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泉州超导可视打胎大概要多少钱飞度咨询动态新闻网惠安做无痛人流一般多少钱

2019年07月19日 22:32:58
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福建医科大学附属第二医院 专科医院BlackBerry is far from what it used to be, but based on its stock performance this year, the smartphone maker isn’t y for a burial just yet.黑莓(BlackBerry)确实今不如昔,但根据今年的股价走势,这家智能手机制造商看来还没打算跟世界彻底告别。BlackBerry shares have climbed nearly 45% this year to .94 on Tuesday. That’s pretty remarkable performance for any stock, let alone that of a company many shrugged off as irrelevant and nearly defunct. BlackBerry’s U.S. market share among smartphones is an anemic 2.3% versus Android’s 52.1% and Apple’s 41.9%, according to comScore.今年初以来,黑莓的股价上涨了近45%,周二收盘时报10.94美元。对任何一只股票而言,这样的表现都相当出色,更不用说黑莓这样的公司——在许多人眼中它已经无足轻重,而且濒临倒闭。数字领域分析机构康姆斯科(comScore)提供的数据显示,黑莓在美国智能手机市场中的份额只有2.3%,而安卓(Android)和苹果公司(Apple)的份额分别为52.1%和41.9%。Are rebounding shares one sign of a possible BlackBerry comeback? Not necessarily. Although investors are clearly excited about something happening over at Waterloo.股价反弹是否意味着黑莓可能东山再起呢?未必。但这家公司的一些动向显然让投资者感到兴奋。“The primary thing they’ve done is cut costs,” says Ken Dulaney, a vice president at Gartner, a tech research firm. In May, BlackBerry began selling the Z3 smartphone exclusively in Indonesia. The 5-inch, touchscreen device is more notable for its affordability – it costs 0 – than features. It was also one of the first products to emerge from a partnership with Foxconn, the Taiwanese manufacturer responsible for churning out iPads, iPhones, and Kindle e-ers. Previously, BlackBerry contracted out its phone manufacturing, but a new partnership with Foxconn – a notoriously efficient business - is intended to be more cost-efficient in the face of declining revenues, which plunged 69% to 6 during BlackBerry’s first quarter.科技行业研究机构高德纳(Gartner)副总裁肯o杜拉尼说:“他们的主要成就是削减成本。”5月份,黑莓推出了专门针对印尼市场的Z3智能手机。这款5英寸触屏手机最引人关注的是低廉的价格,而不是功能——它的售价仅为190美元。这也是黑莓和富士康——iPad、iPhone和Kindle电子书阅读器的台湾代工厂商成为合作伙伴后推出的首批产品之一。此前,黑莓曾将手机制造业务外包,而这次跟以效率闻名的富士康合作则是为了在收入不断下降之际提高成本效率。黑莓第一财季收入大幅下跌69%,下降到了9.66亿美元。“Investors don’t care if it [BlackBerry] goes out of business in the next two years,” explains Dulaney. “If there’s a perception that it’s doing better for a period of time, they can invest in it.”杜拉尼解释说:“投资者并不关心今后两年(黑莓)是否会倒闭。如果人们觉得它的情况会在一段时间内得到改善,就会对它投资。”Besides slashing costs, Chen has also expressed interest in finding new ways for BlackBerry to make money. It’s banking on new devices for emerging markets where the brand remains more widely-used, as well as better enterprise software that is due out by the end of the year.除了削减成本,另一个让人感兴趣的问题是,黑莓能否找到赚钱的新途径。这家公司寄希望于面向新兴市场的新产品以及更好的企业软件。在新兴市场,黑莓手机仍然得到了比较广泛的应用,改进后的企业软件也将在今年底之前推出。That may not be enough. While Dulaney suggests BlackBerry give up trying to own the software operating system its devices run for the more popular Android he suggests a more radical approach: splitting the company up so products like its messaging service, which still has 80 million-plus users monthly, have a better shot at surviving without the pressures of a larger company in turn-around mode.但这些也许还不够。杜拉尼认为,这家公司应该放弃拥有黑莓手机操作系统的尝试,转而采用更受欢迎的安卓系统。他还提出了一个更大胆的建议:将黑莓拆分开来。