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萧山萧然妇科医院治疗附件炎好吗杭州萧然医院在哪里The Cyrus cylinder塞勒斯圆筒Diplomatic whirl外交漩涡A show that tests the limits of cultural politics一场巡展,一次文化政治学极限的考验CYRUS THE GREAT, king of Persia and conqueror of Babylon in the sixth century , has been a personal hero to many people. These include Thomas Jefferson and Irans last shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and, perhaps more oddly, Irans President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and David Ben-Gurion, Israels first leader.公元前6世纪,居鲁士称帝波斯,征巴比伦王国,史称居鲁士大帝(Cyrus the great)。其个人英雄形象万世流芳。粉丝包括美国总统托马斯杰弗逊、伊朗末代国王穆罕默德礼萨巴列维(Mohammad Reza Pahlavi),或许还意外地成为伊朗前总统马哈茂德艾哈迈迪-内贾德(Mahmoud Ahmadinejad)和以色列首任总理戴维本-古里安(David Ben-Gurion)的偶像。Xenophon, a Greek historian whose “Cyropaedia” has been by statesmen down the ages, believed that Cyrus embodied all the qualities of a perfect king. Now the British Museum (BM) is sending an object closely associated with Cyrus on a tour of five American museums, beginning with the Smithsonian in Washington, DC. The curators hope the show will highlight the Persian kings religious tolerance and his close relations with the Jews in particular, and that this may help improve ties between America and Iran.希腊历史学家色诺芬(Xenophon)著有《居鲁士的教育》(Cyropaedia)一书流传至今,在政治人物中广为传阅。他认为,居鲁士身上凝聚了完美无缺的君主所具备的一切品质。如今大英物馆(BM)将一枚这位波斯大帝的旧物运至美国,分别在5家美国物馆进行巡回展览,首站便是华盛顿市的史密森尼物院(Smithsonian)。各家馆长期望此次巡展能强调居鲁士大帝推崇的宗教自由,尤其他和犹太人之间的亲密关系,以此促进美伊两国关系。The Cyrus cylinder, one of the BMs most important objects, is made of clay and covered in dense Babylonian cuneiform script. Unearthed in 1879, it is cracked and bits have fallen off it, but enough remains for the writing to have been deciphered.大英物馆重要藏品之一塞勒斯圆筒由黏土制成,通体镌刻密密麻麻的巴比伦楔形文字。它于1879年出土,筒身开裂,部分泥土脱落,不过剩下部分足以供人解读文字内容。Under Cyrus the Persian empire became the largest kingdom the world had ever seen, unifying many tribes, languages and cultures, and stretching across vast distances. The cylinder, which had been placed at the base of a building in ancient Babylon (now modern Iraq) proclaimed Cyruss ambitions for his rapidly expanding domain: that those people who had been captured and enslaved by his predecessors should be allowed to go back to their homes and the statues of their different gods returned to their original shrines to be freely worshipped. The exiled Jews, who wept by the waters of Babylon when they remembered Zion, the Bible says, could return to Jerusalem and rebuild their temple.居鲁士大帝统治下的波斯帝国成为前所未见的大国,吞并了众多部落、语言和文化,幅员广阔。这塞勒斯圆筒一度躺在古代巴比伦(即现在的伊拉克)的建筑物脚下,叙述着皇帝谋求迅速向外扩张的雄心壮志:祖辈们俘获的奴隶们应该被允许回归故土,他们信奉的神祇挪回原位供信徒自由膜拜。圣经上说,原先犹太人被流放后,在纪念锡安圣地的日子涉过巴比伦河,此时获准返回耶路撒冷,重建寺庙。