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Business商业报道Apple in China苹果在中国Better days ahead明天会更好The tech giant can rebound from its recent misfortunes in China科技巨头将从最近在中国遇到的霉运中走出THINGS have not gone well for Apple in China of late.苹果近来在中国发展并不顺利。Earlier this year official news media orchestrated a series of attacks on the firm, following allegations that it had offered Chinese customers unsatisfactory guarantees for its products.今年早些时候,官媒策划了一系列对苹果进行责难的报道,称苹果对中国消费者所购产品的保修务令人不满。Apple ended up issuing a humiliating apology.此事以苹果耻辱性地道歉而告一段落。The Middle Kingdom is the worlds biggest market for both luxury goods and for smartphones.中国是世界上奢侈品和智能机的最大市场。That should have propelled Apples iPhones to the top of the heap.这本该将iPhone的销售推向了顶峰。But the firms market share languishes at around 8% of all handset sales, whereas Samsung commands just over a fifth of them.但是苹果所占手机市场份额只有8%左右,而三星超过了1/5。Apples fortunes are improving.苹果的运势在改善。The main reason the companys iPhones have fared poorly in China so far is that they are not offered on the inferior 3G network run by China Mobile, the countrys largest mobile operator.迄今为止苹果在中国进展缓慢,主要原因是iPhone并不持中国移动提供的较次的3G网络,而中国移动是中国最大的移动电话运营商。But the arrival of a new, whizzier network could change that. On December 4th the Chinese government authorised the countrys three main wireless-telecoms operators to go ahead with the next generation of network technology, known as 4G.但是新的更先进的网络将会改变这一状况。12月4日,中国政府授权中国三大主要无线通信运营商继续开发下一代的网络技术,即4G网络。The same day it emerged that later this month China Mobile—a state-owned giant that is also the worlds largest mobile-phone operator, with more than 700m customers—will unveil a 4G iPhone for the Chinese market.同一天,中国移动宣布,将在本月下旬发布面向中国市场的4G iPhone。R, an investment bank, suggests that sales of such a device could be worth 9 billion to 10 billion to Apple.投资加拿大皇家暗示该设备的销售可能为苹果公司带来90亿到100亿美元的收入。Anand Ramachandran of Barclays, another bank, is more cautious.巴克莱的安纳德?拉马钱德兰更加谨慎。He wants to see whether Apple is forced to yield to demands by China Mobile that it split the cost of its handset subsidies with customers.他想看看苹果公司是否会被迫向中国移动让步,与顾客一起分担手机补贴的费用。Investors are also wondering whether Apple will give in to pressure to return more of its giant cash mountain to shareholders through such things as share buy-backs.投资者还想知道苹果公司是否会屈于压力,通过股份回购返回更多现金给股东。Carl Icahn, a veteran shareholder activist, had been pressing the tech giant to hand back 150 billion immediately.资深股东维权人士卡尔伊坎一直逼迫这个科技巨头马上返还1.5亿美元。But this week Mr Icahn reduced his demand to 50 billion, which is still an eye-wateringly large amount of money.但是本周伊坎将要价减少到5000万美元,但这还是非常大的一笔钱。Ironically, greater success in China could lead to more friction if it puts even more cash in Apples aly overflowing coffers.讽刺的是,如果苹果公司本已过剩的现金流因此而增多,那么在中国市场的成功反而会令它面临更大的压力。 /201312/267956Don:The anatomy of fear, on this Moment of Science.唐:今天的科学一刻为您带来的是恐惧的。Yael:One nice day youre walking along a wooded path.雅艾尔:在一个天气不错的日子里,你正在林荫小道里漫步。You come around a corner and there, coiled in the path, is a huge rattlesnake, its rattles abuzz.但走到小道拐角一处时,你突然发现一条巨大的响尾蛇就在那里蜷缩着!还嘶嘶吐着蛇信。You are deathly afraid of snakes.你可是天生怕蛇怕得要死。Don: Various parts of the brain signal the nervous systems and organs to prepare to take action.唐:这时大脑中的各个部分给神经系统各个器官发出信号以对此作出反应:The pupils of the eyes dilate, the thyroid gland raises the resting metabolic rate, the bronchioles in the lungs dilate to admit more oxygen, hairs stand on end, heart rate and blood pressure rise to supply the body and brain with fuel.