使用无线耳机的意义。And there are plenty of *viable options to suit any budget. 无线耳机还有大量可行的选择来满足不同预算的需求。The Bose QuietComfort 35 wireless headphones are definitely worth a test drive, though. 而士 QuietComfort 35 无线耳机绝对值得一试。The full-size, around-ear Bluetooth headphones feature active noise cancellation and double as a headset for making phone calls. 这种大尺寸的包耳式蓝牙耳机能有效地隔绝噪音,并且还能作为打电话用的耳麦。They’ve even earned the Editor’s Choice award at Cnet.com and can be snapped up for less than 0 online. 这款耳机甚至还获得了科技资讯网的编辑选择奖,而它的网购价还不足400美元。Beats has worked its way firmly into the market and its Studio Wireless headphones are a popular choice, especially as you can now find them much cheaper than their original 9 asking price by searching around online.Beats在市场上已经占据了一席之地,而它的Studio Wireless 耳机也大受欢迎,尤其现在还能在网上找到比原价379美元更低的价格。Digital cameras数码相机While your phone is a worthy *sidekick, there’s no substitute for a real camera when it comes to taking the perfect picture. 尽管你的手机是个好帮手,但要想照出一些完美的照片,还是没有什么能比得上一部真正的相机。And these days you can get quality specifications in a package that’s almost as small as your smartphone. 如今,你只需带一个几乎和智能手机差不多大小的包,便能获得高品质规格的照片。The *sleek design of the Fujifilm X70, 9 (4,850 yuan), makes it the perfect companion, or you could go *retro with the Olympus PEN-F (,200) that offers old school looks alongside cutting edge technology. 售价699美元(约4850人民币)、设计时髦的富士X70相机就是你的最佳拍档,或者你也可以选择传统外表与前端科技相结合的奥林巴斯PEN-F 相机(售价1200美元),走一发复古范。Domestically, it’s worth checking out Xiaomi’s mirrorless Yi M1 for a more affordable option. 在国内市场上,小米的Yi M1无反相机值得关注,它的价格也更加经济。With a high-end 20-megapixel sensor and the ability to host multiple lenses, it’s available from just 2,199 yuan.这款相机配有高端的2000万像素的传感器,并能搭配多种镜头使用,而它的价格只需2199元起。Smartwatches智能手表Watches, thanks to the *advent of the mobile phone, were in danger of becoming a little bit *redundant. 由于手机的出现,手表便显得有些多余了。Not anymore though, now that watches can more or less act as a second screen for your smartphone. 但现在已并非如此,如今,手表可以作为智能手机的第二个屏幕。The quest for fitness has also helped the watch industry push forward, with timepieces like the Nixon Mission Smartwatch (0) now on the market. 出于健身的需求也让手表产业向前迈进,诸如尼克松Mission 智能手表(售价400美元)等钟表现已上市。Built for adventure, but with a stylish *exterior, it runs Google’s Android Wear software, but is *compatible with iPhones. 它专为冒险而设计,有着时尚的外形,运行谷歌的Android Wear操作系统,但也能和苹果手机兼容。FitBit has been a leader in the sporty wearable field, and its new swim-proof Fitbit Flex 2 (0) represents the best in the way of today’s fitness bands. FitBit一直是运动配件领域的领导者,而它最新的防水智能手环Fitbit Flex 2 (售价130美元)代表了现今健身品牌的最佳设计。It has a removable tracker that fits into other bands, bracelets or *pendants – so you can continue to track your movements a little more *conspicuously.这款产品的追踪器部分可被拆卸,并可搭配其他手环、手链或是挂件 —— 所以你能够以一种更加显眼的方式来记录你的运动数据。 /201612/485720英语12个月的名称来历公历一年有12个月,但不少人并不知道12 个月的英语名称的来历。公历起源于古罗马历法。罗马的英语原来只有10 个月,古罗马皇帝决定增加两个月放在年尾,后来朱里斯-凯撒大帝把这两个月移到年初,成为1月、2月,原来的1月、2月便成了3月、4月,依次类推。这就是今天世界沿用的公历。January——1月  在罗马传说中,有一位名叫雅努斯的守护神,生有先后两副脸,一副回顾过去,一副要眺望未来。人们认为选择他的名字作为除旧迎新的第一个月月名,很有意义。英语January,便是由这位守护神的拉丁文名字January演变而来的。February——2月  每年2 月初,罗马人民都要杀牲饮酒,欢庆菲勃卢姆节。这一天,人们常用一种牛、草制成的名叫Februa的鞭子,抽打不育的妇女,以求怀生子。这一天,人们还要忏悔自己过去一年的罪过,洗刷自己的灵魂,求得神明的饶恕,使自己成为一个贞洁的人。英语2月February,便是由拉丁文Februar-ius(即菲勃卢姆节)演变而来。March-----3月  3月,原是罗马旧历法的1 月,新年的开始。凯撒大帝改革历法后,原来的1月变成3月,但罗马人仍然把3 月看做是一年的开始。另外,按照传统习惯,3月是每年出征远战的季节。为了纪念战神玛尔斯,人们便把这位战神的拉丁名字作为3月的月名。英语3月March,便是由这位战神的名字演变而来的。April——4月  罗马的4月,正是大地回春.鲜花初绽的美好季节。英文4月April便由拉丁文April(即开花的日子)演变而来。May——5月  罗马神话中的女神玛雅,专门司管春天和生命。为了纪念这位女神,罗马人便用她的名字——拉丁文Maius命名5月,英文5月May便由这位女神的名字演变而来。June——6月  罗马神话中的裘诺,是众神之王,又是司管生育和保护妇女的神。古罗马对她十分崇敬,便把6月奉献给她,以她的名字——拉丁文Junius来命名6 月。英语6月June便由这位女神的名字演变而来。也有学者认为,Junius可能是个代拉丁家族中一个显赫贵族的姓氏。July——7月  罗马统治者朱里斯-凯撒大帝被刺死后,著名的罗马将军马克-安东尼建议将凯撒大帝诞生的7月,用凯撒的名字——拉丁文Julius(即朱里斯)命名之。这一建议得到了元老院的通过。英语7月July由此演变而来。August——8月  朱里斯-凯撒死后,由他的甥孙屋大维续任罗马皇帝。为了和凯撒齐名,他也想用自己的名字来命名一个月份。他的生日在9月,但他选定8月。因为他登基后,罗马元老院在8 月授予他Augustus(奥古斯都)的尊号。于是,他决定用这个尊号来命名8月。原来8月比7月少一天,为了和凯撒平起平坐,他又决定从2月中抽出一天加在8月上。从此,2月便少了一天。英语8月August便由这位皇帝的拉丁语尊号演变而来。September——9月  老历法的7月,正是凯撒大帝改革历法后的9月,拉丁文Septem是“7”月的意思。虽然历法改革了,但人们仍袭用旧名称来称呼9月。英语9月September,便由此演变而来。October——10月  英语10月,来自拉丁文Octo,即“8”的意思。它和上面讲的9月一样,历法改了,称呼仍然沿用未变。November——11月  罗马皇帝奥古斯都和凯撒都有了自己名字命名的月份,罗马市民和元老院要求当时的罗马皇帝梯比里乌斯用其名命名11月。但梯比里乌斯没有同意,他明智地对大家说,如果罗马每个皇帝都用自己的名字来命名月份,那么出现了第13个皇帝怎么办?于是,11月仍然保留着旧称Novem,即拉丁文“9”的意思。英语11月November便由此演变而来。December——12月  罗马皇帝琉西乌斯要把一年中最后一个月用他情妇的Amagonius的名字来命名,但遭但元老院的反对。于是,12月仍然沿用旧名Decem,即拉丁文“10”的意思。英语12月December,便由此演变而来。 /200803/32432

Lenovo, the world’s biggest personal computer manufacturer, swung back into the black in the second quarter despite falling revenues.尽管营收下滑,全球最大个人电脑制造商联想(Lenovo)还是在第二季度重返盈利。Net profit improved to 2m for the three months to September 30 from a 7m loss during the same quarter in 2015. This was higher than the .6m profit forecast by analysts, according to Bloomberg. The results were boosted by a 6m gain from selling property and a m addition from the disposal of other assets.在截至9月30日的三个月里,联想的净利润从2015年同期的亏损7.17亿美元升至盈利1.52亿美元。根据彭(Bloomberg)的说法,这一数字超过了8760万美元的分析师预期。这一数字的提升,源自出售物业获得的2.06亿美元,以及处置其他资产所得的1200万美元利润。The improvement in profits came despite an 8 per cent fall in revenues in the quarter, to .2bn. For the first half as a whole, revenues were down 7 per cent versus a year earlier at .3bn.盈利好转之际,该季度营收却下滑8%至112亿美元。对上半财年总体而言,营收同比下滑7%至213亿美元。Revenues at the group’s core PC and smart device business fell 8 per cent in the first half to .8bn, as demand in the global industry was hit by uncertain macroeconomic conditions, while revenues at its mobile business was down 10 per cent year on year to .8bn.