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2018年12月10日 16:37:46|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度管家快咨询
Business商业报道Google谷歌公司The new GE: Google, everywhere新时代的通用电气:无处不在的谷歌With a string of deals the internet giant has positioned itself to become a big inventor, and reinventor, of hardware.经过一系列收购,这家互联网巨头已经使自己站在了超级革新者的位置上,硬件行业的彻底革新者。AT GOOGLE they call it the toothbrush test.在谷歌,他们把这叫做牙刷测试。Shortly after returning to being the firms chief executive in 2011, Larry Page said he wanted it to develop more services that everyone would use at least twice a day, like a toothbrush.在2011年重新掌舵公司后不久,Larry Page曾说他希望公司开发更多的务,这些务能够让所有用户在一天内至少使用两次,就像牙刷一样。Its search engine and its Android operating system for mobile devices pass that test.该公司的搜索引擎和安卓手机操作系统就通过了这个测试。Now, with a string of recent acquisitions, Google seems to be planning to become as big in hardware as it is in software, developing toothbrush products in a variety of areas from robots to cars to domestic-heating controls.通过近期一系列的并购,如今的谷歌看似正计划着成为硬件行业的微软,准备在从机器人到汽车再到室内加热控制设备等众多领域中开发牙刷级别的产品。Its latest purchase is Nest Labs, a maker of sophisticated thermostats and smoke detectors: on January 13th Google said it would pay 3.2 billion in cash for the firm.它的最近一次收购是精密恒温控制器和烟雾探测器制造商Nest Labs:1月13号,Google宣布用32亿美元现金将该公司买下。Googles biggest move into hardware so far is its 12.5 billion bid for Motorola Mobility, a handset-maker, in 2011.目前为止,谷歌转向硬件行业的最大动作是在2011年以125亿美元收购手机制造商托罗拉移动公司。In recent months it has been mopping up robotics firms, most notably Boston Dynamics, which makes two- and four-legged machines with names like BigDog and Cheetah that can walk and run.近几个月,它则买下了不少机器人公司,其中值得注意的是波士顿动力,一家制作名为大或者猎豹的双足和四足机器人的公司,这些机器人能够行走和跑动。Googles in-house engineers have also been busy working on driverless cars and wearable gadgets such as Google Glass.谷歌自己的工程师们也在忙着研发无人驾驶汽车和可穿戴装置比如谷歌眼镜。Nest takes Google into the home-appliance business, which is how another, much older American conglomerate got started.Nest则将谷歌带入了家用装置业务,从这项业务中走出过一家年长得多的美国巨头公司。General Electric produced its first electric fans in the 1890s and then went on to develop a full line of domestic heating and cooking devices in 1907, before expanding into the industrial and financial behemoth that is still going strong today.通用电气在19世纪90年代就制造了它的第一批电风扇,接着又在1907年发展出一整套室内加热和烹饪设备生产线,随后逐渐壮大成为了现今仍然迅猛发展着的工业和金融怪兽。The common factor shared by GEs early products was electricity, something businesses were then just learning to exploit.通用电气早期产品的所共有的一个元素是电,当时的业界刚刚开始学着利用它。With Googles collection of hardware businesses, the common factor is data:而谷歌一系列硬件业务的共有元素则是数据:gathering and crunching them, to make physical devices more intelligent.收集和分析它们来使物理设备变得更加智能。Even so, the question is whether Google can knit the diverse businesses it is developing and acquiring into an even more profitable engineering colossus—or whether it is in danger of squandering billions. Concern that the firm could make overpriced acquisitions has grown along with the size of its cash pile, now around 57 billion.尽管如此,谷歌的问题在于能否有效的整合它发展和探索出的多种业务,使之成为一个甚至能带来更多利润的工程产业,否则它就是浪费了这数十亿美元。Eyebrows were raised this week when the price for Nest was revealed.对于该公司在并购时出价过高及其现金规模的担忧正逐渐增加。Morgan Stanley, a bank, reckons it represents ten times Nests estimated annual revenue.本周,Nest的收购价一经披露就令人大跌眼镜。据根斯坦利估算,这是Nest预计年利润的10倍。Why fork out so much for a startup that makes such banal things as thermostats?