这样,它的某些产品,比如每月仍有8000多万用户的短信务,就更有可能生存下来,而且不需要承受一家大公司在扭转颓势的过程中所面临的压力。Adds Dulaney: “If BlackBerry wants to stay a single entity, they’ll need to sell millions and millions more devices.” Possible, but more and more unlikely as the competition’s prices continue to drop.杜拉尼指出:“如果想保持完整,黑莓的手机销量就得提高许多许多。”这有可能,但随着竞争对手不断降低产品价格,这种可能性正变得越来越渺茫。 /201407/311412泉州第一医院无痛人流Japan’s biggest trading company and Asia’s richest man have teamed up in an 0m aircraft leasing joint venture, betting that cheap debt and strong demand from low-cost carriers will sustain a multiyear boom.日本最大贸易公司三菱(Mitsubishi Corp)与亚洲首富李嘉诚将联手创建一家规模为8亿美元的合资飞机租赁公司。他们认为,廉价贷款和来自低成本运营商的强大需求将延续飞机租赁热。Mitsubishi Corp will get the venture started by selling it 15 of the 79 planes owned by its aviation finance unit, MC Aviation Partners. MCAP, which is wholly-owned by Mitsubishi, will contribute 40 per cent of the venture’s equity, with the remainder coming from Cheung Kong Holdings, the main investment vehicle of Li Ka-shing, the Hong Kong-based billionaire.三菱将首先把旗下航空金融部门MCAP(MC Aviation Partners)拥有的79架飞机中的15架售予该合资公司。MCAP由三菱全资所有,将为合资公司贡献40%的股本,剩下的将来自李嘉诚旗下主要投资机构长江实业(Cheung Kong Holdings)。The planes – new, narrow-body aircraft from Airbus and Boeing – have a combined appraisal value of about 0m, according to MCAP. Assuming that banks provide loans of between 60 per cent and 80 per cent of that value, the partners will contribute equity of 0m to 0m.MCAP称,这些飞机的评估价值总计约8亿美元,为空客( Airbus)和波音(Boeing)生产的窄体新飞机。假设新公司能获得相当于这一评估价值60%至80%的贷款,两家公司还将出资1.60亿美元至3.20亿美元。Within a few years, the aim was to build the venture’s assets to about bn, said Hiroshi Nakanishi, general manager of Mitsubishi’s aviation business department. He noted that demand from budget airlines was expected to push the share of leased planes within the global fleet to about half in five to ten years, from 40 per cent now.三菱航空业务部门总经理Hiroshi Nakanishi表示,新公司的目标是几年内将资产扩大到50亿美元左右。他预计,廉价航空公司的需求将在5到10年内,将租赁飞机占全球飞机总数的比例从现在的40%推升至一半左右。“Depending on discussions with Cheung Kong, more planes could be transferred,” Mr Nakanishi said. “But we need to source new planes from the market.”“根据与长江实业的谈判,可能会有更多飞机转移到新公司,”Hiroshi Nakanishi表示,“但我们需要从市场采购新飞机。”Mr Li is known for his preference for infrastructure in countries with stable regulatory and common law systems. In August, Cheung Kong said it was in talks to buy a bn fleet of 100 aircraft put up for sale by Awas, a European lessor owned by Terra Firma, the private equity group.李嘉诚多年来一直倾向于在有着稳定监管和普通法体系的国家投资于当地基础设施。今年8月,长江实业曾表示,正就以50亿美元购入欧洲租赁公司Awas拍卖的100架飞机展开谈判。Awas由私人股本集团Terra Firma所有。 /201411/340972泉州医科大学第二医院住院部电话

泉州新阳光妇科医院泉州中医院的妇科怎么样You know there is trouble when Tony Robbins, the tirelessly upbeat Mr. Motivation, is sulking.当你看到托尼·罗宾斯(Tony Robbins)这个不知疲倦、永远乐观的励志大师感到郁闷,你就知道的确出问题了。But there he was on Twitter, lamenting the prospect of yet another torment in the hell of modern air travel: people talking on cellphones. The Federal Communications Commission is considering letting passengers use their phones while flying, and Mr. Robbins — and a lot of other people — are not happy.可是罗宾斯恰恰就在Twitter上,嗟叹着“现代航空地狱”可能出现的另一种磨人酷刑:乘客打电话。联邦通信委员会(Federal Communications Commission,简称FCC)正在考虑允许乘客在飞机飞行时打电话。