瞳孔放大,甲状腺加快新陈代谢,肺部的气管扩张吸进更多氧气,毛发竖起,心率加快,血压上升以便供给身体和大脑能量。Yael:The liver begins to break down sugars for quick energy, blood vessels in the skin contract causing chills and sweating, the spleen pumps out white blood cells in case there is an injury, stomach and intestine enzyme secretion and muscle activity needed for digestion stop, and blood vessels in the stomach and intestines contract to divert blood to the muscles.雅艾尔:肝脏加速分解糖分供能。皮下血管收缩,身体发冷出汗。脾脏产生更多白细胞抵抗受伤。肠胃酶的分泌及肌肉活动引起食欲不振。肠胃的血管收缩,血液传输到肌肉组织。Don:The bladder and colon prepare to empty, the central portion of the adrenal medulla floods the bloodstream with adrenaline and noradrenaline, constricting the blood vessels, breathing quickens.唐:膀胱和结肠有可能排空,血液随肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素汇聚到肾上腺髓质的中部,血管收缩,呼吸加快。The entire body is in a state of high alert, y to stay and fight or say ;Feet dont fail me now.;整个人都处于高度戒备,要么呆在那不动,或者人蛇大战,再或者告诉自己“我可根本不怕哦”。Yael:Did you follow all that?雅艾尔:你会有上述所有反应吗?Of course not, but all that, and more, happens in your body within seconds of your sensing a threat.当然不是所有咯!但是,当你遭遇惊吓,身体会在仅仅几秒内产生更多反应。Don:It makes us tired just thinking about it唐:光想想就够累人的! 201311/264730Accounting for brands品牌的价值Untouchable intangibles无法触摸的无形资产Sometimes you see brands on the balance-sheet, sometimes you dont一些企业把品牌价值列入资产负债表,而另一些企业却没有这样做COCA-COLA is worth 79.2 billion, according to Interbrand, a consultant. That does not seem excessive for the brand responsible for making Santa Claus look so jolly. But neither that number nor anything close to it appears on the companys balance-sheet. “Trademarks with indefinite lives”are worth just 6.7 billion, say the companys accounts.据Interbrand品牌咨询公司估计, 仅“可口可乐”这个品牌就价值792亿美元。可口可乐为每年的圣诞节增添了无穷的乐趣,这样看来Interbrand的估价并不过分。然而,可口可乐公司的资产负债表中并没有出现如此巨额的品牌估价,公司会计表示,该公司的商标价值仅为67亿。The reason is that both American and international accounting rules prohibit companies from recognising brands and many other “intangible” assets (such as customer lists) if they have created them themselves. Some would like to change that. Roger Sinclair, who advises the MASB, an American body that sets marketing standards, points out that rules are inconsistent. The value of a brand—invisible when internally generated—is revealed when another company buys it.原因是美国和国际会计法规都不承认企业自创的品牌以及其他无形资产的价值。一些准备上市的企业希望改变这种状况。Roger Sinclair指出,MASB(上市会计准则理事会,美国的一个制定上市标准的机构)的这项规定是自相矛盾的:品牌的价值虽然在它产生的时候是隐性的,但是当它出售时就会变成可衡量的显性价值。That is because a different rule applies to acquisitions. In 2005 Procter amp; Gamble, a consumer-goods company, paid 57 billion for the Gillette razor company. The brand alone, Pamp;G reckoned, was worth 24 billion. Oddly, Gillettes value can now only go down. Pamp;G must test it for “impairment” but cannot acknowledge any increase, though Interbrand says Gillettes value rose 1% last year.企业并购中有一项特殊的规定,即允许企业对品牌进行估价出售。在2005年保洁的并购案中,保洁花了570亿美元收购了吉列剃须刀,其中仅仅是吉列这个品牌的价值就有240亿。然而,现在吉列的价值只会不断下降。因为”损耗”,保洁必须对吉列进行核算,但是它的估价绝不会有任何增长,即使Interbrand表明吉列的价值在去年增长了1%。Investors have a right to know how much brands are worth because so much of a firms future depends on them, Mr Sinclair argues. The conflicting standards treat brands rather as if they were electrons that can be in two places at once.Sinclair认为,投资者有权知道企业品牌的价值,因为这密切关乎着一个企业的未来。这种对品牌价值的矛盾的规定似乎认为,品牌价值就像光电一样可以瞬间穿梭于两个地方。