为什么对这家生产恒温控制器这种老掉牙产品的年轻公司出手如此大方?Paul Saffo of Discern Analytics, a research firm, argues that Google is aly adept at profiting from the data people generate in the form of search queries, e-mails and other things they enter into computers.研究公司Discern Analytics的Paul Saffo认为谷歌在通过数据挣钱上已经是熟门熟路,这些数据是在用户们搜索查询、收发邮件以及在电脑上进行其他操作时产生的。It has been sucking in data from smartphones and tablet computers thanks to the success of Android, and apps such as Google Maps.安卓系统以及谷歌地图这类应用软件的成功使得谷歌还能从智能手机和平板电脑中汲取数据。To keep growing, and thus to justify its shares lofty price-earnings ratio of 33, it must find ever more devices to feed its hunger for data.为了保持续增长以及保持高达33的股票市盈率,它甚至还会寻找更多设备来满足其对于数据的渴望。Packed with sensors and software that can, say, detect that the house is empty and turn down the heating, Nests connected thermostats generate plenty of data, which the firm captures.比方说,Nest连接型的恒温控制器利用房子中遍布的传感器和软件探测到房屋是空的,于是调低了加热系统的。Tony Fadell, Nests boss, has often talked about how Nest is well-positioned to profit from the internet of things—a world in which all kinds of devices use a combination of software, sensors and wireless connectivity to talk to their owners and one another.这个过程中就会产生很多的数据,并被谷歌收入囊中。Nest老板Tony Fadell时常提及Nest怎样对自己准确定位来从物联网中获利。在物联网的世界中,各个设备通过软件、传感器以及无线连接的结合来接受用户以及其他设备的信息。Other big technology firms are also joining the battle to dominate the connected home.其他大型技术公司也在加入争夺联网家居统治权的战斗。This month Samsung announced a new smart-home computing platform that will let people control washing machines, televisions and other devices it makes from a single app.这个月,三星宣布了一个新型智能家居处理平台,让人们只用一个应用软件就能控制三星生产的洗衣机、电视和其他设备。Microsoft, Apple and Amazon were also tipped to take a lead there, but Google was until now seen as something of a laggard.微软、苹果和亚马逊也跃跃欲试,想引领这一潮流。不过在此之前,谷歌都被视作落后者。I dont think Google realised how fast the internet of things would develop, says Tim Bajarin of Creative Strategies, a consultancy.我不认为谷歌意识到了物联网的迅猛发展,咨询公司Creative Strategies的Tim Bajarin这样说道。Buying Nest will allow it to leapfrog much of the opposition.买下Nest使得谷歌一跃超过了很多对手,同时也带来了一些人才。It also brings Google some stellar talent.Mr Fadell, who led the team that created the iPod while at Apple, has a knack for breathing new life into stale products.在苹果公司带队开发了iPod的Fadell很擅长给旧产品注入新鲜生命。His skills and those of fellow Apple alumni at Nest could be helpful in other Google hardware businesses, such as Motorola Mobility.他和Nest的那些前苹果雇员们的才能对于谷歌的硬件业务很有帮助,比如说托罗拉手机。Google has said little about its plans for its new robotics businesses.谷歌很少提及它在机器人业务上的计划,But it is likely to do what it did with driverless cars: take a technology financed by military contracts and adapt it for the consumer market.但是这很可能会和它的无人驾驶车一样:和军方签订协议,由其提供资助来开发技术,再将这些技术为消费市场进行调整。In future, personal Googlebots could buzz around the house, talking constantly to a Nest home-automation platform.在未来,你的家中可能会充斥各种通过Nest家用自动化平台相互沟通的家用谷歌机器人。The challenge for Mr Page will be to ensure that these new businesses make the most of Googles impressive infrastructure without being stifled by the bureaucracy of an organisation that now has 46,000 employees.Page先生将面临的一个挑战是,确保这些新业务充分利用谷歌出色的基础设施而不是被这个如今拥有46,000雇员的庞大组织的官僚主义所扼杀。Google has had to overcome sclerosis before. Soon after returning as boss, Mr Page axed various projects and streamlined the management.谷歌之前就曾遇上必须克内部僵化的问题。回归就任老板后不久,Page就砍掉了许多项目并改进了管理体系。Nest is being allowed to keep its separate identity and offices, with Mr Fadell reporting directly to Mr Page.Nest被允许保留自己的独立身份和自己的办公室,Fadell也只需直接向Page进行报告。