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2018年12月10日 16:38:21来源:度排名养生在线

KAWUCHI, Japan Mahircan Yucel moved to Japan a dozen years ago as a teenager fleeing sectarian violence in Turkey. He learned Japanese, got married, had two children and grew to love his adopted homeland. But Japan has refused to accept him and could force him to leave.日本川口——十几年前,少年时期的马赫坎#8226;于杰Mahircan Yucel)为了逃离土耳其的宗派暴力冲突搬到了日本。他学习日语,结了婚,有了两个孩子,慢慢爱上了他的第二故乡。但是,日本拒绝接纳他,而且可能会迫使他离开。“The truth is I have lived in Japan for such a long time,he said on a recent evening in a small living room that doubles as his infant son’s bedroom. “All I want to do is work and carry out a decent life.”“实际上我在日本已经生活了这么长时间,”前不久的一个晚上,他在兼做儿子婴儿房的小客厅里说,“我想要的就是工作,过上体面的生活。”Yucel, 27, is one of about 1,300 ethnic Kurds who have settled in Kawaguchi, an industrial city north of Tokyo, and in the neighboring city of Warabi. They live in a perpetual limbo, seeking protection as refugees in a country that is among the most reluctant in the world to give it.在东京以北的工业城市川口及附近的蕨市,大约有1300名库尔德人定居,27岁的于杰尔是其中之一。他们始终过着不安定的生活,期望获得难民庇护,而日本是世界上最不愿意提供这种庇护的国家之一。Though the government has issued temporary permits allowing many to stay for years, no Turkish Kurd has ever been granted refugee status in Japan, which would allow them to settle here permanently. Their plight offers a stark illustration of this insular nation’s approach to refugees as it comes under pressure to admit more amid the world’s worst migration crisis since World War II.虽然政府发放了临时许可,允许很多人在这里居留多年,但还没有一名土耳其库尔德人在日本获得难民身份,这种身份将允许他们在这里永久居住。他们的困境鲜明地展现出这个海岛国家对待难民的方式,虽然此刻正值“二战”以来世界上最严重的移民危机之际,该国迫于压力,承诺接纳更多难民。Japan values ethnic homogeneity and has long guarded fiercely against outsiders. According to a ed Nations report, migrants represent less than 2 percent of the total population, compared with 14 percent in the ed States. Because of Japan’s shrinking, aging population, many have proposed allowing more immigration to jump-start its stagnant economy. But the government and the public have resisted.日本强调民族同质性,长期以来强烈抵制外来者。据联合国的一份报告,移民在日本总人口中所占的比例不到2%,而美国的这个比例4%。由于日本的人口缩减和老龄化,很多人提议接纳更多移民,以提振停滞的经济。不过,政府和民众都表示反对。At the same time, growing numbers have sought asylum in Japan, and almost all of them have been rejected or told to wait. More than 7,500 people applied for refugee status in 2015, up 52 percent from a year earlier. The government granted asylum to just 27 of them.与此同时,越来越多的人来日本寻求庇护,但是几乎所有人都遭到拒绝或被告知等待015年,7500多人申请难民身份,比前一年增长了52%。政府仅向其7人提供庇护。Oxfam, the human rights group, recently cited Japan in a report criticizing the world’s wealthiest countries for accepting so few refugees for resettlement, particularly those from Syria. According to the group’s analysis of each country’s relative wealth, Japan’s “fair sharewould be close to 48,000 refugees.前不久,人权组织乐施Oxfam)在一份批评世界上最富有的国家仅接收少量难民(尤其是叙利亚难民)定居的报告中提到了日本。据该组织对每个国家相对财富的分析,日本应该接收的难民的“合理份额”接.8万。In 2010, Japan began to accept refugees who had fled Myanmar to camps in Thailand. But it has taken in only 24 families since then, according to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This summer, the government also agreed to host up to 150 Syrian refugees as foreign exchange students.2010年,日本开始接收从缅甸逃到泰国难民营的难民。