罗宾斯和其他许多人都很不高兴。;Do we really need this!?; Mr. Robbins, the motivational speaker, wrote in response to the news.罗宾斯这位励志演说家回应这则新闻时写道,“我们真的需要这个吗?”Others were more blunt. My inbox was flooded with angry messages. ;I aly hate my fellow passengers — this would only make it worse,; one er wrote. A petition was created on the White House website to rally the quiet-cabin camp.其他人的口气更加直白,我的收件箱里也收到了大量愤怒的言论。一位读者写道,“我本来就讨厌同机的乘客,这样一来恐怕要更恨他们了。”人们还在白宫网站上发起了请愿,试图凝聚保持客舱宁静的阵营。The reaction was the opposite of the mostly celebratory, Twitter-tape parade that marched through social media last month when the Federal Aviation Administration finally relented and agreed to let passengers on their devices, surf the web and check emails during takeoff and landing. For many, the takeaway seems to be this: Let the guy squeezed next to me quietly on a Kindle? No problem. Let him drone away in my ear? No way.这种反应与联邦航空(Federal Aviation Administration,简称FAA)上个月终于放松要求,允许乘客在飞机起飞和降落时在设备上阅读、上网、查收电子邮件时,大多数人都表示庆祝、在社交媒体上奔走相告的反应大相径庭。对很多人来说,故事的重点似乎是:使劲塞进我旁边座位的那个家伙想在Kindle上静静读书?没问题。让他在我耳边嘟嘟囔囔?没门。So why is the F.C.C. proposing something many people don#39;t seem to want? The agency is, in fact, trying to give us what we want: access to data while flying. One byproduct, however, is that people would, or could, also be able to make calls. But it may be difficult for people to get what many want — access to cellular data on flights — without getting what many don#39;t want — the occasional Chatty Cathy in 21B.那么FCC为什么要提出一项许多人似乎并不喜欢的措施呢?实际上这个部门是在试图给我们想要的东西:飞行时能够使用数据。然而这种做法的副产品就是,人们也同样能够打电话。但要想让人们得到他们想要的(在飞机上使用蜂窝数据),同时避免他们不想要的(偶尔出现在21B座位上的大嘴婆)可能很难。It isn#39;t a done deal. The F.C.C. has not issued a formal ruling, and commission officials declined to comment for this article. But an earlier statement from the F.C.C.#39;s chairman, Tom Wheeler, echoed the concerns that people like Mr. Robbins are voicing.这件事还没有敲定。FCC并没有下达正式的决定,委员会的官员也拒绝为这篇文章接受采访。不过FCC主席汤姆·惠勒(Tom Wheeler)在较早前发布的声明中,回应了像罗宾斯这样的人所表达的顾虑。;We understand that many passengers would prefer that voice calls not be made on airplanes. I feel that way myself,; Mr. Wheeler said. ;Ultimately, if the F.C.C. adopts the proposal in the coming months, it will be airlines#39; decisions, in consultation with their customers, as to whether to permit voice calls while airborne.;“我们理解许多乘客希望在飞机上不要打电话。我本人也是这样想的,”惠勒说。“如果FCC在未来几个月采纳这个提议,最终还是要由航空公司在咨询消费者之后,决定是否允许在飞行过程中拨打电话。”The F.C.C. provided me with documents and filings that help explain how this issue has evolved. The rules about using cellphones on planes date to the early #39;90s, when phones were the size of milk cartons. Those devices, coupled with the weak electrical insulation in aircrafts, created crackly interference for pilots, so they were quickly banned. In 2007, the F.C.C. opened an internal review about whether to lift the rules, but safety concerns were still an issue, and the proposal was shelved.FCC向我提供了一些文档和提交的文件,有助于解释这个议题的转化。涉及在飞机上使用手机的规章始于上世纪90年代初期,当时的手机还和砖头一样大。那些设备,再加上飞机上薄弱的电绝缘技术,对飞行员产生了噪音干扰,因此手机被迅速禁用。2007年,FCC对是否取消这些规章开展了内部审议,但安全方面的担忧仍然是一个问题,于是提议被搁置了。Now, as the F.A.A.