Google has also protected its in-house hardware projects, such as Google Glass and self-driving cars, from succumbing to corporate inertia by nurturing them in its secretive Google X development lab.谷歌之前就通过在秘密的Google X研发实验室单独运行的方式来保谷歌眼镜和无人驾驶汽车这类自己的硬件项目免受企业惰性的影响。It has also given its most important projects high-profile bosses with the clout to champion them internally.同时它还会让很有影响力的上层来领导最为重要的项目,以从内部提供足够的持。The new head of Googles robotics business is Andy Rubin, who led the successful development of Android.谷歌机器人项目的负责人是成功领导了安卓系统开发的Andy Rubin。Such tactics are good ways to avoid the pitfalls of conglomeration.这种策略能够避免过度聚集的误区。But to ensure success, Google will need to avoid another misstep.但要确保成功,谷歌还需避免犯下另一错误。Its chequered record on data-privacy issues means that Nest and other divisions will be subject to intense scrutiny by privacy activists and regulators.它过去的多次数据隐私问题意味着Nest和其他分公司都会遭到隐私维权人士和立法者的严格监管。Provided it can retain the confidence of its users on this, Google should be able to find plenty of new opportunities in both software and hardware that pass the toothbrush test and keep a bright smile on its shareholders faces.假如能够保留用户们对此的信心,谷歌就能在软件业和硬件业中都找到足够多能通过牙刷测试的机会,还能让其股票持有人的脸上常驻灿烂笑容。 /201401/274009Huawei华为Seeking its own path走自己的路A Chinese technology company that is steering clear of the stockmarket一个不愿上市的中国电信企业ONE thing about Huawei is easy to understand: its ambition. In Paris on May 7th the Chinese telecoms company showed off the Ascend P7, a sleek smartphone compatible with the speedy fourth-generation mobile-phone networks being built in many countries. Huawei started pushing its own brand of smartphones only in 2011, but by last year it was the worlds third-biggest vendor. Though it is still far behind the leaders, Apple and Samsung, it hopes that phones like the P7 will help it close the gap. In its main business, supplying network equipment and services to telecoms operators, it is aly a close rival of Ericsson of Sweden. Last year this part of its operations brought in about 70% of its revenue of 239 billion yuan.关于华为,有一点是显而易见的:这是一个有野心的公司。5月7日,华为在巴黎发布了旗舰机Ascend P7,该机兼容现已在多国通行的4G网络。华为从2011年才开始力推其自己的手机品牌,但到2013年,它就成为了全球的第三大手机厂商;虽然与手机行业的领袖苹果和三星还有很大的差距,但它希望通过P7这样的旗舰机缩小这个差距。华为的主营业务是为电信运营商提供网络设备与务,现在已经是瑞典爱立信的有力竞争对手。2013年,华为的营业额约为2390亿人民币的营收,其中电信业务占70%。Huaweis ownership and management are less well understood. Some American politicians and competitors regard the company as little better than a front for the Chinese state, partly because Ren Zhengfei, its chief executive, was an engineer in the Peoples Liberation Army before he founded Huawei in 1987. Its network equipment has in effect been shut out of the American market. Huawei has always denied being under the states thumb. It says that 84,000 Chinese employees own almost all its shares. Mr Ren has a personal stake of only 1.4%.华为的所有权和管理问题就不是那么显而易见了。一些美国政客和华为的竞争者认为华为几乎就是一个中国政府的从事间谍活动的掩护场所,他们会这么想,部分也是由于华为的总裁,于1987年创立华为的任正非之前曾是中国人民解放军的一员。实际上,华为的网络设备已被美国市场拒之门外。华为一直声称其未受中国政府的控制;它表示八万四千名员工几乎持有其全部股份。任正非仅持有华为1.4%的股份。Unlike Alibaba and other Chinese technology companies that have sought stockmarket listings, Huawei has no such plans. Mr Ren made this plain when he spoke to journalists in London on May 2nd. “In reality,” he said through an interpreter, “shareholders are greedy, and they want to squeeze every bit out of the company as soon as possible.” Huaweis system, he believes, fosters a longer-term view that has helped it overtake listed competitors. Nor does he think that going public would alleviate Huaweis difficulties in America. “It might take ten or 20 years for the ed States to know that Huawei is a company with integrity,” he said. Meanwhile, Huawei will put its energy into more welcoming markets.