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来源:飞排名养生在线    发布时间:2019年02月18日 04:40:41    编辑:admin         

Zhao Shuli (1906~1970) was a Chinese novelist and short-story writer.赵树理(1906~1970),小说家。Zhao#39;s familiarity with rural life in North China and his fascination with folk literature and art determined the substance and style of his later writings.赵树理对北方农村生活的熟稔和对民间文学艺术的痴迷决定了他的写作内容和写作风格。After attending a teachers college, he taught in primary schools.上了师范之后,赵树理任小学教师。To supplement his earnings he began writing short stories for local newspapers. 为了补贴家用,赵树理开始给当地的报纸写短篇小说。A zealous promoter of folk literature and art, he wrote a considerable number of rhythmic talks, mini-tales, and sketches.赵树理是一个热心促进民间文学艺术的人,写了大量的说唱、小故事和短剧。He made his name by his short stories ;Hsiao Erh-hei chieh-hun; (1943; ;Little Blacky#39;s Wedding;) and ;Li Yu-ts#39;ai pan-hua; (1943; ;The Rhymes of Li Yu-ts#39;ai;).赵树理的成名作是短篇小说《小二黑结婚》(1943)、《李有才板话》(1943)。They were followed in 1946 by the novel Li-chia-chuang te pien-ch#39;ien (;The Changes in Li Village;) and the stories ;Fu-kuei; (;Lucky;), ;Ti-pan; (;Land;), and ;Tsui-liang-ch#39;ai; (;The Tax Collector;).1946年赵树理创作了长篇小说《李家庄的变迁》和短篇小说《福贵》、《地板》和《催粮差》。His works were widely and his native humour and grace appreciated by even the barely literate.赵树理的读者面很大,他民族式的幽默感和气质甚至连文盲也很欣赏。After 1949 he continued to write prose and edited two magazines.1949年以后赵树理继续写作散文,并且编辑了两本杂志。His novel San-li-wan was published in 1955. His style remained easy, plain, and graceful.赵树理1955年发表《三里湾》,文风仍然是浅显、易懂、优美。He was the recognized leading writer of the ;Shan-yao-tan (Potato) School.;赵树理是公认的“山药蛋派”领袖.His best-known works have been translated into English, Russian, and Japanese, and his collected works were published in the 1980s.他的名作已经被翻译成英语、俄语和日语,其选集已于2o世纪80年代出版。 /201603/430041。

Xu Zhimo(1897~1931) was a twentieth-century Chinese poet. He was given the name of Zhangyou and the courtesy name of Youshen. He later changed his courtesy name to Zhimo.徐志(1897~1931),名章垿,字又申,后改字为志。中国20世纪诗人。He is romanticized as pursuing love, freedom and beauty in all his life (from the words of Hu Shih).徐志是一个浪漫化的人物,终生都在追求爱情、自由和美(据胡适言)。He promoted the form of modern Chinese poetry, and therefore made tremendous contributions to modern Chinese literature.徐志促进了新诗的发展,为现代中国文学做出了巨大贡献。Xu Zhimo was born in Xiashi, in Zhejiang Province, and died in Ji#39;nan in Shandong Province.徐志出生在浙江硖石,在山东济南去世。 In 1918, after studying at Peking University, he traveled to the ed States to study Economics and Political Science at Columbia University in New York City. 1918年,在北京大学学习之后,徐志去美国纽约的哥伦比亚大学学习经济学和政治学。Finding the States ;intolerable;, he left in 1920 to study at Cambridge University in England where he fell in love with English romantic poetry like that of Keats and Shelley.后来徐志发现美国让人“无法忍受”,于1920年离开美国到英国剑桥大学学习。徐志在英国爱上了像济慈和雪莱的作品那样的浪漫主义诗歌。In 1922 he went back to China and became a leader of the modern poetry movement. 1922年,徐志回国领导了新诗运动。