No ruler before Cyrus had done anything like this, and many since have claimed a connection with him. After the 1917 Balfour declaration in favour of a Jewish homeland, Jews displayed photographs of King George V alongside images of Cyrus. In 1971 the shah prayed at his tomb during the celebrations of 2,500 years of Iranian monarchy, and new coins were struck with the shah and Cyrus on one side and the cylinder on the other. The shahs sister gave a copy of it to the secretary-general of the ed Nations. Some call it the first charter of human rights.居鲁士大帝此举开历史先河,为他赢得后人的绵绵景仰之情。持建立犹太家园的贝尔福宣言得发表后,犹太人于乔治五世照片之侧放置居鲁士大帝画像。1971年,纪念伊朗君主制2500年之际,伊朗国王在居鲁士墓前祷告,并且发行新硬币,一面同时印上国王和居鲁士大帝,另一面则是塞勒斯圆筒。国王的一位将圆筒上的文字拓印成文,赠送给当时的联合国秘书长。这些文字被称为人权宪章的始祖。The leaders of revolutionary Iran at first turned away from everything that had been praised by the shah. But that began to change with the eight-year Iran-Iraq war, which began in 1980. Anxious to be regarded as superior to the Iraqis, Iran became more interested in its distant past. In 2010 the cylinder was sent to Tehran on loan. Nearly 500,000 people queued to see it, and its presence provoked a fierce national debate about Iranian values. Mr Ahmadinejad opened the exhibition at the National Museum of Iran, reminding visitors that Islam had a tradition of tolerance and that the Iranian constitution reserved seats in parliament for a Christian (Armenian), a Zoroastrian and a Jew.伊朗陷入革命浪潮后,反对派领袖起先抗拒国王称赞有加的一切事物。不过随着一场为期八年的两伊战争在1980年爆发,他们的态度发生逆转。由于急于塑造超过伊拉克的形象,伊朗对本国悠久历史的兴趣大增。2010年,塞勒斯圆筒被租借至德黑兰。近50万人排队以求一睹其风采。伊朗国内掀起一股讨论伊朗价值观的热潮。内贾德在伊朗国家物馆组织一次展览,透露给参观者:伊斯兰教拥有包容的优良传统;伊朗宪法保基督徒(亚美尼亚籍)、拜火教徒和犹太教徒在议会的席位。The American exhibition takes up just two rooms at the Smithsonians Freer/Sackler Gallery. The first shows the cylinder together with jewellery and seals from the same period; the second focuses on Cyruss influence. A glass case contains Xenophons “Cyropaedia”. Loaned by the Library of Congress, it is one of two copies that Jefferson owned. On the walls are a selection of laudatory phrases: from that student of power, Niccolò Machiavelli, Edmund Spenser, a 16th-century English poet, and Shirin Ebadi, an Iranian human-rights activist and the first Muslim woman to win the Nobel peace prize.本次美国展在隶属史密森尼物院的弗利尔/沙可乐美术馆两个展厅进行:塞勒斯圆筒和同时期的一批珠宝和印章放置在其中一个展厅供人观赏,而另一展厅集中展出深受塞勒斯圆筒影响的后期文物。玻璃柜盛放着色诺芬所著的《居鲁士的教育》一书,为美国约瑟芬总统的两个藏本之一,由国会图书馆(Library of Congress)出面借得。墙上是名人所题的赞美之词:研究权利的学者马基雅维利(Niccolò Machiavelli),16世纪英国诗人斯潘塞(Edmund Spenser),伊朗人权活动家和首位获得诺贝尔和平奖的穆斯林女性莎琳艾巴迪(Shirin Ebadi)。American Iranians and Jews have been among the many early visitors to the show, which opened on March 9th. The BMs director, Neil MacGregor, hopes others will come too. But Americas relationship with Iran is still toxic. The exhibition catalogue is subtitled: “A New Beginning for the Middle East”. But the Smithsonian posters for the show merely say: “A New Beginning”, as if the mere mention of the Middle East might put people off.3月9日展览举行伊始,迎来众多参观者,其中包括伊朗籍美国人和犹太人。大英物馆馆长尼尔麦克格瑞格(Neil MacGregor)期待更多访客的到来。不过美伊关系依然紧张。此次展会目录的副标题为“中东新起点”,史密森尼物院为其制作的海报却仅仅提到“新起点”,似乎中东这几个字眼会使人扫兴而归。