不像阿里巴巴和其他中国科技公司,华为并没有上市的打算。5月2日,任正非在伦敦接受采访时明确了这一点,他通过翻译对记者说:“实际上,股东们都很贪婪,他们就是想尽快把一家公司榨取得一干二净。”他还认为,华为的股权机制会帮助其建立长远的目光,从而使其能够战胜那些上市的竞争对手。他同样觉得上市并不能解决其在美国的窘境。他说:“也许需要20年的时间才能使美国明白华为是一家正直的企业。“,而在这之前,华为会在欢迎它的市场上施展拳脚。Much less clear is who will succeed Mr Ren or how the next boss might be chosen. Huawei has a half-formed plan: as well as the founder it has three “rotating and acting” chief executives, who serve six-month terms. Mr Ren insists that they have a free rein. He has never used his right of veto over their decisions. “Ultimately we want to find a mechanism for succession,” he said. “But now we dont know what this mechanism should look like.” As long as Huawei is growing quickly and Mr Ren, who is only 69 years old, remains hale and hearty, this may not matter, but eventually it will. Huaweis peculiar form of capitalism retains much of its mystery.更加至于谁会接任任正非担任下一任总裁,则是一个更加扑朔迷离的问题。华为现在有一个半成型的计划:那就是包括其他三位创始人在内的总裁,与任正非轮流坐庄执掌帅印,每半年轮换一次。任正非坚称他们完全拥有自主权,他也从未利用他手中的否决权来干预他们的决定。任正非说:“最终,我们会探索出一套继任的机制,但现在它的轮廓还不是很清晰。”这要华为仍快速发展,同时今年69岁的任正非能够继续保持这样良好的健康状态,这个机制到底是什么样其实在当前并不重要。华为特殊的资本形式使其企业的很多情况依旧不为外人所知。 /201405/300572Its time to go again to the A Moment of Science mailbag. Alistener writes:又到了我们查看《科学一刻》栏目读者来信的时候了,一位听众这样写道:Dear A Moment of Science,亲爱的《科学一刻》栏目,My husband works a night shift, and Im worried that it might be affecting his health.现在我丈夫在值夜班,我很担心这样会影响他的健康。He sleepsduring the day, but somehow that doesnt seem the same as getting a good nights rest.他现在都是白天睡觉,但不知怎么回事,这样休息的效果看似不如晚上休息那么好。Am I worrying unnecessarily, or not?我的担心是否有必要呢?Actually, burning the midnight oil, as it were, may raise the risk for depression and some learningdeficits.实际上,熬夜会增加人们罹患抑郁的风险,并且会导致学习能力不足。But not only because people who work at night dont get enough sleep.但是,这并不完全是因为在晚间工作的人们没得到足够的休息。According to onestudy, scientists think its also because of too much exposure to light.根据一项研究,科学家们认为过多地暴露在光线下也是原因之一。Because it raises the levels of stress hormones in the body, hormones that have been linked todepression and to slower cognition.因为光线会使得人体内应激激素水平增加,这种激素是与抑郁情绪和缓慢的认知有联系的。Now, its worth noting that the study was done on mice.现在,值得注意的是,这项试验是在小白鼠身上进行的。And although mice are sensitive to overexposure to light in ways similar to people, how humans reactto light is not identical to mice.尽管小白鼠对于过度暴露在光线下的敏感反应与人类相似,但人类对光线的反应与小白鼠还是不尽相同的。Still, though, its also worth considering that humans evolved over millions of years rising with thesun and going to sleep when it got dark.同时,人类在几百年来的进化过程中形成的日出而作日落而息的生活习惯也是值得考虑的一个因素。Its only relatively recently, with the advent of artificiallight, that we began being exposed to light at all hours of the day and night.但是,由于近代人造光的发明,人类开始日日夜夜暴露在光线下。So its not such a radical notion that being up at night in the light when the body is built to beasleep in the dark could have some detrimental effects.因此,人们在本该休息的夜间暴露在光下工作会产生一定的不利影响,这并不是一种激进的思维方式。The science on the question is still evolving, but the bottom line is that theres some reason to bewary of being too much in the light.在这个问题上,科学知识仍在继续发展和壮大,但是过多地暴露在光线下这个问题还是需要人们警觉的。201402/275481

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