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厦门胶原蛋白丰耳垂哪家好厦门吸脂费用Forest conservation森林保护Lidartector激光雷达探测术How to tell if countries are cheating on their conservation commitments如何判断一个国家在森林保护承诺上是否有舞弊行为The wood and the trees 林地与树木In an isolated forest in the Sivalik hills of south-western Nepal, intense sun beats down through the treetops.位于尼泊尔西南部西瓦利克山脉一处偏僻的森林内,毒辣的阳光正从树冠强射而入。A sweaty trek up a steep, rocky slope leads to a spot where a team of researchers is busy measuring the trees.经过一段汗流浃背的艰难跋涉,登上一处陡峭怪石嶙峋的斜坡,到达一块区域,就可以看到一组研究人员正忙着对树木进行测量。They are working for Forest Resource Assessment Nepal, a joint venture between the Nepalese and Finnish governments.他们是尼泊尔与芬兰政府森林资源评估合资企业的工作人员。Two global-positioning-system devices guide the researchers to their target.凭借两套全球定位系统就可将研究人员带到目的地。Once there, they use tape measures, callipers and a hand-held laser to measure the heights and girths of all the trees within a 500-square-metre plot.到达目标后,在圈定好的500平方米区域内,他们用卷尺,测径规和手持激光设备对所有树木的高度和树围进行测量。These measurements, and each trees species, are recorded on a clipboard. One plot finished; 959 more to go.测量结果及每棵树的品种都会被记录下来。一块区域测量完成后,他们还要转战其余的959块区域。A classic piece of forestry, then.这是当时的一种传统林艺技术,Boots on the ground.采用人力进行实地考察,Specimens duly counted.准确测量标本。But this is a study with a twist, for its purpose is to calibrate a new approach to the subject—one that will gather information by the bucketload without the need to rely on quite so many boots.但一项新的研究将会使现状产生飞跃的转变,其目标是针对该课题开创一种新的测量方法—即无须动用众多的人力物力就可收集到大量所需信息。This new approach uses a technique called lidar.这项新方法采用的技术称之为激光雷达术。Like its cousins radar and sonar,lidar,works by broadcasting electromagnetic waves towards a target and then building up a picture from the reflection.与雷达和声纳技术相似,激光雷达的工作原理是通过向目标发射电磁波然后根据反射波构建图像。In the case of lidar, the waves are in the form of an infra-red laser beam.拿激光雷达来说,其波形采用的是红外激光束。And in the case of the forests of south-western Nepal,the target is the trees.以尼泊尔西南部的森林为例,被测目标就是树木。During a forest survey, an aircraft-borne lidar sweeps a beam that fires about 70,000 pulses a second over the canopy.在森林探测过程中,载有激光雷达的飞机将每秒产生7万个脉冲的激光束向森林树冠进行扫掠,A sensor on the aircraft records the time it takes to receive the backscattering of pulses, and that is used to compute distances to the forest canopy and to the soil beneath.同时安装在飞机上的探测设备会记录收到脉冲反向散射波的时间,然后分别用于计算到树林冠部及到土壤的距离。The result, when processed through the computers of Arbonaut, a Finnish natural-resource-management company, is a three-dimensional image of the forest that can be correlated with, and calibrated by, the efforts of the chaps with the tape measures.经过芬兰自然资源管理公司的Arbonaut计算机进行数据处理后,便可生成与采用卷尺那帮家伙的测量结果相关并可校验的树林三维图象。And that, in turn, can be used to estimate the amount of carbon stored in the plot examined, and extrapolated to calculate the carbon stored in larger areas of forest that have been scanned by lidar, but not measured with tapes.接下来,它还能用于估算所测森林区域的二氧化碳储存量,以此类推,激光雷达所探测的更大片森林区域的二氧化碳储存量也可以计算出来,但用的可不是卷尺。The point of the project, which should be completed by 2014,该项目预计到2014年完成,is to allow Nepal to participate in international carbon-trading schemes that pay poor countries with lots of trees not to cut them down.