不过,据日本外务省称,从那时起,该国仅接收4个家庭。今年夏天,日本政府还同意接50名叙利亚难民做外国交流生。In an appearance at the UN General Assembly last September, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said the country needed to focus on its economy before considering whether to accept more refugees or immigrants.去年9月,日本首相安倍晋三在联合国大会上表示,该国在考虑是否接收更多难民或移民前,需要专注于经济发展。Nearly 14,000 people in Japan are in some stage of an asylum process that usually lasts more than three years and that some critics say is designed to deter new migrants from applying. Asylum seekers may work while they wait for an answer, but those denied refugee status can be given temporary permits that prohibit them from working while giving them no living stipends.日本有近1.4万人处于庇护程序的某个阶段,这一程序通常会超过三年。有些批评者称,这是故意遏制新的移民申请。寻求庇护者在等待结果期间可以工作,不过那些被拒绝给予难民身份的人只能获得临时许可,不能工作,也没有生活津贴。Yasuhiro Hishida, assistant to the director of Japan’s Refugee Status Recognition Office, said officials suspect widesp abuse of the refugee process. Most applicants come from countries that are not currently considered conflict zones, including Nepal, Vietnam and Sri Lanka, he said, suggesting they are economic migrants rather than refugees fleeing persecution.日本难民身份认可办公Refugee Status Recognition Office)的主管助理菱田康弘(Yasuhiro Hishida,音)说,官员们怀疑难民程序遭到普遍滥用。他说,大部分申请者来自目前不被认为是冲突地区的国家,包括尼泊尔、越南和斯里兰卡,这表明他们是经济移民,而非逃离迫害的难民。Immigrant advocates say the government exaggerates the number of unfounded refugee claims. “In reality, there are so many people who are waiting and are facing a life of danger,said Shiho Tanaka, spokeswoman for the Japanese Association for Refugees.移民持者称,政府夸大了无事实根据的难民申请的数量。“实际上,很多人在等待,面临生命危险,”日本难民援协Japanese Association for Refugees)的发言人田中志穗(Shiho Tanaka)说。Yucel said he and his family fled Turkey because they were afraid the government would brand them as terrorists and imprison them. Now, watching events in Turkey from afar, including a war between the government and Kurdish militants in the southeast and the recent failed military coup, Yucel says he could never go back.于杰尔说,他和家人逃离土耳其,是因为担心政府把他们定为恐怖分子并关进监狱。现在,于杰尔从远方关注土耳其发生的事件,包括政府和库尔德武装分子在东南部进行的战争以及前不久的未遂军事政变。他说他永远也不敢回去。“If you see my country, there is a lot of bullying and people being killed,he said, growing visibly agitated. “I can’t even speak anymore.”“如果你去我的祖国,你会看到很多欺压,很多人被杀害,”他越讲情绪越激动。“我都不敢说了。”Yucel married a Japanese-Brazilian woman with permanent residency, but that does not allow him to work in Japan legally. The authorities detained one of his elder brothers this spring after he overstayed a temporary permit, and Yucel fears he could be next.于杰尔娶了一名拥有永久居住权的日裔巴西女子,但他还是不能在日本合法工作。今年春天,当局因临时许可过期拘留了他的一个哥哥,于杰尔担心自己会是下一个。Kurds first began arriving from Turkey and seeking asylum in Japan in the early 1990s, as the Turkish government battled an insurgency by Kurdish militants. Japan was an easy destination as Turkish citizens do not need visas to travel here. As family and friends followed, they settled around Kawaguchi and Warabi. Local residents named the community “Warabistan.”从20世纪90年代初,库尔德人开始自土耳其来日本寻求庇护,当时土耳其政府正在镇压库尔德武装分子的叛乱。由于土耳其公民不需要签就能来日本旅行,所以它很自然地成为目的地。家人和朋友追随而来,他们在川口和蕨市附近定居下来。当地人称这个群体为“蕨斯坦Warabistan)。