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For the Taiwanese chef Lanshu Chen, cooking is only part of the job. The chef, who worked at high-profile restaurants like the French Laundry in Napa Valley, owns Le Mo#251;t Restaurant in Taichung City, Taiwan, a member of the Relais amp; Ch#226;teaux group. In early March, Ms. Chen, 34, was in Carmel-by-the Sea, Calif., for Relais amp; Ch#226;teaux’s GourmetFest, featuring more than 20 well-known chefs.对台湾大厨陈岚舒来说,烹饪只是工作的一部分。她曾在纳帕谷的French Laundry等著名餐馆工作,如今她在台湾台中市拥有自己的餐厅——Le Mo#251;t,它是罗兰夏朵酒店集团(Relais amp; Ch#226;teaux)的成员。3月初,34岁的陈岚淑来到加利福尼亚州卡梅尔,参加罗兰夏朵美食节(Relais amp; Ch#226;teaux’s GourmetFest),有20多位知名大厨参与这次盛会。Following are edited excerpts from a conversation with Ms. Chen.下面的对话经过编辑和浓缩。Q. How much are you on the road for work?问:你经常出差吗?A. I take a dozen or so trips a year, but they’re usually short — between two and three days — because I’m always in a rush to get back to cooking at Le Mo#251;t.答:我一年旅行十几次,不过通常都很短,大概两三天,因为我总是急忙赶回Le Mo#251;t烹饪。GourmetFest is one of many annual global food festivals. What do you think these festivals mean for both the participating chefs and attendees?问:罗兰夏朵美食节是很多年度全球美食节之一。你觉得这些美食节对大厨和观众们来说有什么意义?As a chef, it is truly enjoyable and inspiring to have a chance to exchange ideas and to celebrate with other chefs. And for the people who come to the festivals, you’re not limited to trying one style of cooking, and you get a sense of different chefs’ perceptions of foods and their personal cultures.答:作为大厨,有机会和其他大厨交流、欢聚,真的让人感到愉快和振奋。参加美食节的观众不是只限于体验某种风格的食物,还可以感受到不同大厨对美食的理解和个体文化。While female chefs like yourself have certainly become more visible in the food world in recent years, they still seem to lag behind their male counterparts. Why do you think that is?问:近些年,像你这样的女大厨无疑在美食界变得越来越出名,不过,出名的女大厨似乎还是没有男大厨多。你觉得原因是什么?I think it is simply because there haven’t been enough female chefs, which dates back to old societal norms of what roles are acceptable for women. But I do think that is slowly changing, and there are more of us committing ourselves professionally to this field.答:我觉得这只是因为女大厨还不够多,这要追溯到社会对女性角色的传统规范。但我的确认为,情况在慢慢变化,越来越多的女人专心投身到这个职业领域。You have international training, but you chose to go home to open your own restaurant in 2008. Why?问:你接受过国际培训,但2008年你选择回故乡开设自己的餐馆。这是为什么?I had been thinking about having my own place for a while and thought that Taiwan is where it should be because the concept of what I wanted to do — a fine-dining contemporary French spot with subtle Taiwanese influences — didn’t really exist in the country.答:开餐馆之前,我有这个想法已经一段时间了。我觉得应该回台湾开餐馆,因为当时台湾没有我想开设的这种概念的餐馆——一个略受台湾影响的高档当代法式餐馆。Is that how you would describe the food at Le Mo#251;t?问:这是你对Le Mo#251;t餐馆的食物的概括吗?Yes. It’s a balance of my roots and my training abroad, and I use a lot of local fruits and vegetables that are harder to find elsewhere. One example is turnips. I use preserved turnips, which are very salty, to add in a touch of saltiness into sauces, or I’ll make turnip carpaccio and serve it with an egg yolk.答:是的。它是我的根源和我在国外接受的训练的结合。我选用很多本地果蔬,这些东西在别的地方比较难找。比如萝卜。我使用腌制芜菁,它非常咸,可以用来给酱增加一点点咸味,或者用它来做萝卜牛肉片,和蛋黄一起上桌。When you travel, what kinds of culinary experiences do you look for, and what advice do you have for travelers who want to stay away from generic and touristy places on the road?