When the Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore visited China, he played the part of oral interpreter.泰戈尔访华时,徐志做了他的口译。His literary ideology was mostly prowestern, and pro-vernacular.徐志的文学思想主要是赞成西方文学观点,赞成使用白话。He was one of the first Chinese writers to successfully naturalize Western romantic forms into modern Chinese poetry.徐志是最先成功地将西方浪漫主义文学形式移植到中国现代诗歌里的中国作家之一。He worked as an editor and professor at several schools before dying in a plane crash on November 19, 1931 in Ji#39;nan, Shandong while flying from Nanjing to Beijing.徐志去世前担任编辑和多家大学的教授。1931年11月19日,徐志在从南京飞往北京的途中,在山东济南因飞机失事身亡。He left behind four collections of verse and several volumes of translations from various languages.留下来四本诗集和数本多种语言的译文。 /201602/427868。

The Powerball lightning bolt finally struck. Lucky ticket holders in three states — California, Florida and Tennessee — will split the record .6 billion Powerball jackpot that lured millions of lottery hopefuls into a frenzied buying spree.强力球头终于尘埃落定,高达十六亿美元的破纪录大奖最终花落来自加利福尼亚州、佛罗里达州和田纳西州的幸运儿。此前,上百万民疯狂购票,期望一夜暴富。The winners beat the 1-in-292.2 million odds by picking the magic combination: 4, 8, 19, 27, 34 and Powerball 10.此次头奖号码为4、8、19、27、34以及被称为“强力球号码”的10,几率不足2.9亿分之一。The winners can opt for annual payments over decades or an immediate lump sum.获奖者可以选择几十年内分期领奖,也可以一次性全额领取奖金。No one has stepped forward yet to claim a share, but everyone now knows where the winning tickets were sold: A 7-Eleven in Chino Hills, Calif.; Naifeh#39;s Food Mart in Munford, Tenn.; and a Publix grocery in Melbourne Beach, Fla.目前还没有人现身领奖,但头的出售地点已经人尽皆知:位于加利福尼亚州东郊奇诺山的一家7-11便利店,位于田纳西州曼福德市的一家奈非食品超市,以及位于弗罗里达州墨尔本比奇的Publix杂货店。Even though the big prize winners haven#39;t stepped forward publicly, lottery officials were aly cutting checks for the retailers that sold the jackpot-winning ticket.虽然这笔大奖的获奖者尚未在公开场合现身,但是票工作人员已经开始为出售头奖票的零售商开具票了。Naifeh#39;s Food Mart in Munford, a city of about 6,000 people located 30 miles north of Memphis, was set to get a ,000 check Thursday afternoon. The store is owned by the brother and nephew of former Tennessee House Speaker Jimmy Naifeh.曼福德市人口约6000,位于孟菲斯以北30英里(约合48公里)处。奈非食品超市就坐落于那座小城。周四下午,一张2.5万美元的票将被送到那里。该店为前田纳西州议长吉米·奈非的兄弟和侄子二人所有。When word sp that a winning ticket was sold at a 7-Eleven in Chino Hills, hundreds of people who won#39;t get a dime basked in the glory anyway, many taking selfies with the store clerk on duty because, well, why not?当奇诺山一家7-11便利店售出头奖票的消息传开,成千上百名并未获奖的民众也蜂拥至此,希望能沾沾喜气,许多人还纷纷和店员拍照留念——有何不可呢?;I#39;m very proud that the ticket was sold here,; the clerk, M. Faroqui, told local newspaper the San Bernardino Sun. ;I#39;m very happy. This is very exciting.;“头奖是在这里卖出去的,我特别骄傲,”该店店员M.法洛奇在当地报纸《圣娜迪诺太阳报》的采访中如是说道,“我真的特别开心,这个消息真是振奋人心。”Store owner Balbir Atwal, noting his lotto machine, called it the “luckiest place in all the planet.”店主巴尔比尔#8226;阿特瓦尔指着他的乐透机,称它为“地球上运气最好的地方”。“I#39;m very excited and happy,” he told the Sun. “My community has helped me so much, I#39;m so grateful to them. I don#39;t know how much I#39;m getting but I#39;ll be helping my employees and my family and community.”