Over time, some married Japanese citizens, which conferred long-term visa rights, and some opened their own businesses. There are a few Kurdish-owned restaurants in Kawaguchi, and many of the immigrants work at Kurdish-owned demolition and construction firms.随着时间推移,一些人和日本公民结婚,因此获得长期签权,有些人开设了自己的公司。川口有几家库尔德人开的餐馆,很多移民在库尔德人的拆建公司工作。But most Kurds here, like Yucel, are stuck on temporary permits that need to be renewed every six months. Those without permission to work cobble together off-the-books jobs, which puts them at risk of being detained for months or deported.但是这里的大部分库尔德人和于杰尔一样,受困于每六个月必须续签的临时许可。那些没有获得工作许可的人非法打工,若是抓到有可能遭到数月拘留或驱逐。“I want the Japanese government to understand that real refugees are in trouble,said Eyyup Kurt, 29, a Kurdish journalist who applied for asylum 18 months ago. He said he had been arrested five times in Turkey and had been shot at by a member of the Islamic State while investigating a training site.“我想让日本政府明白,真正的难民处于困境之中,9岁的库尔德记者伊阿普#8226;库尔Eyyup Kurt)说。他18个月前申请了庇护。他说,他在土耳其5次遭到逮捕,在调查一个训练基地时遭到伊斯兰国(Islamic State)一名成员的击。Some Japanese remain wary. City officials in Kawaguchi say they receive complaints about late-night gatherings and garbage in Kurdish neighborhoods. Young Kurdish men tend to congregate outside a convenience store near the train station in Warabi, and merchants say they frighten some customers.有些日本人依然有些担心。川口市的市政官员们说,他们收到过一些投诉,称库尔德社区深夜有聚会,有很多垃圾。年轻的库尔德男人喜欢在蕨市火车站附近的一个便利店外聚集,店主们说,他们令一些顾客害怕。“Sometimes I see that they get into fights, and the police have to come,said Hiroe Hokiyama, 21, a college junior. “It is a little bit scary.”“有时我看到他们打架,警察都来了,1岁的大三学生甫喜山广江(Hiroe Hokiyama,音)说,“有点吓人。”Others are more welcoming. Shori Nishizawa, 57, the owner of an appliance store a few blocks from Happy Kebab, a Kurdish-owned restaurant here, said he often watched young Kurdish mothers walking with their children on the street in front of his store.也有些人更欢迎他们7岁的西泽胜利(Shori Nishizawa,音)是一家电器行的老板。在他店铺的几个街区外,有一家库尔德人开的快乐烤串店(Happy Kebab)。他说,他经常看见年轻的库尔德母亲带着孩子从他店铺前的街上走过。“Japan is such a peaceful country,Nishizawa said. “We should not think about countries, but about the world. We are all citizens of the world, right?”“日本是一个爱好和平的国家,”西泽胜利说。“我们不应该想着国家,而应该想着世界。我们都是世界公民,对吧?”来 /201608/461321。

  • The English language used to be an asset of the US and UK. Now it has become a weakness.英语曾经是美国和英国的一份资产。如今,它却变成了一项劣势。Let’s zoom out from the Russian hacking of the American election. More broadly, hacking means extracting someone else’s information or inserting the hackersown information. English-speaking countries are particularly easy to hack because their enemies understand what they are saying. Being an English-speaking society is like living in a glass house: it makes you transparent. Conversely, foreign countries are opaque to mostly monolingual Britons and Americans. Foreigners know us much better than we know them. This asymmetry probably helped Russia get its favoured candidate into the White House, and it will handicap Britain in the Brexit negotiations.让我们从俄罗斯对美国大选的黑客攻击收回目光,观察更为全局性的形势。广义地说,黑客攻击意味着获取他人信息,或者插入黑客自己的信息。英语国家尤其容易遭受黑客攻击,是因为他们的敌人明白他们在说什么。一个说英语的社会就像生活在一个玻璃房里:它会让你变得透明。相反,对于多数只会说英语的英国人和美国人而言,外国是不透明的。外国人对我们的了解远远超出我们对他们的了解。