问:你旅行时想获得什么样的美食体验?对那些想远离拥挤的普通景点的游客,你有什么建议?I like a mix of food experiences and encourage the same for anyone else. Visiting a new place is not just about dining at the big-name restaurants. I do that, of course, but I like to let the chefs of these fancier places show me their favorites in town. And I’m a fan of street food, especially in Asia where there is such a strong tradition of it, so I definitely get a taste of this side of a city as well.答:我喜欢丰富多样的美食体验,也鼓励其他人这样做。到一个新地方,不只是要去著名餐馆用餐。我去著名餐馆用餐时,喜欢让那里的大厨们告诉我,他们最喜欢城里的哪些餐馆。我也很喜欢路边摊,特别是在亚洲,那里的路边摊传统悠久深厚,所以我肯定也会品尝一下城市的这一面。What has been your most memorable meal so far?问:到目前为止,你印象最深刻的大餐是什么?The four-hour dinner I had three years ago at Ultraviolet in Shanghai, which is run by the French chef Paul Pairet. The restaurant hosts only 10 diners a night, and the meal engages all the senses. When I was served a dish with mushrooms and truffles, it came covered in a black lid and was emanating smoke, and the air smelled of soil and fog. Also, there are projectors which display images on the wall to correspond with the dishes you’re eating, and this one was of the forest. You literally felt like you were in the forest.答:三年前在上海Ultraviolet餐馆的四小时长晚餐。那家餐厅是法国大厨保罗·派雷特(Paul Pairet)经营的,每晚只务十位客人,那里的食物能刺激你的所有感官。有一道菜是蘑菇与松露,盖着黑色盖子,冒着烟,有点泥土和烟雾的味道。墙上有投影仪,展示的图片与你正在食用的食物相配。这道菜上来时,展示的图片是森林。你真的感觉瞬间置身森林。As a chef, eating well must be a priority for you. Is there any food from home you make sure to take with you when you’re on the road?问:作为大厨,对你来说,吃得好肯定是最重要的。有没有什么家乡食物是你出门在外一定要带的?Tea is very important to me because it brings me calm and relaxation, so I always travel with loose black and oolong tea and enjoy it in my hotel room. If I have space, I even bring a teapot and cups.答:茶对我来说非常重要,因为它能让我平静、放松,所以旅行时我总是带着散装红茶和乌龙茶,在酒店房间里享用。如果旅行箱里有地方,我甚至会带上茶壶和茶杯。 /201504/368022Back in the 1990s when I was in my early teens, I was sent to the school office at Hoda Girls Middle School for being found in possession of a Michael Jackson tape.早在90年代当我还处在少年时,我被送到HODA女中的校办因为我被发现持有迈克尔杰克逊的录像带。The school counselor forced to deal with me pulled her headscarf forward and glanced warily at the tape on her desk. ;Do you know this singer? Does anybody know whether he is a man or a woman?; she asked, not waiting for an answer before continuing, ;they live like animals. They only want to satisfy their sexual urges. It makes no difference whether they sleep next to a man or a woman. They don#39;t care if they have babies from dogs or…;辅导员被迫向前扯下她的头巾来对付我,且谨慎地扫视了她桌上的录像带。“你知道这个歌手吗?有人知道他是男还是女吗?”她问道。没有等待再继续,“他们活的像个动物。他们只想满足他们的性冲动。他们是否睡在男人或女人旁都没有差别。如果他们的孩子来自于或是什么…他们也不会关心”She lowered her voice and asked me: ;Did you know that this very same singer or dancer or whatever you want to call him has relations with animals?; She pronounced the sentence as though she knew every detail of Michael Jackson#39;s relations with animals. It was the first time that I had ever heard about bestiality, something that according to my counselor was very common in the West.她降低了她的嗓音问我:“你知道这个歌手或舞者或无论什么你想称呼他的人与动物有交往吗?”她断然的宣判好像她知道迈克尔杰克逊和动物有交往的每个细节一样。这是我第一次听说兽交,在我辅导员看来某事在西方特别的寻常。