#39;s revision of its rules on using devices during takeoff and landing illustrate, today#39;s gadgets and planes are made for each other. In many respects, the F.C.C. is looking out for consumers, trying to give people the opportunity to connect to data on a cellphone rather than pay for costly — and often laboriously slow — Wi-Fi available on airplanes.现在,就像FAA修订其规章,允许在飞机起降时使用电子设备所显示的,今天的电子设备和飞机经过设计可以互相兼容。在很多方面,FCC是在保护消费者权益,让人们有机会在手机上连接数据,而不是使用飞机上提供的昂贵且缓慢的Wi-Fi。As is often the case with technology, the ed States is trailing other parts of the world on this issue. The European Union began enabling airlines to permit cellphone and data use in 2008. As will be the case in the ed States if the rules change, the European Union left it to airlines to choose which components of a cell service to make active during flights.就像科技领域经常发生的那样,在这个问题上美国也落后于世界其他国家。欧盟在2008年就开始批准航空公司让乘客在飞机上使用手机和移动数据。就像规章改变后美国的情形一样,欧盟让航空公司选择在飞行过程中允许移动电话务的哪些部分。In Europe, Virgin Atlantic allows unlimited data connections, but it lets only six people talk on a cellphone at once. Some Lufthansa flights allow data connections through a cellphone, but no phone calls. Emirates lets an unlimited number of passengers talk on their phones — though few apparently do. How is it working so far? A study by the F.A.A. in 2012 found no reports ;of air rage or flight attendant interference related to passengers using cellphones on aircraft; in other countries.在欧洲,维珍大西洋(Virgin Atlantic)允许无限的数据连接,但只允许六个人同时打电话。汉莎航空(Lufthansa)的一些航班允许通过手机连接数据,但不允许打电话。阿联酋航空(Emirates)允许数量不限的乘客打电话,不过似乎很少人会打。这些规定的实际影响如何?FAA在2012年开展的一项研究发现,在那些国家没有出现“与乘客在飞机上使用电话相关的愤怒事件,也没有空乘实施干预”的报告。The change here, if it comes, will not happen overnight. There#39;s a long process to go through first.即使美国的规章变动能够得到批准,变化也不会一夜之间到来,首先还需要经过很长的过程。;Once the F.C.C. issues its opinion, it would be up to the F.A.A., the airlines, or both, to decide whether to roll out services,; said Angela Giancarlo, a lawyer at Mayer Brown and a former F.C.C. official. Then, as in Europe, the airlines would be able to decide whether to allow data services, voice services, neither or both. Most important, pilots and stewards would have a ;kill switch,; so if someone is talking too much, his or her phone could be shut off from the cockpit.孖士打律师行(Mayer Brown)律师、前FCC官员安吉拉·吉安卡洛(Angela Giancarlo)表示,“FCC发布意见之后,就会由FAA或航空公司,或是双方来决定是否推出务。”之后就像在欧洲一样,航空公司还可以决定允许数据务还是语音务,两者都不允许还是两者都允许。最重要的是,飞行员和乘务员手里有“终极开关”,如果有人打电话打太多,飞行员可以在驾驶舱里屏蔽他的手机。;There is no quiet car at 30,000 feet,; Senator Edward J. Markey, a Massachusetts Democrat and member of the Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee, wrote in an email. ;Staying connected and entertained by checking email and playing a game on your phone is one thing, but loud, intrusive phone calls would strain the social compact we all enter into when we board a plane.;马萨诸塞州民主党参议员,参议院商业、科学及运输委员会(Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee)成员爱德华·J·马基(Edward J. Markey)在一封电子邮件中写道,“在3万英尺的高空可没有单独的‘宁静车厢#39;。在手机上查邮件、玩游戏,跟人保持联络或者进行是一回事儿,可是大声打电话干扰别人,却会对我们登上飞机后共同进入的社会空间构成干扰。”So what happens next? On Dec. 12, the F.C.C. proposal will be presented to its commissioners. If approved, it will then be put online for a public comment. That#39;s when everyone — airlines and passengers alike — can voice their opinions.