这种不对称很可能帮助了俄罗斯将其中意的候选人送入白宫,它也会让英国在退欧谈判中处于不利地位。The role of English has been changing fast. Until the 1990s Russia and China didn’t know much about what went on in western societies. Most Russian and Chinese anglophones had been killed or exiled after the communist revolutions, and were never replaced. Even the KGB was short of English-speakers: much of the intelligence sent to Moscow by British spies Kim Philby and Guy Burgess was never translated.英语的作用变化很快。在上世0年代之前,俄罗斯和中国不甚了解西方社会的情况。多数俄罗斯和中国的讲英语者在共产党革命胜利后被杀或被流放,而且从未替换。甚至连克格KGB)也缺少说英语的人:英国间谍金?菲尔Kim Philby)和盖伯吉Guy Burgess)发送给莫斯科的大量情报从未被翻译。But from the mid-1980s, the opening of China, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the coming of the internet all boosted English. Chinese and Russian elites sent their children to study in the US and UK. From 1990 through to about 2010, British and American media and films gained unprecedented global influence.但从上世0年代中期开始,中国的开放、柏林墙的倒塌以及互联网的问世都让英语兴旺起来。中国和俄罗斯精英把他们的子女送到美国和英国读书。从1990年一直到2010年,英美媒体和电影展现出空前的全球影响力。In this period, the asymmetry of knowledge between English-speaking countries and their rivals became extreme. “There are now several million Russian citizens who are essentially bilingual and intimately acquainted with anglo societies,says Ricardo Soares de Oliveira, political scientist at Oxford university. By contrast, most anglos stopped bothering to learn foreign languages.在此期间,英语国家和其竞争对手之间的知识不对称性变得极其严重。牛津大Oxford University)政治学家里卡索尔德奥利韦Ricardo Soares de Oliveira)表示:“现在有几百万俄罗斯公民基本上具备双语能力,对英美社会非常熟悉。”与此形成反差的是,多数英美人不愿费力学习外语。This first became a problem after September 11. The US and UK found the Arab world opaque. John Nixon, the CIA’s expert on Saddam Hussein, couldn’t interrogate him in Arabic. Nixon recounts in his new memoir Debriefing the President that, during the interrogations, the CIA’s interpreter would quarrel with the military interpreter: “No, that’s not what he said!A watching Saddam cunningly took advantage, bonding with the military interpreter.这在9/11后首先成为一个问题。美国和英国发现阿拉伯世界不透明。中央情报局(CIA)研究萨达侯赛Saddam Hussein)的专家约尼克John Nixon)无法用阿拉伯语审问他。尼克松在他刚出版的回忆录《提审总统Debriefing the President)中回忆道,在审问期间,中央情报局的翻译会与军方的翻译发生争吵:“不,他不是这么说的!”冷眼看着这一幕的萨达姆狡猾地利用了这一点,与那位军方翻译搞好了关系。Just as English let down the anglophone powers in Iraq, so did their other traditional weapon of influence: warfare. They have given up on invasions. The US now spends 7bn a year on its military and still can’t stop Russian adventuring.就像英语在伊拉克让那些英语强国吃亏一样,它们的另一件传统影响力工具——战争——也失去威力。他们已放弃入侵。美国现在每年的军事开高970亿美元,但仍无法阻止俄罗斯的冒险。The new weapon is cyber warfare, but it works best for the US’s enemies. Hacking foreign files is worthwhile only if you can use the information. Russia and China have lots of well-informed people who can sift English documents looking for intelligence, says Adam Segal, author of The Hacked World Order. If they find anything embarrassing, they can disseminate it through English-language social media or the useful idiots of WikiLeaks. American media can then be relied on to amplify the story. Alternatively, foreigners can simply make up fake news in English.新的武器是网络战,但它对美国的敌人最有用。只有在你能利用窃取的信息的情况下,黑进外国文件才有意义。