Accountants seem content to live with such quantum weirdness. Brand values can “swing wildly”, says Alan Teixeira of the International Accounting Standards Board. Standard-setters worry that auditors would be quick to recognise rises but slow to acknowledge declines. Brands are unique, so it is hard to figure out what their market value is. “How do you separate a brand from customers that generate the sales or the know-how that enables the product to be made?” wonders Hilary Eastman of PwC, an accounting firm.会计师似乎很喜欢这种量化品牌价值的方式。国际会计标准理事会认为:品牌价值可能会有严重偏差。规则制定者担心审计们很容易察觉到品牌价值的提升,却很难发现它的下滑。品牌都是独一无二的,所以很难用数据衡量它们的市值。普华永道的Hilary Eastman疑问道:“怎样将品牌和创造销量的顾客、生产产品的技术分开呢?”Australia used to account for internally generated brands but gave it up in 2005 to align itself with international standards. It “put much more focus on brands” and gave markets extra information, says Angus Thomson of the Australian Accounting Standards Board. He would like to see the practice restored but is not hopeful. If its intangible, bean-counters wont touch it.澳大利亚曾经尝试将自创品牌的价值计入会计账目,但是为了与国际标准接轨,于2005年取消了这种无形资产计价方式。澳大利亚会计标准理事会的Angus Thomson认为:“量化自创品牌价值使得大家对品牌更加关注,并且披露了更多的市场信息。”他希望这种做法可以重新实行,但他也认为这种可能性不大。如果资产是无形的,那些锱铢必较的会计师们将不会参与这类资产的核算。 /201409/325404

Business商业报道Breaking up News Corp拆分新闻集团Murdoch does the splits新闻集团分家,默多克来操刀Investors like the idea of hiving off the groups newspaper arm投资者期盼分离新闻集团的新闻出版业务SHAKESPEARE mused that It is beyond the power of man to bring love and wisdom to an union.莎士比亚曾写过,爱使人愚笨。人对于喜爱的事物无法做出理智的判断。News Corporations shareholders have long agreed, arguing that Rupert Murdochs love for newsprint has clouded his judgment and tainted his media empire.新闻集团的股东们长期以来一致认为,鲁伯特·默多克对新闻出版业的钟爱混淆了他的判断力,危害了他的传媒帝国。The sluggish growth and the legal cases besetting News Corps publishing arm set it in sharp contrast to the groups robust film and television assets, which account for three-quarters of revenues and almost all operating profit.新闻集团的出版业务,发展缓慢,官司缠身,和其蓬勃壮大的影视业务一比,相形见绌。当前,集团四分之三的收入和几乎所有的盈利都来源于影视业务。After months of hinting that it may heed investors and separate the two parts, News Corps board met on June 27th to approve a split, and was set to confirm its decision as The Economist went to press.新闻集团将听取投资者的意见,拆分成两家独立的上市公司—这样的暗示流传了数月之久之后,新闻集团的董事会终于在6月27日探讨了拆分的可行性,并定于本期《经济学人》杂志出版之时给出定论。News that a split was under consideration sent News Corps share price up by around 10%.新闻集团打算拆分的消息出来后,该公司的股票价格上涨了约10%。At over , it is now at its highest since 2007.当前股价涨过22美元每股,为2007年以来的最高水平。This bolstered the view that dividing the group will boost both companies and reward shareholders.这无疑有力地持了新闻集团拆分为两家独立的上市公司对公司和股东都将大有裨益这一观点。After the phone-hacking scandal at News Corps British newspaper arm—which is still being investigated by Lord Justice Leveson, a senior judge—the group had to drop its bid for full ownership of BSkyB, a profitable satellite broadcaster; it aly owns 39%.新闻集团旗下的英国报纸闹出电话窃听丑闻之后—上诉法院的高级法官Leveson仍在调查此案—被迫放弃收购效益良好的英国卫星电视运营商BskyB。Separating the publishing division and giving it a new boss may not be enough to overcome regulatory obstacles to News Corp taking full ownership of BSkyB.新闻集团已经拥有该公司39%的股份。将出版业务分离出来,指派一个新的管理者,还不足以克收购BskyB所面临的政策上的障碍,But it should help protect the entertainment businesses from the scandals rising legal costs, and at least ward off pressure for News Corp to sell its existing stake.但却足以保护集团的业务免受窃听丑闻昂贵的诉讼费用带来的损失,并且顶住压力留住已经持有的BskyB股份。Besides closing the News of the World in the wake of the hacking scandal, News Corp has recently rid itself of another sour asset, MySpace, and initiated a billion share buy-back.自窃听丑闻发生以来,新闻集团除了停刊旗下的《世界新闻报》外,近期还卖掉了经营不善的社交网站聚友网,并斥资100亿美元回购集团股份。Such moves have supported the groups share price and pleased shareholders.