下一步会发生什么?12月12日,FCC的提议就会提交给委员们讨论。如果得到批准,就会在网上征求公众意见。到时候所有人都可以表达观点,包括航空公司和乘客。But, travelers, think carefully. Say no to cellphone use, and you lose that data connection on your iPad and smartphone at 30,000 feet. And that is what many of you have been asking for all along. You might have to sit next to Chatty Cathy. But at least you will be able to tweet about it.但是请各位乘客认真考虑。不允许使用手机,就会在3万英尺的高空失去iPad和智能手机上的数据连接。这可是你们当中许多人一直都想要的。或许你旁边就坐着一个大嘴婆,但至少能在Twitter上抱怨一下。 /201411/339409Travelers, corporate travel departments and security consultants are trying to figure out ways to avoid flights that pass over war zones after the revelation that some airlines were avoiding eastern Ukraine while others, including Malaysia Airlines, were flying over areas of conflict.旅客、商务差旅部门以及安全顾问眼下都想要知道航班的飞行路线,以避开那些途径交战区的航班。此前据披露,一些航空公司正在避开乌克兰东部飞行,而包括马来西亚航空公司(Malaysia Airlines)在内的其他一些航空公司则经由冲突地区上空飞行。With a little research, you can build confidence that your airline is avoiding trouble spots -- or discover if it isn#39;t. While you won#39;t know for sure the exact path your flight will take on a given day, you can figure out whether your airline routinely skirts certain countries, and the most likely route you#39;ll fly.你只要稍加研究,便可对你的航班是否避开问题区域做到心中有数。虽然你不能保了解你所乘航班的当日确切路线,但你可以知道该航班一般是否会绕开某些国家,以及该航班最有可能执飞的路线。Every day hundreds of passenger airliners fly over trouble spots. Passenger jets regularly pass over Baghdad, for example. There are 41 #39;kinetic conflicts#39; -- situations where people are shooting at each other -- around the world, according to security intelligence firm iJet International Inc., which advises corporate travel departments and airlines.每天飞过问题地区的客机有数百架。例如巴格达上空一般都会有客机经过。据安全情报机构iJet International Inc.表示,全世界目前有41个区域处于“动态冲突”(指人们互相开火的状态)状态。这家机构主要为商务差旅部门和航空公司提供咨询。#39;This is not an isolated incident#39; of flying over conflict areas, said iJet chief executive Bruce McIndoe, who has aly had conversations with clients -- traveler managers and airlines -- about supplying more information about potential trouble areas. Even though most of the 41 are small, localized conflicts without high-powered surface-to-air missiles involved, #39;it#39;s a whole new world as of a couple of days ago,#39; he said.iJet的首席执行长麦金杜(Bruce McIndoe)表示,飞跃冲突区并不是一件孤立的事。麦金杜已经与旅客经理以及航空公司这些客户就提供更多关于潜在问题区信息的问题进行了交流。尽管在上述41处冲突中多数属于小规模的局部冲突,没有强大的地对空导弹的参与,但麦金杜表示,在数天前,这方面还是一个全新的领域。There#39;s also the remote possibility of having to make an emergency landing at an airport in the middle of a conflict.而在冲突中紧急迫降在机场则是一件可能性很小的事。Airlines make decisions for every flight about the planned route, usually based mostly on weather forecasts and winds. Airlines want the most economical route, but often fly around severe weather or take a longer route with more favorable winds. And some are more cautious about flying over conflicts than others.每次飞行中,航空公司都要围绕规划的路线作出种种决定,通常主要依据天气预报和风力情况。航空公司希望走最经济的那条路线,但这样的话往往会经过天气恶劣的地方或者是选取风向有利、但需要更长时间的路线。一些航空公司则比其他公司对于飞经冲突区更为谨慎。