“我真是又激动又开心,”巴尔比尔告诉《太阳报》,“我所在的社区帮了我很大忙,我真的感激不尽。我不知道最后能拿到多少奖金,但我一定会用这笔钱帮助我的雇员、家人和整个社区。”Many locals stood around to cheer and mug for TV cameras that descended on the suburban community of 77,000 residents located about 35 miles east of Los Angeles.奇诺山位于洛杉矶以东35公里处,人口约为7.7万。当电视摄像机前往此地进行拍摄时,当地许多民众聚在一起对着摄像机欢呼、扮鬼脸。“It#39;s history. We#39;re all so excited for our city,” said Rita Talwar, 52, who has lived in Chino Hills for 30 years.“这是历史性的一刻。我们都为我们这座城市感到骄傲,”52岁的瑞塔#8226;塔尔瓦如此说道,她已经在奇诺山生活了三十年了。In Florida, the winning ticket was sold at a Publix grocery in Melbourne Beach. An employee told Florida Today the store has been inundated with phone calls.在佛罗里达州,头奖票是在墨尔本比奇的Publix杂货店售出的。一名雇员告诉《今日佛罗里达》,Publix杂货店已经受到了各路电话的狂轰滥炸。John Koontz, a front service worker at the store, had just stepped out of his car to show up for work when someone he knew asked him the big question: Was it true?该店的前台务人员约翰#8226;孔茨说,他前脚才下车准备进店工作,后脚就有熟人向他求这个惊人的消息:是真的吗?;They#39;re all excited. One of the locals just asked me was it true that the winning ticket was sold here,; Koontz said, lining up one of the store scooters in the cart area. ;Can you imagine this is happening here at our little store?;“大家都特别兴奋。有个本地人直接问我,头奖票是不是在这里卖出去的?”孔茨一边说一边将购物车区域的推车排列整齐。“你能想象这种大奖居然出自我们这种小店吗?”Dave Demi didn#39;t win the Powerball but said he#39;s happy about the possibility someone from Melbourne Beach may have.大卫#8226;德米没有,但他表示,墨尔本比奇有人可能会获得这笔大奖也让他感到很开心。;I#39;d say good for you,; Demi said, braving the early morning chill to walk into the Driftwood Plaza Publix to check his ticket for other possible winnings. ;I bought two tickets here and two at a convenience store. I did the one Powerball number,; he said chuckling.“我想对的人说,你运气真不错,”德米说道,他可是大清早顶着严寒赶到德里夫特伍德广场的Publix杂货店,来这里查看自己购买的票有没有可能中其它奖。“我在这儿买了两张票,在另外一个便利店又买了两张。好歹我也中了一个强力球号码呢。”他说着便笑了起来。In addition to the winning ticket, the California Lottery said 12 tickets matching five of the six Powerball numbers were sold for Wednesday#39;s drawing. Those winners will get a million prize.除了头奖票以外,加利福利亚州票中心表示,周三开奖时还有十二张票猜中了六个强力球号码中的五个,这十二张票的所有者将获得一百万美元的奖金。 /201601/422668。

How are those resolutions going? Still going to the gym? If not, you’re not alone.你的新年许愿实施得怎么样?还去健身房吗?如果不是,你并不孤单。Let’s think about incentives. If some benevolent patron had paid you a modest sum — a few pounds a day, perhaps — for keeping your resolution throughout January, would that have helped you keep fit now that January is behind us?让我们想想激励措施。如果有位好心的赞助者付给你一小笔钱——比如每天几英镑——让你在整个1月份坚持你的新年决心,现在1月份已经过去了,那能帮助你坚持健身吗?The answer is far from clear. An optimistic view is that by paying you to look after yourself in January, your mysterious patron would have encouraged you to form good habits for the rest of the year. The most obvious case would be if you were trying to give up cigarettes; paying you to get through the worst of the withdrawal period might help a lot. Perhaps diet and exercise would be similarly habit-forming.