其实际意义在于能够让尼泊尔参加国际碳交易计划。该计划向拥有大量树木的贫穷国家付资金,以确保其树木不被砍伐。The Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation scheme agreed at the ed Nationsclimate-change conference in Cancún last December may eventually be worth billion a year.联合国气候变化会议去年12月在墨西哥坎昆就减少砍伐森林和森林退化产生的排放计划达成协议,确定每年最终可用于森林保护的资金达300亿美元。Nepal wants a slice of that.尼泊尔也想参与其中分得一杯羹。Lidar monitoring may provide a way of making sure it is delivering on its side of the bargain.激光雷达监测可能提供了一种方法,表明尼泊尔履行森林保护协议的决心。Until a few years ago, assessing the amount of plant matter in a forest in a cheap and accurate manner seemed an insurmountable problem, according to Eric Dinerstein,环保组织世界自然基金会也参与了尼泊尔激光雷达项目的研究。chief scientist of the World Wide Fund for Nature, a conservation group that is also involved in the Nepalese lidar project.其首席科学家埃里克说,几年前,采用经济和准确的方法对植被数量进行评估似乎还是一项无法解决的难题。Although a woodlands area can be worked out from satellite photographs, that gives only a hazy idea of the mass of the plants growing there.尽管林地的面积能从卫星图片上得到,但它只能给提供我们生长在那里的大片植物的粗略情况。If Forest Resource Assessment Nepal and projects like it are successful, that will change.如果象尼泊尔森林资源评估这样的研究项目能够取得成功,情况就会大有不同。It will then be possible, with reasonable confidence,to pay REDD money out only to those countries that deliver the goods—or, rather, the trees—in sufficient, measurable quantities.我们将有充分理由相信REDD计划拨出的资金可能只会流向那些能够提供货真价实,或更确切的说,树木充足且数量可测量的国家。 /201304/235162厦门嫩肤去哪家医院 湖里区中医医院的具体地址

厦门市欧菲医院在哪里Y:Yknow, Ive always wondered what you were like as a kid, Don . . . I bet you were a nice, sweet little boy.雅艾尔:我一直想知道你小时候,唐…我敢打赌,你那时候是个漂亮,可爱的小男生。D:Actually, Yael, just the opposite.唐:雅艾尔,实际上恰恰相反。At least thats what Im told.至少别人是这样告诉我的。Evidently I could be pretty difficult as a toddler.显然那时候蹒跚学步的我要吃力很多。Y:Really? But youre such a mild-mannered fellow.雅艾尔:真的是这样吗?但你是这样一个温文尔雅的家伙。D:Maybe, but around the age of two or so I could be pretty defiant, throwing tantrums when I didnt get my way.唐:也许吧,但大约两岁时我可能很目中无人,如果不顺我的气儿就经常大发脾气。Y:Well, I guess Im not that surprised . . . after all, its perfectly normal, healthy even, for little kids to be defiant.雅艾尔:嗯,我想并不会感到诧异…毕竟,小孩子目中无人完全正常,健康。D:Normal, sure, but healthy?唐:当然正常,但健康吗?Y:Yes. Child development experts have found that being defiant and doing things like refusing to listen and throwing fits is part of how kids learn to assert themselves and control their environment.雅艾尔:是的。儿童发展专家已经发现,目中无人,做事情喜欢拒绝倾听及大发脾气是孩子学会坚持自己及控制自我环境的其中一部分。Its a normal part of growing up.这是正常成长所必须经历的阶段。D:What about kids who dont throw tantrums and are nice and sweet? Are you suggesting that theyre somehow not developing properly?唐:如果孩子不发脾气就会很好很乖吗?你是在暗示他们发展不正常吗?Y:That sounds kinda far fetched . . .I mean, every kid is defiant at least sometimes. 雅艾尔:这听起来有点不切实际。。。我的意思是,每个孩子都有叛逆期。But, sure, some kids are much less defiant than others.但是,当然,有些孩子比别人少得多。And the research shows that those kids develop fine, too.而且研究表明,那些孩子也成长的很好。D:But I assume that either extreme--either a kid whos completely passive, or a kid whos overly defiant--can signal a problem . . .