In the days leading up to the July 17 downing of Malaysia Flight 17 over eastern Ukraine, several airlines, including Australia#39;s Qantas Airways and Dubai-based Emirates, regularly flew longer routes around the area of fighting between Russian-backed separatists and Ukrainian forces. Other carriers continued to fly routes over the territory that had been deemed safe by local governments and air-traffic control agencies.在7月17日MH17航班在乌克兰东部上空被击落之前,包括澳洲航空公司(Qantas Airways Ltd.)和总部位于迪拜的阿联酋航空(Emirates Airline)在内的几家航空公司的长途航线经常会飞过俄罗斯持的分裂分子与乌克兰军队的交战区附近。其他航空公司继续在被当地政府和空管机构认定为安全的区域飞行。#39;I think this is a wake-up call,#39; said Michael McCormick, executive director of the Global Business Travel Association, which represents corporate travel executives. He says companies and individual travelers assumed airlines could be trusted to fly in safe skies, but now some will start evaluating flight-path risk on their own. Travel managers aly use security firms to evaluate risks on the ground, such as riots, strikes, crime and storms.全球商务旅行协会(Global Business Travel Association)执行董事麦考密克(Michael McCormick)称,他认为这起事故给人们敲响了警钟。他说,公司和个人旅行者认为可以相信航空公司会在安全空域飞行,但现在一些人将自行评估飞行路径的风险。旅行经理已经在藉助安全公司评估地面风险,如暴动、罢工、犯罪和风暴等。#39;The reality is companies send travelers to every corner of the world and we can#39;t make that assumption anymore that airlines are looking after this part of security,#39; Mr. McCormick said.麦考密克表示,现实情况是,企业派员工到世界各地出差,不能再想当然地认为航空公司会对飞行路径方面的安全负责。Savvy travelers can check up on airlines with flight-tracking services like FlightAware.com and Flightradar24.com. Both collect data from air-traffic control agencies and in some cases use automatic position broadcasts from airplanes themselves. They are considered accurate and reliable, with extensive use by airlines and corporate jet services.明智的出行者会通过FlightAware.com和Flightradar24.com等航班追踪务机构来查询航班情况。两家网站均从空管机构收集资料,在某些情况下使用飞机自身的自动定位广播。这些网站提供的信息被认为是精确可靠的,被航空公司和商务飞机务机构广泛采用。FlightAware and Flightradar24 let users enter an airline flight number and then see the path of the latest trip. Both have flight histories available, so you can check the path over several days. On FlightAware, you can also search for flights by departure and destination, which can give you more flights to compare on roughly the same long-distance path.FlightAware和Flightradar24允许用户输入航班号,然后就可以看到最近一次飞行的路径。两家网站都提供航班历史记录查询,因此用户可以查看几天内的飞行路径。在FlightAware上,用户还可以通过出发地和目的地来查询航班,从而对距离基本一致的路径上的不同航班进行比较。 /201407/314807泉州治疗尿道炎哪家好That locking mechanism on your tablet computer or smartphone? It’s mostly a relic from the days of the keyboard. With the advent of touchscreens, the three-by-three grids and four-digit passcodes popular on today’s mobile devices are anachronistic. Yet they persist, despite “shoulder surfers” and the telltale oilsleft by swiping fingers.眼下平板电脑或智能手机上的锁屏程序可谓键盘时代的遗物。随着触摸屏的出现,如今移动设备上常用的“九宫格”式和四位密码都过时了。然而,它们仍然在广泛使用,尽管老有人站在别人身后偷窥,而用户手指划过屏幕时留下的油迹也会泄露密码。A new study from Rutgers University suggests that squiggling—yes, squiggling—on the screen of your tablet or smartphone may provide a better authentication mechanism than the standard pattern locks favored by Google’s GOOG 1.54% Android operating system and the Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) preferred by Apple’s AAPL -0.09% iOS.美国罗格斯大学(Rutgers University)一项新研究表明,在平板电脑或智能手机上信手涂鸦可能是比谷歌(Google)安卓( Android)操作系统所采用的标准模式锁屏以及苹果(Apple)所青睐的个人识别号码(Personal Identification Numbers, PINs)更好的身份验机制。