As for Mr Ahmadinejads views on Cyrus, the Iranian leaders words of praise were expected to hang on the wall of the exhibitions second room, alongside those of Jefferson and Ms Ebadi. But they were not included. Exhibitions like this should help Iranians and Americans understand the past better. But such caution suggests that relations between the two countries will not improve fast.提及伊朗前总统马哈茂德艾哈迈迪-内贾德对于塞勒斯圆筒的评价,这位领导人的溢美之词一度被指望登上第二展厅的墙壁,比邻杰弗逊总统和艾巴迪女士的名言。可惜未能如愿。举办此类展览理应促进伊朗和美国两国人民对历史的理解,不过采取如此谨慎的态度不免令人疑心美伊两国关系不会迅速改善。The Cyrus Cylinder and Ancient Persia: A New Beginning; will be at the Smithsonians Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, until April 28th. The show will be at the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston from May 3rd until June 14th and then at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York from June 20th until August 4th, the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco from August 9th until September 22nd and at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles from October 2nd until December 2nd. The tour is supported by the Iran Heritage Foundation.本次展览名为“塞勒斯圆筒和波斯古国:新起点”。此次巡回展览由伊朗遗产基金会(Iran Heritage Foundation)赞助。第一站是华盛顿市的亚瑟 M. 沙可乐美术馆(Arthur M. Sackler Gallery)和弗利尔美术馆(Freer Gallery of Art),展览活动截止4月28日;5月3日至6月14日转至休斯顿艺术物馆(Museum of Fine Arts);6月20日至8月4日则由纽约大都市艺术物馆(Metropolitan Museum of Art)承展;8月9日至9月22日来到旧金山的亚洲艺术物馆(Asian Art Museum);10月2日至12月2日抵达末尾站,洛杉矶的保罗盖蒂物馆(J. Paul Getty Museum)。 /201405/296978萧山妇幼保健院在哪里? Books and Arts; Book Review; New fiction from Japan;文艺;书评;来自日本的新小说;Hey babe, take a walk on the wild side;嗨,去野外散个步吧;A black cat, two moons and a host of nocturnal little people populate Haruki Murakamis new novel. But has he become more conventional?在村上春树的新书里,他将一只黑猫、两轮月亮以及一群夜晚小小人拟人化。但他是否变得更保守点了呢?Haruki Murakami filches from George Orwells “Nineteen Eighty-Four” for the title of his new novel, “1Q84”, making a play on kyu, the Japanese word for nine, by transposing the letter “Q” for the number “9”. Significantly, the action also takes place over the last nine months of 1984. But it would be a mistake to conclude from this that Japans magical postmodernist has spent nearly 1,000 pages writing about a dystopian world where couples make love in an ash glade, hardly daring to speak because of the all-listening microphones in the trees. Mr Murakamis main influence here is not so much Orwell as Philip Pullman; his “1Q84” less a stairway to another world than a heave-ho into a whole new universe.村上春树的新书《1Q84》书名的灵感来自于对乔治·奥威尔( George Orwell)《1984》一书的借鉴(他把“9”改成了“Q;,而在日语里,“9”的发音与Q谐音)。此外,值得注意的是,书里故事发生的时间也是1984年最后的9个月。因此,如果错误地认为这位日本后现代魔幻大师花了近1000页的笔墨,只为描写一个情侣在野外做爱,并由于树上装有所有人都能听到的窃听器而不敢发出丝毫声音的反乌托邦世界,这就错了。但是村上春树在这里的主要影响并不像奥威尔或是菲利普·普尔曼(Philip Pullman)一样,他的《1Q84》一书与其说是通往另一个世界的阶梯,还不如说是完全逃向一个全新的世界。