唐:但我假设2种极端,要么小孩子完全被动,要么过于目中无人,这能否成为问题…Y:Thats true.雅艾尔:没错。But my point is, I guess, that even though it can be exasperating and even maddening when kids are defiant, theyre not behaving that way just to be bad.但我的观点是,我想, 当孩子目中无人的时候即便令人恼火,甚至发狂,他们也没有表现的就是坏的方面。Its like they need to act that way to figure out how to get along in the world. I mean, its worked for you.这就像他们需要来找出如何和世界相处的行为方式。我的意思是,它就是对你有用。D:Thanks. 唐:好的,非常感谢。 201310/259827宁德最好的腋臭医院 Science and technology科学技术Genetically modified tree转基因树木Into the wildwood进军森林A GM species may soon be liberated deliberately一种转基因树木不久或将大量种植,但很审慎ONCE upon a time, according to folklore, a squirrel could travel through Americas chestnut forests from Maine to Florida without ever touching the ground.民间流传有这样的故事:很久很久以前,松鼠在穿过美国缅因州到福罗里达州的栗树林时,可以一直不触碰地面。The chestnut population of North America was reckoned then to have been about 4 billion trees. No longer.估计北美那时的栗树约有40亿棵。现在却不复存在了。Axes and chainsaws must take a share of the blame.必须说,斧头锯子不乏其罪,But the principal culprit is Cryphonectria parasitica, the fungus that causes chestnut blight.但栗疫病菌才是罪魁祸首,是这种真菌致栗树感染了栗疫病。In the late 19th century, some infected saplings from Asia brought C. parasitica to North America. By 1950 the chestnut was little more than a memory in most parts of the continent.19世纪后期,一批亚洲来的感染栗疫病菌的树苗把该病菌带到了北美。到了20世纪50年代,北美大陆大部分地区的栗树便全部消失,成为了回忆。American chestnuts may, however, be about to rise again—thanks to genetic engineering.但有了基因工程,美国栗树有望再次繁茂起来。This month three experimental patches will be planted, under the watchful eye of the Department of Agriculture, in Georgia, New York and Virginia.在美国农业部的密切看护下,将于本月在乔治亚州、纽约州和弗吉尼亚州分别栽种一片栗树林进行实验。Along with their normal complements of genes, these trees have been fitted with a handful of others that researchers hope will protect them from the fungus.这些栗树除携带正常的附加基因外,还添加了少数不同寻常的附加基因。研究者希望通过添加这些基因来防止栗树被真菌感染。The project has been organised by the Forest Health Initiative, a quango set up to look into the idea of using genetic engineering to rescue species of tree whose populations have been devastated by fungal diseases or insect pests.该项目的组织者是一个半官方机构—森林健康行动,该机构的创立是为了检查用基因工程来拯救被真菌病或害虫摧毁的树木种群的可行性。It has sponsored research at several universities, and this months trial is the first big field test.FHI已在几所大学发起了研究倡议,并于本月迈出大型实地试验的第一步。If it works, the FHI will ask the government for permission to plant transgenic chestnuts in the wild, with the intention of re-establishing the species in Americas woodlands.如果可行,FHI则会向政府申请在自然环境中种植基因改良栗树,以重建美国林地的栗树林。And if that goes well, it could provide a model for projects to re-establish elm trees, ash trees and a fir tree known, confusingly, as the eastern hemlock.如果这也可行,那就能为榆树、白蜡树和杉树重建项目提供示范。The search for genetic protection for the chestnut was begun in 1990 by William Powell of the State University of New York, in Syracuse, and Scott Merkle of the University of Georgia, in Athens.栗树基因保护研究始于1990年,由锡拉丘兹市纽约州立大学的威廉·鲍威尔和爱森斯市乔治亚大学的斯科特·默克尔共同进行。Dr Powell knew that many of the symptoms of chestnut blight are caused by the oxalic acid that C. parasitica generates as it grows.