“The current locking and authentication mechanisms available for mobile systems commercially do not work so well,” said Janne Lindqvist, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at Rutgers University and an author of the study. “Instead of having old methods or cued methods, we let people just generate gestures without any kind of visual cue or other kind of instructions.”研究报告的执笔人之一、罗格斯大学电气和计算机工程助理教授珍妮o林奎斯特称:“目前移动系统采用的商业化的锁定和身份验机制不太好用。我们弃用给用户提示的老方法,转而让用户在屏幕上信手涂鸦,不存在任何视觉提示或其他类型的指示。”The studies’ researchers, which included collaborators from the Max-Planck Institute for Informatics and the University of Helsinki, asked 63 participants to scrawl “continuous free-form multitouch gestures,” essentially finger-painting on the blank touchscreen canvas of a Google Nexus 10 tablet. No grid, no template: the subjects improvised a pass-doodle, rather than a password.这项研究的研究人员包括来自马普信息学研究所(the Max-Planck Institute for Informatics)以及赫尔辛基大学(the University of Helsinki)的合作者。他们请63位被试者以“连续不规则多点触控手势”信手涂鸦,本质上是以谷歌Nexus 10平板电脑的空白触摸屏为画布,以手指为笔作画。没有“九宫格”,也没有模版,被试者即兴创作的是“密画”,而非密码。The researchers then asked users to recall and redraw their scribbles after a short break and a bit of distracting mental math (counting down from 20 to 0 and rotating a shape in their minds). Next, the researchers retested the users’ memory after a minimum of 10 days. (Six subjects didn’t return for the second test.)随后,研究人员要求被试者在短暂休息和令人分心的心算(从20倒数到0,同时想像一个图形在自己脑海中转动)后,回想并重复自己刚刚画的手势。然后,在至少10天之后,研究人员再次测试了被试者的记忆(有6名被试者未回来参加第二次测试。)The trick—as with any good password—was to concoct a gesture complex enough to dupe spies yet simple enough to remember.如同所有好的密码一样,手势的关键在于复杂到能骗过窥视的人,但却简单好记。“You never need to be perfect,” Lindqvist said on reproducing a gesture swipe-for-swipe. “You can make a bit of errors, but not too much. It depends a lot on the security policy you want to implement.”关于手势的正确性,林奎斯特解释道:“你不必做到完美。你可以出一点错,只要不太多。这很大程度上取决于你想要采取的安全策略。”For instance, authentication for a mobile device might accept a higher error rate than one protecting a bank vault.例如,手机身份验程序可接受的密码错误率可能高于保险柜的安保系统。To verify matches, the team used a “recognizer” algorithm, which compared each gesture to a set of stored templates. The algorithm then calculated an average score for each attempt at unlocking. Gestures whose scores rose above a certain threshold value were authorized entry.为了验手势是否匹配,研究团队采用了“模式识别”算法,将每个手势与一套储存的模版进行比对,同时计算出每次解锁操作的平均分。分数高于特定阈值的解锁操作就能获准进入。“You never can, in any case—with any kind of meaningfully complex gesture—repeat it exactly the same way,” Lindqvist said, noting that it takes at least three repetitions, or templates, for a gesture to become stable. (For improved accuracy, the study used 10 templates per participant.)林奎斯特说:“无论如何,对于复杂的手势,大家绝对不可能做到百分之百准确重现。”林奎斯特指出,至少需要三次重复或模板才能使手势稳定。(为了提高准确度,在研究中对每位被试者采用了10个模板。)The researchers also used a flexible algorithm. Participants were able to draw anywhere on the device’s screen at whatever size and angle they wished, as long as the shape of the gesture was correct. Such flexibility may allow single gestures to adapt across platforms: for instance, on the larger screen of a tablet versus the smaller screen of a smartphone.