I thought back to that moment in the school office when I statements this week by Mehdi Bayati, the cleric who directs Iran#39;s Strategic Center for Chastity and Modesty. Back when I was in middle school, both my religion teacher and that school counsellor dedicated long hours to how Western men and women have lost their taste for one another, how they are emotionally broken and have turned to animals to satisfy their desires. All this was meant to encourage young students to observe the Islamic hejab, instilling fears in what would become of a society in which women were not sufficiently chaste.当我读到这周Mehdi Bayati,一个指导伊朗的贞洁和谦逊的战略中心的牧师的报告时我回想起了在校办的那个时刻。在我念中学时,我的宗教老师和辅导员都长时间的专注于西方的男女是怎么失去对彼此的审美的,情感是怎么破裂的和怎么满足自己的欲望转向于动物的。所有的这一切是为了鼓励年轻的学生去观察穆斯林的面纱,逐渐灌输去恐惧一个女人不够纯洁的社会。Without hejab, deviance creeps in没有着装规定,越轨行为便蔓延开来(hejab:1.伊朗的着装规范,伊朗法律规定,女性在公共场合必须戴头巾(头发与脖颈不能外露),穿过臀的衣,如果穿裙子,则需至脚背。男性在公共场合则不能穿无袖衣或短裤2.也可指女性佩戴的头巾,面纱)Mehdi Bayati has been putting forward the same argument as my middle school teachers. ;The growth of feminism in the West and the fact the 60 percent of Western women prefer to sleep with dogs rather than men is the result of the absence of hejab and the diminished threshold of women#39;s sexual arousal,; he told the Resa News Agency, run by the Qom seminary.Mehdi Bayati一直在谈的的论点和我的初中老师们不谋而合。“西方女权运动的发展以及西方有60%的女性更愿意和动物睡觉而不是男人这个事实,正是西方着装规定的缺失和女性的性意识觉醒的门槛降低的后果。”他告诉库姆(伊朗西北部城市)神学院旗下的新闻通讯社。He did not specify the source of this figure, but referred to the provocative nature of women#39;s hair. ;It is said that the Prophet Mohammad stated that women#39;s hair sexually arouses men,; he said, conceded that ;perhaps modern science has not proven this; but ;it was said by somebody who only speaks the truth.;他没有具体说明数据的来源,然后他又提到了女性头发的撩拨人的天性。他说:“据说先知穆罕默德曾说过,女人头发性感地撩拨着男人”,尽管他承认“现代的科技可能无法明这种说法”,但(他同时又说道)“这是一位只说真理的人说的。”Invoking one of the less frequently discussed rationales for imposed dress codes, Bayati also said that ;the absence of hejab lowers the libido of men and this would not benefit women.;引用了一个争论较少的强制着装规范的根本原因(先知穆罕默德的话)之后,Bayati又说:“不戴头巾降低了男人的性欲而这对女性是不利的”Iranian clerics have long promoted Islamic hejab by arguing about sexual corruption or deviance in the West, but one of the strangest comments came earlier this year from the cleric Mohammad-Mehdi Mandegary, a member of ultra-conservative Endurance Front and the head of an organization called Foundation for Promoting the Way of the Martyrs.伊朗的教士长期以来一直通过对西方的性堕落或者说性越轨行为的抨击进而来提倡伊斯兰教的着装规范,其中最奇怪的说法之一是今年早些时候由Mohammad-Mehdi Mandegary提出的,他是极端保守忍耐阵线的一员,同时也是“发扬殉道者之路基金会”的领导者。Western satellite television can even pollute an embryo卫星电视甚至可以污染胎儿He declared that relations between Western women are sexually promiscuous in a manner not even found in the natural world. ;In the West when one woman has relations with several men, they take pride in it,” he said. “But animals are different and a female of the species does not have relations with several males at the same time.;他宣称西方女性的性生活的淫乱程度在动物界中甚至都找不到。“在西方,如果一个女人跟几个男性保持性关系,她们会引以为傲”他说到,“但是动物却不一样,雌性动物不会同时跟几个雄性保持性关系。”Mandegary, like many hardliners, believes Iranian culture has become too Westernized and distant from true Islamic culture. In a speech he asked Iranian men and women to abstain from sex after watching satellite TV so that the embryo would not be polluted by the banality. “Unfortunately some people are not careful about the moment of conception,” he said in warning. ;They do it after watching satellite TV and listening to inappropriate music. But all this affects the embryo.;跟许多强硬派一样, Mandegary认为伊朗文化已经被过分西化并且远离了真正的伊斯兰文化。