鲍威尔确信,栗疫病的很多症状都由栗疫病菌生长时产生的草酸引起。He also knew that wheat has an enzyme called oxalate oxidase, which detoxifies oxalic acid.他也清楚,小麦有一种草酸氧化酶,能够分解草酸。He and his team therefore transferred the gene that encodes oxalate oxidase from wheat to chestnut.于是,鲍威尔和他的团队将小麦中能够编码草酸氧化酶的基因转移到了栗树的基因中。Last summer they showed that oxalate oxidase can indeed enhance blight-resistance.去年夏天,他们明了,草酸氧化酶的确能够增强栗树的抗枯萎性。A few years ago the Forest Health Initiative asked Dr Powell and some other researchers doing related studies to look at the work of the American Chestnut Foundation, a group which had been crossbreeding Chinese and American chestnuts.几年前,FHI邀请了正在进行相关研究的鲍威尔士和另一些研究者研究美国栗树研究基金会的工作。Since C. parasitica is Asian, Asiatic trees have evolved resistance to it. The foundation hoped to make a hybrid sufficiently Chinese to be protected, but sufficiently American to pass muster as local.由于栗疫病菌发于亚洲,亚洲树种已经形成了对该真菌的抗性。With the aid of the genomes of the two species, Dr Powell and his collaborators began testing 27 Chinese chestnut genes in the American tree.借助两种栗树的基因组,鲍威尔士及其合作伙伴开始在美国生长的树上测试27种板栗基因。The 800 trees to be planted this month will contain various combinations of these genes, the original wheat gene and six further genes from other tree species.本月将栽种800棵树,这些树包含了原小麦基因以及其他树种6种基因的各种组合基因。And results should come quickly.预计结果很快就可以得出。Field tests for blight-resistance are typically done when trees are a few years old, but Dr Powells team have devised a test of the saplings leaves that they believe can tell whether a tree is resistant when it is less than a year old.抗枯萎性的实地试验一般要当树木生长几年之后才能进行,但鲍威尔士研究小组想出了一个测试树苗叶子的办法,他们认为可以在树龄不满一年的情况下测试出树的抗性。The trial itself will last three years, and the researchers running it will monitor how the modified chestnuts fit in to the local ecosystem, as well as how healthy they are.这项试验会进行三年,进行该试验的研究者将持续观察记录改良过的栗树在当地生态系统的适应程度以及它们的健康状况。If they both do fit and are fit, a decision will then have to be made about whether to release them into the wild. That will be up to the Department of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration.如果能够适应并且长势良好,那是否要在自然环境中大量种植就得由农业部、环境保护署和食品药品监督来决定了。Until now, the genetic modification of trees has had strictly commercial aims: speeding up the growth and extending the environmental tolerance of species intended for plantations.迄今为止,改良树木基因带有明确的商业目的:一是催长,二是为了造林增加物种对环境的容忍度。This use of genetic modification has been opposed by environmentalists, who fear that such supertrees may escape and damage wild forests.为达到该商业目的使用转基因,遭到了环保主义者的反对,他们担心这样的超级树会疯长进而危害到野生丛林。The Forest Health Initiatives goal, though, is to heal wild forests, not hurt them.但FHI的目标是为了恢复而不是危害野生丛林。If its experiments do produce a strain of chestnut that could do the job, it will be interesting to see how enthusiastically greens embrace it.如果试验成功,真能培育出抗栗疫病菌的新品种,那看看环保党在欣然接受时会表现出怎样的欢欣鼓舞,还挺有意思的。 /201311/266596厦门冰点脱毛费用