《遭到黑客攻击的全球秩序The Hacked World Order)一书的作者亚西格Adam Segal)表示,俄罗斯和中国有很多知识渊的人士,他们能够从英语文件中筛选情报。如果他们发现了令人尴尬的信息,他们可以通过英文社交网站或维基解WikiLeaks)这种有用的白痴传播出去。接着他们就能依靠美国媒体放大故事。或者,外国人也完全可以用英语编造假新闻。“It’s harder to do it in the other direction,says Segal. The US lacks linguists who understand which foreign information matters most. Nor can it easily send the information back to ordinary Russians and Chinese, as China, in particular, censors the internet. The west’s old practice of “democracy promotionhas been superseded by the east’s “autocracy promotion says Soares de Oliveira. English-language newspapers and the once mighty B now face millions of new competitors on social media.西格尔表示:“反过来就难了。”美国缺乏那些搞得懂哪些外国信息最重要的语言学家。美国也无法轻易将信息回传给普通的俄罗斯人和中国人,尤其是在中国审查互联网的情况下。牛津大学的索尔德奥利韦拉表示,西方的“促进民主”老一套已被东方的“促进威权”取代。英文报纸以及曾经影响力巨大的英国广播公B)现在在社交媒体上面临数百万新的竞争者。Britain has its own problems with English. Its twin centres of political power, Westminster and the tabloid newspapers, are almost entirely monolingual. Brits therefore voted for Brexit blithely unaware of how other European countries would respond. The Brexiter fantasy broadly went like this: “We’ll stop immigration, keep free trade with Europe, and sign whizzo new trade deals with everybody else.”英国的英语有着自己的问题。英国的两个政治权力中心——议会和小报——几乎只通晓一种语言。因此,英国人随随便便地投票持退欧,对于欧洲其他国家将作何什么反应一无所知。持退欧的人士的美梦大致如此:“我们将阻止移民,与欧洲保持自由贸易,同时与其他所有国家签订新的一流贸易协定。”Britain does have a coterie of multilingual experts (mostly diplomats) who knew this wouldn’t fly. But precisely because these people understand European thinking, they are distrusted by Westminster and the tabloids. A case in point is last week’s resignation of Sir Ivan Rogers, the UK’s permanent representative to the European Union.英国确实有一群多语种专家(多数是外交官),他们知道这种美梦不会成真。但恰恰是因为这些人了解欧洲人的思路,所以他们不被英国议会和小报信任。最近英国常驻欧盟代表伊罗杰斯爵Sir Ivan Rogers)辞职就是一个很好的例子。Just as Donald Trump’s people have ignored the US state department, the UK’s Foreign Office the one bit of the British state packed with foreign knowledge has been sidelined ahead of the Brexit negotiations. Instead, the new department for exiting the EU will lead. Its boss, David Davis, is the man who said the Germans would give the UK a good deal because they sell cars in Britain. “The British political class is astonishingly ignorant of the EU, whether they are pro it or against,says Charles Grant of the Centre for European Reform.就像唐纳特朗Donald Trump)的持者忽视美国国务院一样,英国外交Foreign Office)(英国政府内部真正了解外国的部门)在英国退欧谈判之前受到冷萀?新的退欧部门将领导谈判。该部负责人大卫?戴维David Davis)曾经说过,德国将给予英国一项不错的协议,因为他们在英国销售汽车。欧洲改革中Centre for European Reform)主任查尔格兰Charles Grant)表示:“英国政治阶层对欧盟出奇无知,持或是反对欧盟的人都一样。”The European principals in the Brexit talks understand Britain rather better. Grant continues: “They do watch the B, they can English, they do tweets of what the Daily Mail is saying.Even Angela Merkel, schooled in East Germany, taught herself English by ing the communist Morning Star newspaper.在英国退欧谈判中,欧方主要官员对英国更为了解。格兰特继续表示:“他们会收看B,会读英文,还会阅读有关《每日邮报Daily Mail)内容的推文。”就连在东德接受教育的德国总理安格默克Angela Merkel)当年也通过阅读英国共产党机关报《晨星报Morning Star)自学了英文。The US has just been outsmarted by foreigners it didn’t understand. Britain may be next.美国刚刚被它不了解的外国人赢了一局。英国可能是下一个。来 /201701/489253。
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