在一次演讲中,他呼吁伊朗的男女在看完卫星电视之后不要发生关系,这样就可以使胎儿免于腐朽事物的污染。“不幸的是有一些人并不重视受的那一刻,”他警告说,“他们在看完卫星电视之后做爱并且听一些不合适的音乐。但是这些都会影响胎儿。”Even leggings have been pulled into the fray. Recently tight leg apparel has become the focus of controversy among Islamic Republic officials, and were even brought to the floor of parliament by the Tehran MP Ali Motahari. In an open session he displayed pictures of women in leggings and argued in remarks broadcast on television that ;sexual deviations, homosexuality and bestiality are results of unbridled behavior and the trampling of morality, which hejab would prevent.;甚至连打底裤都被牵连进了这场争论。最近紧身装已经成为伊朗官员们争论的焦点,并且还被德黑兰议员Ali Motahari展示给了伊朗议会的所有与会者,在一次公开的会议中,他展示了一些穿打底裤的女性的照片,并且在电视直播中争辩道:“性变态,同性恋以及人兽性交都是放纵行为以及践踏道德的后果,而头巾可以防止这些”Americans even kiss differently美国人甚至连亲吻都很奇特Another bizarre comment comes from Mohsen Gharaati, a cleric who is the representative of the Supreme Leader at the Literacy Campaign and a frequent TV personality. In a speech he declared that ;Westerners have been cheated when it comes to sex.; He then compared a kiss between an American boy and girl with the kisses that he used to get from his grandmother.另一种奇怪的言论来自Mohsen Gharaati,文化运动中最高领袖的代表同时也是一位经常上电视的电视名人。再一次演讲中他说道:“在涉及到性的方面时,西方人被愚弄了。”他接着把美国男孩女孩之间的接吻同他的祖母经常对他的亲吻做了比较。;When I was in America, I saw boys and girls who were kissing each other but it was as though they were kissing a brick wall,; he said. ;The kisses were not solid because perhaps this was the 96th person they were kissing that day. But when our grandmother kissed us it felt like she was sucking us in.; When the audience laughed he added that ;they think freedom would benefit them but they were cheated.;“当我在美国时,我发现男孩女孩在接吻的时候像是在亲吻墙壁一样,”他说,“这种接吻并不固定,因为很有可能对方是自己今天接吻的第九十六个人。但是当我们祖母亲吻我门的时候,他好像要把我们吞下去似的。”当听众笑的时候他又补充说道“他们认为自由会使他们受益,但是他们被欺骗了。”I turned to Hasan Yousefi Eshkevari, a reformist cleric who spent three years in prison for his political positions, to help me understand the religious or social context for such views. ;These words astonish me as much as they amaze you,; he said. ;I ask myself whether these gentleman are delusional or have been given wrong information. But I cannot find a clear answer for such nonsense.;Hasan Yousefi Eshkevari,一位主张改革的教士并且曾因他的政治主张而入狱三年,我向他请教,帮我找到这种观点的宗教或者社会方面的背景。“这些话不仅使你,也同样使我十分惊讶,”他说,“我不知道他们是在欺骗大众或者是得到的消息有误。但是对于这些胡言乱语我(无论从社会方面还是宗教方面都)找不到一个合理的解释”A sensible cleric#39;s view一位理智的教士的观点Eshkevari noted that such views have a long history, and cited Abolhassan Banisadr, the first president of the Islamic Republic, who returned from Paris and justified imposed hejab by saying that #39;women#39;s hair radiates a spark that arouses men.#39;Eshkevari注意到,这类观点在很早以前就有了,并且举出一个例子——伊朗首任总统Abolhassan Banisadr,他从巴黎回国之后说:“女性的头发散发着一种刺激男性性欲的气质”通过这来明强制要求佩戴头巾是正确的。Banisadr, according to Eshkevari, also interpreted a Koranic verse to mean that some women aroused when beaten. Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi interpreted the same verse in the same way about seven years ago, Eshkevari says, concluding that physical harm arouses some women. ;If an Islamic thinker and a Western-educated man such as Banisadr resorts to everything to justify himself, what do you expect from Ayatollah Shirazi?; Eshkevari said.