很不明朗。乐观的看法是,通过金钱奖励让你在1月份照顾好自己,这位神秘的赞助者会鼓励你形成良好的习惯,在今年余下的时间坚持下去。最明显的事例是,如果你尝试戒烟,通过金钱奖励帮助你度过戒烟过程中最糟糕的时期,可能大有帮助。或许饮食和运动也可以像这样形成习惯。Yet some psychologists would argue that the payment is worse than useless, because payments can chip away at our intrinsic motivation to exercise. Once we start paying people to go to the gym or to lose weight, the theory goes, their inbuilt desire to do such things will be corroded. When the payments stop, things will be worse than if they had never started.然而,一些心理学家认为,付钱是有害无益的,因为金钱会蚕食我们锻炼的内在动机。按照这个理论,一旦我们开始付钱让人们去健身房或者减肥,他们做这些事情的发自内心的欲望就会被腐蚀。当付停止的时候,情况会比从未付的时候还糟糕。The idea that external rewards might crowd out intrinsic motivation is called overjustification. In a celebrated study in 1973 conducted by Mark Lepper, David Greene and Richard Nisbett, some pre-school children were promised sparkly certificates as a reward for drawing with special felt-tip pens. Others were given no such promise. When the special pens were reintroduced to the nursery classrooms a week or so later, without any reward on offer, the researchers found that the children who had previously been promised certificates for their earlier drawing now spent half as much time with the pens as their peers. Only suckers draw for free.外部奖励可能挤走内在动机的理念被称为过度合理化(overjustification)。1973年,马克莱珀(Mark Lepper)、戴维格林(David Greene)和理查德尼斯比特(Richard Nisbett)做了一个著名的研究。在实验中,一些学龄前儿童得到许诺,如果用一种特殊的水笔画画,他们就可以获得闪闪发光的书作为奖励。另外一些儿童则没有得到这样的许诺。一周左右之后,当这种特殊的水笔被重新引入幼儿园的时候,研究者发现,在不提供奖励的情况下,之前画画时被许诺授予书的儿童花在这些水笔上的时间比其他孩子少一半。傻子才免费画画呢。There’s a big difference between exercising and colouring, however: while many children like felt-tips, many adults do not like exercising. A payment can hardly crowd out your intrinsic motivation if you don’t have any intrinsic motivation in the first place. Systematic reviews of the overjustification effect suggest that incentives do no harm for activities that people find unappealing anyway.然而,锻炼和涂色存在一个巨大的差异:很多儿童都喜欢水笔,然而很多成年人都不喜欢锻炼。如果你本来就没有任何内在动机,付很难挤掉你的内在动机。对过度合理化效应的系统性评估似乎表明,奖励不会损害人们本来就觉得没有吸引力的活动。So perhaps the idea of paying people to exercise is worth thinking about after all. In 2009, two behavioural economists, Gary Charness and Uri Gneezy, published the results of a pair of experiments in which they tried it. Some of their experimental subjects were paid 0 to go to the gym eight times in a month, while those in two alternative treatment groups were either paid for going just once, or weren’t asked to go to the gym at all.因此,付钱让人们去锻炼的想法可能毕竟是值得思考的。2009年,两位行为心理学家——加里餠尔尼斯(Gary Charness)和乌里格尼兹(Uri Gneezy)——发表了尝试付钱让人们去锻炼的一对实验的结果。研究人员付给一些实验对象100美元,让他们一个月去健身房8次,而对于两个组的实验对象,研究人员或者付给他们25美元,让他们仅去一次健身房,或者根本不花钱请他们去健身房。