由于宏观经济不确定性对全球相关产业需求的打击,该集团上班财年核心的PC业务及智能手机业务营收下滑8%,跌至148亿美元。与此同时,联想移动业务同比下滑10%至38亿美元。Lenovo said it retained it number one market position in PCs and insisted its mobile business is making “good progress”. The group bought Motorola’s failing handset business for bn in 2014 and is aiming to perform the same turnaround with that business as it did with IBM’s PC unit, which it bought a decade ago.联想表示其保住了个人电脑市场第一的位置,并坚称其移动业务已“逐渐呈现势头”。2014年,该集团斥资30亿美元收购了托罗拉(Motorola)不断下滑的手机业务,打算在该部门上演曾在十年前收购的IBM个人电脑部门上演过的扭亏为盈。It said the mobile business has been “stabilising” and grew in the second compared to the previous three months, with profitability driven by new products.该集团表示移动业务已“逐渐稳定”,并在新产品带来的盈利帮助下,在该季度再次出现了环比增长。Lenovo, which also has a data centre business, said it pushed through a number of measures to improve competitiveness and efficiency during the second quarter. It expects to generate savings of around 7m from “headcount and other savings”. It booked 6m of costs in its second quarter in order to achieve those savings.联想表示,曾在第二季度推行一系列举措提高其竞争力和效益,预计通过“员工数目及其他项目”共节省约3.37亿美元。为省下这部分开的相关行动,在第二季度录得1.36亿美元开。The group said:;Despite challenging market conditions, Lenovo is executing strategy for continued profitable growth through new products, fast-growing segments, vertical markets;该集团表示:“尽管市场环境充满挑战,联想正执行战略并通过新产品及快速增长的细分市场和垂直市场以继续盈利增长。” /201611/476250

英国百岁老翁冲刺马拉松Aly Britain's oldest employee, 101-year-old Buster Martin now aims to become the world's oldest marathon runner by completing the London Marathon and celebrating with a pint of beer and a cigarette.Sprightly and bearded, he completed a half marathon at the weekend in five hours 13 minutes. The former Army physical training instructor works three days a week for a London plumbing firm and says he has trained for the April 13th race in his spare time."I've said I'll attempt it," he told reporters by telephone from his workplace at Pimlico Plumbers. "I haven't said I'll complete it. If I do make it, all the better. I hadn't thought of doing it before but someone asked me and the money goes to charity so why not?"His sponsorship money will go to the Rhys Daniels Trust, which provides temporary accommodation for families of patients in specialist children's hospitals.Martin, who had 17 children and returned to work at the age of 99 saying he was bored after two years of retirement, would beat the previous record for world's oldest marathon runner by eight years."If I finish, I'll do what I always do and have a pint and a fag," he said. "People ask what is my secret but I haven't got one. They say fags and booze are bad for you -- but I'm still here, aren't I?" 英国年龄最大的雇员、101岁的巴斯特#8226;马丁目前正在备战今年的伦敦马拉松赛,如果他能跑完全程,便将成为“世界上年龄最大的马拉松选手”,到时他又会喝杯啤酒、抽烟来庆祝胜利了。留着大胡子的马丁精力十足。他于上周末参加了一个“半程马拉松赛”,并以5小时13分钟跑完了全程。马丁曾是一名陆军体能训练师,现在他每周在伦敦一家管道公司工作三天,他说他主要利用业余时间备战4月13号的比赛。马丁接受记者的电话采访时正在皮姆里克管道公司上班。他说:“我说过我要试试,但我没说会跑完全程。如果真的能跑完全程,那更好。本来我没想参赛,可有人让我去还说赞助金将捐给慈善机构,既然这样,何乐而不为呢?”马丁所得的赞助费将捐给“里斯#8226;丹尼尔斯信托基金会”,该基金专为儿童专科医院的病人家属提供短期食宿。马丁有17个孩子。他说自己退休两年后觉得很无聊,所以在99岁那年又找了一份工作。马丁将挑战“世界上年龄最大的马拉松选手”的历史纪录,目前这一纪录保持者是一位93岁的老人。他说:“如果我跑完全程,我还会像往常一样,喝杯啤酒抽根烟。人们问我长寿的秘诀是什么,我没什么秘诀。大家都说喝酒抽烟有害健康,可我这不是活得好好的吗?” /200803/30493