据Eshkevari说,Banisadr还把《古兰经》中的一个章节诠释为“当女性被打时,她们的性欲会被激起”,“伊朗伊斯兰教什叶派领袖Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi在七年前也用相同的方法解释了同一章节,” Eshkevari说,“并且得出结论:人身伤害会激起一些女性的性欲。”“如果一个伊斯兰教的思想家,并且接受过西方的教育,像是Banisadr,都不择手段地来明自己是正确的,那么对于Ayatollah Shirazi还能有什么期待呢?”他说道。But it is not only clerics and Islamic ideologues who use offensive words and images to describe the sexual life of Westerners. Last winter the commander of the Basij paramilitary force General Naghdi used this theme to criticize nuclear negotiations with the Americans. “Thirty-five percent of babies who are born in America are bastards,” he said, without citing a source for his statistics.但是不只是教士和伊斯兰教理论家使用攻击性的语言或者比喻来描述西方人的性生活。去年冬天,准军事力量组织Basji(伊斯兰武装力量动员队)的指挥官Naghdi将军就曾就这个方面来批评伊朗与美国进行的核谈判。“在美国出生的婴儿有35%都是私生子,”他说道,但并没有指出数据的来源。All manner of Godlessness in the West西方的所有不敬神的行为A few months later Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi, a member of Iran#39;s Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution, went even further in a speech about human rights. ;In Western societies 75 percent of children do not know their fathers and are raised by their mothers,; he told his audience. Defending death by stoning he asked ;Why do Western countries consider this punishment against human rights?; He answered his own question by saying that ;there are no sexual complexes in Islam because in Islam marriage makes faith complete whereas in Christianity marriage is not a godly affair.;几个月之后,伊朗文化革命最高委员会成员之一Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi进行了一次更深层次的关于人权的演讲,他告诉听众:“在西方社会,有75%的孩子是完全由母亲抚养长大的,他们不知道自己的父亲是谁。”为了给石刑(注:一种钝击致死的死刑执行方式,即埋入沙土用乱石砸死)辩护,他问道:“为什么西方国家认为这种刑罚违背了人权?”他自问自答的说道:“伊朗没有混乱的性关系是因为在伊朗,婚姻给人以彻底的信念(生活下去),而基督教的婚姻却不是一件神圣的事情。”Last month Hassan Abbasi, the head of the Center for Doctrinal Strategic Studies in the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps and a theoretician in the office of Supreme Leader, claimed that the ;Western human rights approves of incest. Incest is very rare in animals but the Western man has debased himself so much that he supports incest as a human right.;上个月,伊斯兰革命卫队的宗教战略所的带头人、最高领袖办公室的专家组成员之一Hassan Abbasi讲到:“西方所谓的人权提倡乱伦,而乱伦即使在动物界中也很少见,但西方人却自取其辱的把乱伦也认为是人的一种权利。”;In America 100 percent of men have free sexual relations after marriage,; he said in another speech, which was aired on TV. ;While in Iran perhaps two men out of ten thousand might marry a second wife. Listen to them shout about equality between men and women.;“在美国,每个男人在婚后都会依旧保持自由的性生活”他在另一个电视上公开的演讲上说到,“然而在伊朗,一万个男人中可能最多有两个人会娶第二个妻子。听听,(这就是)他们叫嚷着的男女平等!”Abbasi then referred to Anousheh Ansari, an Iranian-American astronaut and the first Iranian woman in space. ;The basis of the Shi#39;a thought is chastity and the West uses women to destroy Shi#39;ism. Why did they send this woman Anousheh Ansari into space with a few men? They want to kill chastity. This is the main plank of feminism and feminism is the foundation of American lifestyle.;Abbasi接下来又提到了Anousheh Ansari,一个伊朗裔美籍女宇航员并且是第一个进入太空的伊朗女性。“什叶派的基本思想就是(保持)贞洁,而西方却通过女人来破坏什叶派的教义。他们为什么会把Anousheh Ansari这个女人和几个男性宇航员一块送入太空?他们想消灭贞洁。