The results were a triumph for the habit-formation view. The payments worked even after they had stopped. In one study, the subjects were exercising twice as often seven weeks after the bonus payments stopped than before they started; in the other, the increase was threefold 13 weeks after payments had stopped. People who were aly regular gym-goers didn’t change their behaviour — so there was no crowding-out — but there was a surge in exercise from people who hadn’t previously done much. A later study by Dan Acland and Matthew Levy found a similar habit-forming effect among students, although, alas, the good habits often failed to survive the winter vacation. In other experiments, incentive payments have been shown to be modestly successful at helping smokers to give up.结果对习惯形成的观点是一个胜利。即使付停止以后效果仍在。在一项研究中,奖励付结束7周之后,实验对象的运动频度是开始接受奖励前的两倍;在另一项研究中,付结束13周之后,试验对象的运动频度是开始接受奖励前的3倍。那些本来就经常去健身房的人不会改变他们的行为——所以不存在排挤效应——但那些原本不经常锻炼的人的锻炼次数大幅增加。丹阿克兰(Dan Acland)和马修利维(Matthew Levy)后来的一项研究发现,学生们也存在类似的习惯形成效应,不过遗憾的是,好习惯往往不能延续到寒假以后。在其他实验中,奖励付在帮助吸烟者戒烟方面也较为成功。There is much to be said for a benign patron who pays you to stay healthy while you form good habits. But where might such a person be found? Take a look in the mirror — your patron might be you.有一个好心赞助者付钱让你保持健康,养成良好习惯,那当然很好。但哪里能找到这样一个人呢?看看镜子吧——你的赞助者或许就是你自己。Inspired by the ideas of Nobel laureate Thomas Schelling, economists have become fascinated by the idea of commitment strategies, where your virtuous self takes steps to outmanoeuvre your weaker self before temptation strikes. A simple commitment strategy is to hand 500 to a trusted friend, with instructions that they are only to return the cash if you keep your resolution.受到诺贝尔奖得主托马斯∠鞌(Thomas Schelling)的启发,经济学家迷上了承诺战略的理念——在诱惑变得不可抵挡之前,你品行高尚的那部分自我会采取行动,战胜你较弱的那部分自我。一个简单的承诺策略是把500英镑托付给一位值得信赖的朋友,嘱托他们只有在你坚持你的新年决心时才把钱还给你。Might a commitment strategy allow you to pay yourself to go to the gym? It might indeed. Economists Heather Bower, Mark Stehr and Justin Sydnor recently published the results of a long-term experiment conducted with 1,000 employees of a Fortune 500 company. In this experiment, some employees were initially paid for each visit to the company gym over a month. Some of them were then offered the opportunity to put money into a commitment savings account: if they kept exercising, the money would be returned; otherwise it would go to charity. The approach was no panacea: most people did not take up the option, and not everyone who did managed to stick to their goals. But even three years later, those who had been offered commitment accounts were 20 per cent more likely to be exercising than the control group.承诺战略是否会让你付钱给自己去健身房?可能确实会。经济学家希瑟贠尔(Heather Bower)、马克施特尔(Mark Stehr)和贾斯廷缠德诺(Justin Sydnor)最近发表了以某一家《财富》500强公司的1000名员工为对象的长期实验的结果。实验最初,一些雇员在一个月期间每去公司健身房一次就可以获得10美元。然后,研究人员向其中一些人提供机会,将钱放入一个承诺储蓄账户:如果他们坚持锻炼,这笔钱将被返还,否则就会捐给慈善机构。这项策略并不是万灵药:大多数人并没有选择这个选项,也并不是每个人都能坚持他们的目标。但即使是3年后,那些获得承诺账户的人锻炼的几率仍比对照组高20%。That chimes with my experience. I once wrote a column about sending ,000 to a company called Stickk, which promised to give it away if I didn’t exercise regularly. The contract was for a mere three months — and I succeeded. Eight years after my money was returned, I’m still sticking to the habit.这与我的个人经验相吻合。我曾经写过一篇专栏文章,讲述了我给一个叫Stickk的公司1000美元的经历。该公司承诺,如果我不经常锻炼,就会把钱捐赠出去。这份合约仅持续3个月——我成功了。我的钱返还给我8年后的今天,我依然坚持着这个习惯。 /201602/427050。