Silicon Valley is more a state of mind than a place. It is not a single valley — the hills around Palo Alto, Cupertino and Mountain View in northern California are not high enough to form one. Nor is its chief business now silicon, the base layer of semiconductors since the rise of companies such as Fairchild Semiconductor, Motorola, Texas Instruments and Intel. 与其说硅谷是一个地名,不如说它代表着一种精神。它并非一道单一的峡谷——在加利福尼亚州北部,矗立在帕罗奥图(Palo Alto)、库比蒂诺(Cupertino)和芒廷维尤(Mountain View)周围的山丘并不具有构成峡谷的高度。自从飞兆半导体(Fairchild Semiconductor)、托罗拉(Motorola)、德州仪器(Texas Instruments)、英特尔(Intel)之类的公司崛起以来,硅谷如今的主要产业也不再依托于硅这种生产半导体的原材料。 Silicon Valley’s relentless reinvention is evident in the fact that two of its best-known companies are Google (now Alphabet) and Facebook. Neither is in silicon. Google was founded only in 1998 and Facebook is even younger. It was created on the other side of the country, in a Harvard dormitory, by Mark Zuckerberg and friends in 2004. 硅谷不懈创新的精神从以下事实中可见一斑:谷歌(Google,现为Alphabet旗下子公司)和Facebook都已是硅谷最知名的公司。它们都不属于硅行业。谷歌1998年才创立,而更为“年轻”的Facebook,是2004年由马克#8226;扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)和其朋友们在位于美国另一端的哈佛大学的宿舍里创立的。 One seminal moment in Silicon Valley history occurred in 1985, as Intel lingered in what Andy Grove — the first employee of its founders, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore — used to call “the valley of death”. Grove, who later became Intel’s chief executive and chairman, and who died this week aged 79, meant a period when a company has been outsmarted. 硅谷历史上一个影响深远的时刻出现在1985年,彼时英特尔徘徊在安迪#8226;格罗夫(Andy Grove)——两位创始人罗伯特#8226;诺伊斯(Robert Noyce)和戈登#8226;尔(Gordon Moore)手下的首席雇员——所称的“死亡之谷”,他的意思是指一家公司被对手打败的时期。格罗夫后来成为英特尔的首席执行官和董事长,他于3月21日辞世,享年79岁。 “I looked out of the window at the Ferris wheel of the Great America amusement park revolving in the distance, then I turned back to Gordon [then the company’s chief executive] and I asked ‘If we got kicked out and the company brought in a new CEO, what do you think he would do?’” Grove wrote in Only the Paranoid Survive, his 1996 book about management. “我望着窗外远处大美洲主题公园里旋转着的天轮,转向戈登(时任英特尔首席执行官)问‘如果我们下台了,公司再任命一个新CEO,你觉得他会怎么办?’” 格罗夫在他1996年出版的有关管理的书《只有偏执狂才能生存》(Only the Paranoid Survive)中这样写道。 “Gordon answered without hesitation, ‘He would get us out of memories [memory chips, Intel’s founding business, which had become dominated by Japanese manufacturers].’ I stared at him, numb, then said, ‘Why shouldn’t you and I walk out the door, come back and do it ourselves?’” “戈登不假思索地回答,‘他会放弃存储器业务(存储芯片是英特尔的立命之本,而当时市场却已是日本厂商的天下)。’我呆呆地注视着他,然后说,‘那我们为什么不这么做呢?’” The title Only the Paranoid Survive gives a good indication as to the lesson Grove wanted to impart. Along with David Packard’s The HP Way, about the formation and philosophy of Hewlett-Packard, it has the ingredients of Silicon Valley’s management formula. 《只有偏执狂才能生存》书名本身即明白表达出格罗夫意欲传达的信条。与戴维#8226;帕卡德(David Packard)所著讲述惠普公司立世哲学的《惠普之道》(The HP Way)一样,这本书也蕴含着硅谷管理哲学的精髓。 HP pioneered the informal, participatory structure of Silicon Valley companies, while Intel embodied their fierce, relentless competitiveness. Grove popularised the idea of the “strategic inflection point,” a time in the life of a business “when its fundamentals are about to change.” Never relax, never stop evolving, because just around the corner someone is coming for you. 惠普在硅谷首创了宽松的、参与式的组织文化,而英特尔则代表着硅谷公司身上那种强烈、不懈的竞争意识。格罗夫使“战略转折点”的概念流行开来,这是指企业发展历程中“其根基将要发生改变”的时点。正因咫尺之遥就有人对你虎视眈眈,企业唯有永不松懈、永不停下发展的步伐。 Yahoo, a founding company of the internet era, is now in the valley of death. Marissa Mayer, the chief executive brought in from Google to try to salvage it from a strategic mess, has not succeeded. Starboard, an activist hedge fund, called this week for its entire board of directors to be fired. 雅虎,一家成立于互联网时代的公司,目前就处于死亡之谷。现任CEO玛丽莎#8226;梅耶尔(Marissa Mayer)为谷歌前高管,她试图化解雅虎的战略窘境而未能成功。积极型对冲基金斯塔德(Starboard Value)近日要求撤换雅虎整个董事会。 Facebook, conversely, is doing extremely well — it has 1.6bn monthly active users around the world, and its strength in online and mobile advertising brought in revenues of nearly bn last year. It occupies a position in social networking akin to Intel’s in microprocessors during the 1990s: clear domination. Facebook’s debt to HP is visible at its campus headquarters in Palo Alto on the outskirts of Stanford University. There is a Walt Disney-like boardwalk by its main building along which employees stroll in the sunshine, pick up ice cream and food from carts, then cycle to its building, designed by Frank Gehry, architect of the Guggenheim museum in Bilbao. 相反,Facebook就干得非常漂亮,其在全球有16亿个月活跃用户,凭借在互联网和移动客户端上的广告优势,去年Facebook实现了接近180亿美元的收入。在社交网络领域,Facebook的地位相当于20世纪90年代微处理器领域的英特尔:绝对统治。Facebook位于帕罗奥图斯坦福大学(Stanford University)的园区总部,明显借鉴了惠普。一条沃尔特#8226;迪士尼(Walt Disney)风格的栈道经过主楼旁,员工们可以在栈道上散步晒太阳,从餐车上取冰淇淋和食品,再骑车去上班。其建筑的设计者为弗兰克#8226;盖里(Frank Gehry),即毕尔巴鄂古根汉美术馆(Museo Guggenheim Bilbao)的建筑师。 But Mr Zuckerberg has also learnt from Grove. The Facebook founder was photographed last week beaming as he took a jog in Tiananmen Square and the Forbidden City in Beijing, without the face mask needed to block the city’s hazardous air pollution. Later he met Liu Yunshan, China’s propaganda chief. 但扎克伯格也从格罗夫身上学到了一些东西。