研究者还使用了一种适应性很强的算法。被试者们能够在移动设备屏幕的任何地方、以任意角度画出图案,大小也可随心所欲,只要手势的形状正确即可。这样灵活的算法可以让同一手势跨平台使用,例如大屏幕的平板和屏幕相对较小的智能手机能使用相同的手势密码。To measure each gesture’s level of security, the researchers imported a concept from Information Theory called “differential entropy.” This metric quantified the “information content,” or “surprisingness,” of a gesture. Generally, the most secure gestures were the most complex. Some of these looked like brambles, tumbleweeds or multi-faceted jewels.为了准确衡量每种手势的安全性,研究人员引入了信息论中的“微分熵”概念。这个概念能量化手势的“信息内容”或者说“多样性”。一般来说,越复杂的手势越安全,它们有些看着像荆棘、风滚草等植物,还有些看起来像是有很多面的珠宝。On average the most memorable gestures were shorter and simpler than those best for security. Some of the most memorable ones included simple angular shapes, like triangles, and signatures.通常,与最安全的手势相比,那些最容易记住的手势一般比较简洁,其中包括简单的图案造型,例如三角形和签名等。The least-secure gestures consisted of gentle, looping circles.而最不安全的手势则要数单调循环的圆圈。Another measure of security involved a “shoulder surfing” test. Six student volunteers independently watched s of another student performing three representative gestures. These “attackers” were then asked to replicate each gesture.另一种衡量安全性的方法是所谓的“背后偷窥”测试。方法是让六名学生志愿者独自观看一位学生演示三种典型手势的视频,然后凭记忆重复这些手势。The preliminary results were promising. “None of the attackers came even close to the gesture,” Lindqvist said.初步测试的效果令人振奋。林奎斯特称:“偷窥者们甚至都无法画出相近的手势。”In fact, one attacker did nearly replicate one of the gestures—a backwards “N”—but did not come close enough for a “recognizer” to authenticate.事实上,还是有一人几乎画出了其中一种手势——一个倒写的字母“N”,但相似度没有达到系统“识别”通过的程度。“Typing in a password seems to be an artifact of the past,” said Nasir Memon, professor of computer science and engineering at New York University, who was not involved in the study. “There is definitely a need to explore the alternatives.”纽约大学(New York University)计算机科学与工程专业教授纳西尔o梅蒙说:“输入密码已经过时了,我们亟需发掘替代方案。”梅蒙并没有参与上面提到的研究。Still, even with the aid of muscle memory, one must question how confusing a world of security gestures might become.不过,即便有肌肉记忆辅助,我们也可能会被一大堆手势密码弄得不知所措。“If you have three different gestures for three different accounts, how do you deal with that?” Memon asked.梅蒙反问:“如果你的三个账号有三个不同的手势密码,你怎么区分?”In future studies, Lindqvist said he plans to instruct participants in best practices for generating secure and memorable gestures. He also hopes to expand the shoulder-surfing test. “I think that this robust alternative and a better alternative than the current method, and looking forward to working on this more,” Lindqvist said.林奎斯特表示,在未来的研究中,他计划指导被试者,帮助他们掌握最佳的做法,获得安全又好记的手势。此外,他还希望扩展背后窥视测试。他说:“我认为手势密码非常安全,比现有方案要好。我希望在这个领域继续深入研究。”If the new tactic’s promise holds, the future of password security may look less like a keyboard and more like finger-skating. For now, though, the billions of people around the world using mobile devices must stick with their PINs and patterns.如果这种新方法靠谱,未来密码安全可能不再靠键盘,而是靠信手涂鸦。不过,目前全球几十亿移动设备用户只能用谷歌安卓系统的标准模式锁屏和苹果的个人识别号码。“It holds potential,” Memon said. “But we’re still a long way from it being seriously adopted.”梅蒙说:“手势密码确实有潜力。但它要得到广泛的采用还有很长的路要走。” /201406/308560安溪县做试管多少钱

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