厦门激光去疤医院Asset-management companies in China中国的资产管理公司Lipstick on a pig看上去很美China is still dealing with the mess left by previous bank bail-outs中国仍在收拾金援留下的烂摊子Aug 24th 2013 | SHANGHAI |From the print editionNEWS surfaced this week that Cinda, an asset-management company (AMC) created during China’s last round of banking bail-outs, is talking to bankers about a stockmarket flotation. That raises an intriguing question: how would the Chinese government handle its next banking crisis? If experience is a guide, it will be through a combination of enormous injections of public money, the creation of complicated structures and the obfuscation of data.本周新闻,创建于中国上轮金援期间的资产管理公司信达正在对话家,讨论发行股票。这引起了一个有趣的问题:中国政府如何处理下一次危机呢?如果以经验为指导,中国政府会通过注入大量的公共资金,创造复杂体系,模糊处理数据等一系列措施。In the 1990s the government shut down many inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs). That forced banks to acknowledge loans to those entities as duds. Non-performing loan (NPL) ratios soared, so officials engineered an elaborate bail-out. Central Huijin, an SOE capitalised by the central bank and finance ministry, put money into the banks. On one estimate, these equity infusions topped 0 billion.上世纪90年代,中国政府关闭许多低效率的国企。这使得被迫接受贷给关闭国企的贷款作废。不良贷款率陡升,于是官方启动了复杂的金援。由央行和财政部注资成立的中央汇金向注入资金。据估计,这些企业注资高达1500亿美元。NPLs were hived off into four new AMCs: Huarong, China Orient, China Great Wall and Cinda. From 1999 to 2004 loans worth over 2 trillion yuan (2 billion) were transferred. Though mostly bad, the loans were usually sold at full face value. They were paid for with ten-year bonds, backed by the finance ministry, that the AMCs issued to the big state-owned banks. But since most NPLs failed to recover in that time, these bonds were extended another decade. In short, the bail-out is still going on.不良贷款被分离成了四个新的资产管理公司,分别是华融,中国东方,中国长城和信达。从1999年到2004年,超过两万亿元人民币(2420亿美元)的贷款被转让。尽管大部分是不良贷款,然而这些贷款通常是以全额票面价值卖掉。它们在财政部的持下以十年期债券的形式卖掉,这些资产管理公司将其发行给大型国有。但是因为当时大多数的不良贷款无法偿还,这些债券又延期十年。总之,金援还在继续。What the AMCs have done with their assets is unclear, as they have not released proper accounts. Some NPLs have been sold but reportedly at only 20% of face value. To deal with the resulting cash crunch, Cinda sold bonds to the finance ministry. Anne Stevenson-Yang of J Capital, a research firm, observes that these bonds have since been wiped clean from its balance-sheet without any explanation for where they went: “The AMCs seem to be virtual holding-tanks where the debt doesn’t stay and doesn’t depart either.” Some think they may be insolvent.这些资产管理公司用他们的资产做了什么不得而知,因为他们没有公布资产账户。一些不良贷款被出售,但是据报只有面值的20%。为了解决资金短缺,信达将债券卖给了财政部。调查公司J Capital的Anne Stevenson-Yang说,这些债券已经在没有对去向做出任何解释的情况下从资产负债表中抹去了。这些资产管理公司实质上似乎是掩盖债务的幌子,债务既不在这些公司也没有分发。一些人认为这些公司资不抵债了。That hasn’t stopped the AMCs expanding into other areas. They have gobbled up small banks and expanded into fund management, broking, commodities trading and insurance. Cynics speculate that all this has been done to give an illusion of rounded prosperity, perhaps as a prelude to a wave of public offerings.这没有让这些资产管理公司停下扩张的脚步。他们吞并了小型,,将业务扩展到基金管理,经纪业,商品交易和保险业。怀疑者推测所有这些都是都是全面繁荣的假想,或许是一波公开发行股票行动的前奏。