这位Facebook的创始人近日被拍到在北京故宫和天安门广场慢跑,照片上扎克伯格微笑着,并未戴口罩,似乎对中国严重的雾霾不以为然。随后扎克伯格见到了中国共产党中央政治局常委刘云山。 His intention was clear: Facebook has many users but China has nearly 1.4bn citizens who cannot yet join because it is blocked. China also has a globally ambitious industry led by companies such as Alibaba, much like the Japanese companies that rose against Intel in the 1980s. Mr Zuckerberg will endure a lot — including learning Mandarin — to counter the threat. 他的意图很明显:Facebook已拥有众多用户,但由于在中国被屏蔽,14亿中国民众还未加入Facebook。中国同样有一个拥有全球抱负的科技行业,领军的是像阿里巴巴这样的公司,它们有点像上世纪80年代崛起并与英特尔分庭抗礼的日本企业。要应对这样的威胁,扎克伯格需要克很多困难,包括学习中国的普通话。 It was very painful when Mr Moore and Grove changed course, pivoting to focus on microprocessors, then a smaller business for Intel than memory chips. “Intel equalled memories in all of our minds. How could we give up our identity?” Grove wrote. But he imposed a revolution, closing seven factories in a company-saving coup. 尔和格罗夫将英特尔的主业转向微处理器时经历了一段痛苦的历程——相较存储芯片,微处理器只是英特尔的副业。格罗夫写道:“我们所有人的心目中,英特尔就等于存储器,我们怎么能放弃自己的身份?”可他仍锐意改革,在一次拯救公司的变革中关闭了7家工厂。 Grove’s determination to confront reality rather than to indulge in sentiment may have been instilled by being an immigrant. He was born Andras Grof to Hungarian Jewish parents, changing his name when he fled to the US as the 1956 uprising was put down by the Soviet Union. 也许是移民的经历铸就了格罗夫直面现实而不沉湎感伤的坚定意志。格罗夫出生于匈牙利一个犹太人家庭,本名安德拉什#8226;格罗夫(Andras Grof),1956年匈牙利革命被苏联镇压,格罗夫逃亡到美国,从此改名换姓。 Grove was not the only demanding Silicon Valley boss — Steve Jobs at Apple and Larry Ellison, chairman of Oracle, could be just as tough, and both founded their companies. But he was fiercely devoted to Intel’s success. 在硅谷,苛刻的老板可不止格罗夫一个,苹果公司(Apple)的史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)和甲骨文(Oracle)的拉里#8226;埃里森(Larry Ellison),可能都很强硬,二者也都创立了自己的公司。但格罗夫把满腔热血都投入到了追求英特尔的成功。 The lesson for Silicon Valley, and other industries facing change, is to recall Grove’s ruthlessness. Those who forget will not last long. 硅谷和其他面临变革的行业应该重温格罗夫那种果断的作风,否则难以长久。 /201604/436058Chances are, you plug in your phone before you go to bed at night, thinking it#39;s best to greet the morning with a fully charged device.晚上临睡前,你可能会给手机充上电,想着第二天早上看到一部电量满格的手机。Is this a good idea? That depends.这是个好主意吗?不一定。Here#39;s the thing. Many people don#39;t expect to keep their phones for much longer than two years.问题在于,很多人并不想使用寿命超过两年时间的手机。For the most part, experts say, those people are not going to notice much damage to their phone batteries before they start hankering for a new device.专家称,大多数情况下,这些人在渴望换新手机之前,并不会注意到现有手机电池的受损程度。If that sounds like you, feel free to charge every night, and as often as you like in between.如果你也是这样,那你可以每天晚上都充电,想充几次就充几次。But frequent charging takes a toll on the lithium-ion batteries in our phones.但频繁充电会损害手机锂离子电池的性能。