这也是女权运动的基本纲领并且女权主义又是美国生活方式的基础”Reading and researching such statements, I wonder how widely held such attitudes still are today, among mainstream Iranians. On a whim I went on Facebook and searched for my old school counselor, who in her profile picture still wears hejab but not as strictly as in those days.阅读并且研究这些说法之后,我在想,当今伊朗人的主流社会中人有多大范围的人持有这种观点。由于一时的性质,我到脸谱网上搜索了一下以前我们学校的辅导员,在她的一张侧面的相片中她仍然戴着头巾,但并没有以前那么严格了。I noticed a picture of her daughter, who was our classmate, and out of curiosity visited her page. She was not wearing hejab but more surprising that that, is married to an Englishman. I was reminded of what her mother, the school counselor, told us so many years ago: ;Ninety percent of Westerners have sexual problems. They are not aroused and most of them have relations with animals.;我注意到她女儿的一张相片,我跟她女儿是同学,由于好奇我访问了她的主页。我发现她并没有戴头巾,并且更使人惊讶的是她跟一个英国男人结婚了。这是我想起了她的母亲,我们学校的辅导员,曾经告诉我们说:“90%的西方人都有性方面的问题。他们很难被激起性欲并且他们大多数都跟动物发生关系” /201501/354104

A strong earthquake shook Nepal on Tuesday, sending people in the capital Kathmandu rushing out on to the streets weeks after a devastating quake killed more than 8,000 people and destroyed hundreds of thousands of homes, eyewitnesses said.周二,尼泊尔发生再次发生强烈地震。目击者表示,首都加德满都的人们迅速跑到了街道上。就在这次地震几周前,尼泊尔刚刚发生一场毁灭性地震,逾8000人在地震中丧生,数十万房屋被毁。The US. Geological Survey said the quake had a magnitude of 7.4 and struck 68 km west of the town of Namche Bazar, close to Mount Everest.美国地质调查局(US Geological Survey)表示,这次地震震级为里氏7.4级,震中位于南崎巴札(Namche Bazar)镇以西68公里处,靠近珠穆朗玛峰(Mount Everest)。“This is a really big one,” said Prakash Shilpakar, the owner of a handicrafts shop in Kathmandu who was trying to call his parents in the town of Bhaktapur, devastated in the April 25 quake.加德满都一家手工艺品商店的店主Prakash Shilpakar表示:“这次地震真的很强烈。”目前,Shilpakar正试图给位于巴克塔普尔(Bhaktapur)镇的父母打电话,该镇在4月25日的地震中曾遭遇毁灭性打击。Shockwaves were felt across northern India and as far away as the capital New Delhi, where buildings swayed for more than a minute and people scurried into the streets.整个印度北部和远在印度首都新德里的人们也能感受到这次地震的冲击波。新德里的建筑晃动了超过一分钟,人们纷纷跑到街头避险。People in Kathmandu rushed outdoors, Reuters reporters said. There were no immediate reports of damage to buildings. Shopkeepers closed their shops.路透社(Reuters)记者表示,加德满都的人们迅速跑到了室外。目前还没有有关建筑损坏的即时报道。当地商家也已关闭了店铺。A 7.4 magnitude earthquake has the potential to cause significant damage and landslides.高达里氏7.4的震级,意味着这次地震很可能导致重大破坏及滑坡现象。The quake’s epicentre was close to Everest Base Camp, which was evacuated after an avalanche triggered by the April 25 quake killed 18 climbers. Mountaineers seeking to scale the world’s tallest peak have called off this year’s Everest season.此次地震的震中接近珠峰大本营(Everest Base Camp)。在4月25日发生的地震引发的雪崩导致18名登山人员丧生后,珠峰大本营的人员已经撤离。试图攀登这座世界最高峰的登山队员已取消了今年的珠峰登山季活动。 /201505/374900

It#39;s long been thought that chillies can help us lose weight。很长时间以来大多数人都觉的辣椒能帮助减肥。Now, new research has proved the fiery food can aid weight loss by speeding upmetabolism。目前一项最新研究确实实了这种说法:辛辣类食物确实能通过加快新陈代谢来帮助减肥。A study found capsaicin – the ingredient that gives chilli peppers their heat - could help burn off fat in the body。该研究发现,辣椒中所含的辣椒素能够帮助燃烧体内脂肪。The temptation to eat fatty foods is often so strong that, for many, they can#39;t resist eating fatty or sugary foods even if they are trying to cut down on calories。脂肪含量高的食物通常都很有诱惑力,这让正在减肥的人非常苦恼,因为总会忍不住吃那些含糖量高或含脂肪量高的食物。Now, researchers believe capsaicin could provide a solution to this problem; speeding up the metabolism without the need to restrict the diet。