In preparation for Cinda’s flotation on the Hong Kong exchange, the government poured 15 billion yuan into the firm in 2010 as it became a joint-stock company. Another 10 billion yuan was invested in it last year by strategic investors (including Standard Chartered, UBS and Citic Capital, a private-equity firm). Huarong is also rumoured to be seeking strategic investors, ahead of a possible listing next year.为了准备信达在香港股市上市,政府在2010年向该公司注资150亿元人民币成立合资公司。去年包括渣打,瑞银集团和私募股权公司中国中信在内的战略投资者去年向信达投资了100亿元人民币。也有谣言称华融也正在寻找战略投资者,争取明年上市。Why now? With loans soaring and bad debts likely to follow suit (see chart), Chinese officials realise that the next banking crisis may be near. They may well be hoping to lure in fresh investors, to draw a line under previous bail-outs and raise capital for new ones. Huarong and Cinda now claim to make profits, but given their murky accounts, that is hard to verify. A headline in the South China Morning Post sounded this warning: “China’s insolvent toxic-waste dump Cinda for sale”.为什么是现在呢?随着贷款的增加,坏账可能随之而来(见表),中国政府意识到下一次危机可能不远了。他们可能希望吸引新的投资者,与上次的金援划清界限,为新的金援募集资金。华融和信达现在宣称在盈利,但是鉴于他们含糊的账户,这一说法难以实。南华早报的头条发出警告:无力偿还债务的坏账回收站信达待售。 /201308/254012 Are aliens going to eat us?外星人会来吃我们吗?Thats more of a science fiction question.这更像是科幻小说里的才会出现的问题。But science does havesomething to say here, and sometimes purely imaginativequestions are great tools for helping us think about how the realworld works.但是在这个问题上我们还是可以寻求科学的。很多时候像这种纯粹异想天开的问题却能够帮助我们更好地思考,更好地认识这个世界。First, its not strictly impossible.首先,严格地说,这也不无可能。Many scientists agree that theMilky Way galaxy is probably brimming with living things.许多科学家都认为系里可能到处都是生物,That doesnt mean any of them aresmart enough to build interstellar spaceships, but lets assume they are.但这并不是说它们就有能力建造星际间飞船。退一万步说,就算它们有这个能力来建造星际间飞船,Still, why are theyunlikely to eat us?可是,它们又为什么要吃我们呢?One reason lies in energy itself.原因之一就在于能量本身。The point of eating is to take in usable energy.吃东西最主要就是为了摄入可用的能量。A lion will expend a lot of energy running down azebra because, once it is caught, the calories contained in the meal far outweigh those expended in the chase.一头狮子可以耗掉大量的体力去追捕一匹斑马,那是因为一旦抓住了那匹斑马,它能摄入的斑马肉里的能量大大超过了他在追捕过程中消耗的能量。If this werent true–say, if the zebras body only had the caloric contentof a grape–then the energy expended would outweigh the energy gained, and the lion wouldlose out.如果以上都不成立,假如斑马肉里所含能量很少—少到根本就无法补充狮子追捕所耗能量,那么这头狮子也只能是白白耗掉体力了。Any alien predators would face the same problem.既然有这样的说法,那么食肉的外星人也会面对同样的问题。The amount of energy expended in building aspace program, fueling rockets, to say nothing of getting from one star to another, would behuge.建造一个空间计划,制造燃料火箭都需要消耗很多能量。更不用说从一个星球飞至另一个星球需要消耗更多的能量!For any realistic technology it would far outweigh the benefit of just munching on people.It would be like climbing Mount Everest in order to pick a few berries.与其猎食人类,还不如将那些能量用于更有实际意义的科技开发。其实猎食人类就像是辛辛苦苦攀上珠穆朗玛却只为摘些果子一样大材小用,劳民伤财。Some day we ourselves may travel to other planets. But any species that goes to such lengthsmerely to find food will find itself quickly exhausted.也许某一天人类能够踏上其他星球的土地。但是,任何一个为寻觅食物而踏上其他星球的物种终将认识到如此行径只会消耗掉自己的能量——自取灭亡。 /201408/318062福州市妇幼保健医院激光祛痣多少钱厦门面部吸脂哪家好

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