And it#39;s not because they can be overcharged, said Edo Campos, a spokesman for Anker, which produces phone chargers.Anker公司的发言人埃多·坎波斯表示,原因并不在于电池不能过度充电。;Smartphones are, in fact, smart,; Mr. Campos said. ;They know when to stop charging.;;事实上,智能手机很聪明,;坎波斯说,;它们知道应该何时停止充电。;Android phones and iPhones are equipped with chips that protect them from absorbing excess electrical current once they are fully charged.安卓手机和苹果手机一旦充满电,内置芯片就会阻止它们吸收多余的电流。So in theory, any damage from charging your phone overnight with an official charger, or a trustworthy off-brand charger, should be negligible.因此,理论上用原装充电器或其他可信赖的品牌的充电器给手机彻夜充电,所造成的损害可以忽略不计。But the act of charging is itself bad for your phone#39;s battery. Here#39;s why.但是充电行为本身对手机电池是有害的。原因如下:Most phones make use of a technology that allows their batteries to accept more current faster.多数手机都采用了一种可以给电池快速充电的技术。Hatem Zeine, the founder, chief scientist and chief technical officer of the wireless charging company Ossia, says the technology enables phones to adjust to the amount of charge that a charger is capable of supplying.无线充电装置公司Ossia的创始人、首席科学家及首席技术总监哈特姆·泽恩表示,这种技术会让手机自动调整,来适应充电器能够供应的电量。The technology allows power to pulse into the battery in specific modulations, increasing the speed at which the lithium ions in the battery travel from one side to the other and causing the battery to charge more quickly.这种技术允许以特定的脉冲调制方式将电充入电池,提高锂离子在电池中的移动速度,从而让电池更快地充电。But this process also leads lithium-ion (and lithium-polymer) batteries to corrode faster than they otherwise would.但是与其他充电方式相比,这一过程也会导致锂离子(以及锂聚合物)电池比正常情况下损耗得更快。;When you charge fast all the time, you limit the life span of the battery,; Mr. Zeine said.泽恩说道:;总是快速充电会降低电池的使用寿命。;If you#39;re intent on preserving a lithium-ion battery beyond the lifetime of the typical phone or tablet, Mr. Zeine suggested using a charger meant for a less powerful device, though he couldn#39;t guarantee that it would work.如果你想让锂离子电池的寿命比一般的手机或平板电脑更长,泽恩建议使用小功率设备专用的充电器,但他不能保这个方法一定有效。;For example, if you used an iPhone charger on an iPad Pro, it#39;s going to charge very slowly,; Mr. Zeine said. ;If the electronics are right, they can actually preserve the battery because you#39;re always charging it slowly.;;例如,如果你用苹果手机充电器给苹果的平板电脑充电,这个速度会很慢,; 泽恩说。;如果使用合适的充电器,它们真的可以保护电池,因为充电的速度会很慢。;People looking to preserve their batteries should make sure their phones don#39;t become overheated, Mr. Campos advised, because high temperatures further excite the lithium-ion in batteries, leading to even quicker deterioration.坎波斯建议,人们如果想要保护电池,应该确保手机不会过热,因为高温会让电池中的锂离子的速度移动更快,导致电池加速耗损。Apple#39;s website says temperatures above 95 degrees Fahrenheit (or 35 Celsius) can ;permanently damage battery capacity.;苹果官网称,温度超过95华氏度(或35摄氏度),会对电池性能造成永久性损害。 /201609/465738

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