现在,研究者们认为辣椒素可以解决这苦恼:让人在无需限制饮食的情况下加速体内新陈代谢过程。University of Wyoming researchers found capsaicin may stimulate the body to burn energy and create heat (a process known as thermogenesis) – burning off calories in the process。美国怀俄明州大学的研究人员发现,辣椒素能够刺激身体消耗能量并产生热量(这个过程叫做生热作用),以此来燃烧卡路里。It does this by activating receptors in the body which set off the process of energy burning。这个过程是通过激活体内的感受器来完成的。These receptors are found in white and brown fat cells。这些感受器在人体的白色脂肪和棕色脂肪中都存在。In the body, white fat cells soak up calories and store them as fat – the ded type visible in pot bellies, love handles and wobbly thighs that is the enemy of dieters。人体中的白色脂肪负责吸收卡路里并将其储存为脂肪,这些脂肪在我们的小肚子上、手臂上、大腿上等等地方都能看到,它们堪称减肥者的天敌。It is known as ‘bad’ fat for this reason。所以,白色脂肪又被称为“坏”脂肪。Brown fat, found in small amounts on the shoulders and neck, actually burns fat to heat the body – and is therefore known as ‘good’ fat。而棕色脂肪,少量地存在于人的肩膀和颈部,功能是燃烧脂肪为身体提供热量,因此被称为“好”脂肪。The researchers found that capsaicin in the diet was able to stimulate a receptor called potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel protein。研究者们发现饮食中增加辣椒素的摄入能够刺激一种叫做TRPV1的感受器。Activating this receptor suppresses obesity associated with a high-fat diet, the researchers found。这种感受器的激活能够抑制因摄入过多脂肪而导致的肥胖。They believe this is because it induces ‘bad’ white fat cells to become energy-burning ‘good’ brown fat cells。研究者们认为,这是因为感受器的激活能够诱导“坏”脂肪变成能够燃烧热量的“好”脂肪。The researchers carried out the study on one group of wild mice, and another group of mice who had been genetically engineered to lack the TRPV1 Receptor。这项研究是在一组野生小白鼠和一组通过基因技术去除其体内的TRPV1感受器的小白鼠身上进行的。They fed both mice a high fat diet, 0.01 per cent was made up of capsaicin。研究者给两组小白鼠喂食脂肪含量较高的食物,其中辣椒素含量为0.01%。Capsaicin prevented the weight gain associated with eating a high fat diet in the wild mice, but not the mice that lacked TRPV1.结果显示,辣椒素抑制了野生小白鼠因摄入高脂肪量而增加的体重,但对缺少TRPV1感受器的小白鼠没有效果。It did this without having any effect on how much food or water the mice consumed。而且这种结果与两组小白鼠摄入的食物或水的量多少没有关系。‘It did significantly increase the metabolic activity and energy expenditure in wild type mice fed a high-fat diet, but not for mice that genetically lack TRPV1,’ researcher Vivek Krishnan, of University of Wyoming’s School of Pharmacy said。俄明州大学药学院的研究者维韦克·克里希纳说:“野生小白鼠的新陈代谢活动及能量消耗过程明显加快,但缺少TRPV1感受器的小白鼠却没有这种变化。”This is because the fiery ingredient induces ‘bad’ white fat to become ‘good’, energy-burning brown fat and also stimulates the body to create heat, he added。他表示,这就是因为辣椒素促使“坏”的白色脂肪变成了“好”的、能够燃烧能量的棕色脂肪,同时刺激身体产生热量。These steps burn off calories and counteract obesity。这些过程燃烧了卡路里、阻碍了体重的增加。This may help to prevent and manage obesity and other related health complications such as Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases, the researchers said。研究者称,这还可以有效预防和控制肥胖及由肥胖引发的诸如二型糖尿病、高血压、心血管等疾病。However, they added this effect has not yet been demonstrated in carefully-controlled clinical trials。但是,目前这项研究还没有在严格控制的临床试验中被实。Next, the researchers want to further understand the mechanism by which capsaicin prevents obesity, and carry out more trials to further prove that it can help manage weight。下一步,研究者们会更加深入地研究辣椒素通过加速新陈代谢过程抑制肥胖的过程,并会进行更多的试验来明辣椒素确实能够控制体重。 /201506/381757

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