A drug approved last year for women with ovarian tumours has shown remarkable benefits in some men with advanced prostate cancer, UK researchers have found in what they say is a “landmark clinical trial” of genetic oncology.英国研究人员在他们所称的一次“里程碑式的(遗传肿瘤学)临床试验”中发现,去年批准的一种治疗女性卵巢肿瘤的药物,对部分患晚期前列腺癌的男性显示出明显疗效。The Institute of Cancer Research in London, which carried out the study with the Royal Marsden hospital and a wide range of funding bodies, said that olaparib — the drug introduced last year by AstraZeneca under the trade name Lynparza — would benefit 25 to 30 per cent of patients with advanced prostate cancer.这项研究由伦敦癌症研究院(Institute of Cancer Research)与皇家马斯登医院(Royal Marsden Hospital)及多个基金会合作开展。伦敦癌症研究院表示,25%到30%的晚期前列腺癌患者将从这个名为奥拉帕尼(Olaparib)的药物中受益。该药物是去年由阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)推出的,商品名为Lynparza。These men carry specific genetic mutations that affect their cells’ ability to repair damaged DNA. While this enables cancer to get started, olaparib further disrupts the repair mechanism — causing so much damage that tumour cells can no longer survive, said Joaquin Maleo, lead author of the study, which is published in the New England Journal of Medicine.这些男性携带特殊的基因突变,会影响他们细胞修复受损脱氧核糖核酸(DNA)的能力。该研究报告第一作者华金氠莱奥(Joaquin Maleo)表示,尽管这种突变令癌得以萌生,奥拉帕尼却会进一步扰乱修复机制,造成很大的损伤,以至于肿瘤细胞无法再存活。该研究报告发表在《新英格兰医学期刊》(New England Journal of Medicine)上。“Our trial marks a significant step forward in the treatment of prostate cancer, showing that olaparib is highly effective at treating men with DNA repair defects in their tumours,” added Johann de Bono, head of drug development at the Institute of Cancer Research. “It also proves the principle that we can detect prostate cancers with specific targetable mutations, using genomic sequencing to deliver more precise cancer care by matching treatment to those men most likely to benefit.”伦敦癌症研究院药品开发主管约翰德诺(Johann de Bono)补充说:“我们的试验标志着前列腺癌治疗取得了重大进展,明了奥拉帕尼对治疗肿瘤中存在DNA修复缺陷的男性非常有效。该试验还明了可用特定靶向性突变诊断前列腺癌的原理,我们可利用基因测序,将治疗手段与最可能受益的男性匹配起来,实现更精准的癌症治疗。”The study included 49 men with terminal prostate cancer that had resisted previous treatment. Fourteen of them — those with detectable DNA repair mutations — responded very well to the drug, surviving for much longer than expected for patients with such advanced disease.这项研究的对象包括49名患晚期前列腺癌的男性,此前的治疗手段对他们无效。在他们中间,14人携带可检测到的DNA修复能力突变。这14人对该药物的反应非常好,存活时间远远长于患如此晚期癌症的病人的预期存活时间。The results have led to a second trial, now getting under way, in which only patients whose DNA shows detectable repair mutations will receive olaparib. If it confirms the findings of the first study, olaparib could become a standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer in men with these mutations.这些结果促使研究人员设计了第二个试验,该试验正在进行当中。在第二个临床试验中,只有那些DNA具有可检测到的修复能力突变的患者才会用奥拉帕尼。如果这次试验确认了第一次试验的结论,奥拉帕尼或成为携带这种基因突变的晚期前列腺癌患者的标准治疗手段。 /201511/407147。