这些买卖交易导致集团股价飙升,股东们自然不亦乐乎。But splitting the company in two is the ultimate dream of investors, says Michael Nathanson of Nomura, a stockbroker.将新闻集团一分为二才是股东们的终极梦想,野村券的股票经纪人Michael Nathanson如是说。Analysts worry that News Corp is still juggling too many minority stakes in smaller companies, such as Hulu and Tata Sky.有分析师担心,新闻集团在太多的小公司里持有小额股份,如在Hulu视频网站和印度卫星电视运营公司Tata Sky都持有股份,而这些小额股份不易管理。Todd Juenger of Sanford C. Bernstein, an investment bank, also worries about the billion of idle cash on News Corps balance-sheet.投行斯坦福·伯恩斯坦的Juenger也指出,新闻集团的资产负债表上闲置的110亿美元资产颇为令人担心。However, Chase Carey, the groups chief operating officer, has been busy trying to sort out its tangle of holdings, selling some of its minority stakes at a profit and buying full control of other holdings.新闻集团的首席运营官Chase Carey已经开始试着整理这一团乱麻般的闲置资产,他以有所盈利的价格售出一部分小公司的股权,并全股收购余下的小公司。Investors seem prepared to cut Mr Carey some slack while he does so.投资者对于Carey此番的运营方案并无异议。Any reorganisation of the top table will probably keep him just below Rupert Murdoch, leaving his son James Murdoch,一旦高层人员有所调整,Carey很有可能荣升为新闻集团的第二把手。who gave up the chairmanship of News Corps British newspaper arm after the scandal, out of the spotlight for now.这下鲁伯特·默多克的儿子詹姆斯·默多克会暂时退出公众的视线了。窃听丑闻发生之后,詹姆斯·默多克便辞去了新闻集团英国报业的主席职位。The fastest-growing parts of the company are its television and cable businesses.新闻集团发展最快的是无线电视和有线电视业务。News Corp was shrewd in understanding the market for conservative political TV in America:集团精明地预见到了保守的政论节目在美国的广泛市场:the core audience of Fox News creates a stable cashflow.福克斯新闻台的核心观众群,带来了稳定的资金流入。The company has also made wise investments in sports broadcasting, which viewers still prefer to watch live.集团还明智地投资于体育节目的直播。体育频道的观众爱看现场直播。BSkyB owns the lions share of Britains football rights, Fox has American football, and its cable network hosts NASCAR races.BSkyB在英国享有最大份额的足球节目直播权,福克斯拥有美式橄榄球赛的直播权,并且福克斯有线电视网还负责主持全美运动汽车竞赛。The company is expanding its holdings in Australia and Latin America, and is considering a new national sports network in America to rival ESPN.新闻集团还在扩张其在澳洲和拉丁美洲所持的体育赛事直播权,同时还在策划在美国建立一个可以匹敌ESPN的全国体育节目网。The portfolio of newspapers in News Corps publishing arm encompasses loss-makers like the London Times and the New York Post,新闻集团出版业务的众多资产中,既有像《泰晤士报》和《纽约邮报》这样入不敷出的,as well as the Wall Street Journal, which Mr Murdoch paid too much for but which at least is in profit,有像《华尔街日报》这样投资巨大才略有盈利的,and the Sun, a populist cash-cow.也有像《太阳报》这样提倡民粹主义的摇钱树。The newspaper business may not be growing, but it generates enough cashflow to sustain itself, says Jeff Logsdon of BMO Capital Markets.加拿大蒙特利尔资本市场的Jeff Logsdon指出,新闻出版业或许无法扩大,但所产出的收益足以维持自身的运营。It is unlikely that the company will try to offload its British papers while Mr Murdoch is still alive, in part because the phone-hacking trials could go on for years.在默多克有生之年,新闻集团抛弃旗下英国报纸可能性不大,部分原因正是电话窃听案。窃听案怕是得审上好几年。The ideal outcome for investors may be a repeat of what happened when Viacom, a film and cable giant, spun off its broadcast arm, CBS, in 2005.投资者所期望的理想结果是,拆分之后两家公司的运营能像当时的美国维亚康姆集团那样。Sumner Redstone remained chairman of both sides but Leslie Moonves, given the job of running the supposedly sluggish CBS part,影视巨头维亚康姆集团于2005年将有线电视业务和无线电视业务拆分开来。showed that it could be revived—since when the shares of both businesses have risen.由哥伦比亚广播公司专营无线电视业务。Sumner Redstone仍然兼任两家公司的主席。Leslie Moonves负责运营当时不被看好的哥伦比亚广播公司,通过妥善的管理使哥伦比亚广播公司重整旗鼓—自此以后,两家公司的股价都有所攀升。 /201307/248323

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