Sitting in a taxi on the gridlocked elevated Metropolitan Expressway in Tokyo, Aomame, the skinny heroine with asymmetric breasts (her name means “green peas”), is catapulted into action when she hears Janaceks “Sinfonietta” on the radio. Her cabbie tells her she can beat the traffic by hopping out of the car and down an emergency staircase at the next exit. He warns her that things will not be the same. But it is only when Aomame notices that the policemen have swapped their holstered revolvers for bulky semi-automatic weapons that she realises she has entered a parallel universe.当身材纤瘦、两个乳房不对称的女主角青豆(Aomame,其意为“绿色的豆子”)坐在一辆出租车里,在堵得水泄不通的东京高速公路上蹒跚前行时,车里广播放着亚纳切克(Aomame)的小交响曲,此时此刻,故事开始了。出租车司机告诉青豆说她可以通过走一条附近出口的紧急通道来绕开堵车,不过,他警告说如果她这么做了,事情将会不一样了。但当青豆注意到警察们的左轮手变成了笨重半自动手时,才意识到自己进入了一个平行宇宙。This gripping beginning ensures the er falls for Aomame, forcing Mr Murakami to work extra hard on her counterpart, Tengo, who appears in alternate chapters in the book. Tengo is an unpublished novelist who keeps to himself, working as a private maths tutor in a prep school. His father was a debt-collector who rounded up licence fees for the NHK television network, dragging his son along with him on Sundays as he called on households door-to-door. Tengos beloved mother died when he was very young, and the boys earliest memory is of hearing his mother having her breasts sucked by a man who was not his father. Tengos flat-pack character fills out as the book evolves, in particular in a long passage when he visits his aged father in his nursing home and tries to talk to him about the past.这一引人入胜的开头保了读者会为青豆而倾倒,这迫使村上春树得花更大的力气去塑造他的另一个人物——天吾(Tengo),在书里,天吾的故事与青豆的故事平行进行。天吾在一所补习学校里担任数学老师,他是个孤僻的业余写手,但他的小说从没发表过。天吾的父亲是NHK公司负责上门收费的收款员,周日的时候会拉着儿子跟他一起到各家各户去收电视有线费。天吾挚爱的母亲在他很小的时候就去世了,而他最早的回忆则是听着一个不是他父亲的男人在吮吸他母亲的乳房。随着小说情节的进展,天吾原本单薄的形象逐渐丰满起来,其中有一大段他的形象特别突出,这一段描写了他去养老院探望年老的父亲,并试图与父亲谈论过去。Tengos life changes when a friend, a grumpy editor named Komatsu, persuades him to clean up a raw manuscript by a teenage girl, Eriko Fukada, called Fuka-Eri throughout. Komatsu believes that the girls autobiographical story, about being raised on a rural commune that changes into a sinister cult involved in mind games and child abuse, has all the makings of a bestseller if its style can be improved enough so that it wins a literary prize. Aomame, as might be expected from a woman who shimmies down from an overhead expressway without much concern for her stockings or her chestnut- coloured Charles Jourdan heels, turns out to be a minx on the make, a charming, ball-breaking, feminist do-gooder who likes nothing better than rounding off a days killing with an all-night bout of bisexual sex. Aomame is really a hired gun, who specialises in quietly offing wife-beaters and child rapists, a manga version of Stieg Larssons Lisbeth Salander.当天吾的朋友——性子暴躁的编辑小松(Komatsu)劝他去修改少女深田绘里子(Eriko Fukada)(文中一直叫做深绘里)小说的初稿时,天吾的生活发生了变化。深绘里这部自传体的小说描写了自己生长的村庄公社被转变成了一个邪恶的新兴宗教团,充满勾心斗角和虐待儿童。小松认为如果小说风格能得到很好修改的话,使其拿下一座文学奖,那就足以让它成为畅销书了。青豆,人们原来也许以为她是一个不顾自己还穿着丝袜和褐色佐丹高跟鞋摇摇晃晃地翻过高空中的公路的女子,事实上却是一个野心勃勃的狐狸精,一个迷人而强势的女权主义者,一个妄图替天行道者,最喜欢每天出去干净利落地杀人,然后晚上来场疯狂的通宵性爱,男女不限。青豆实际上是个职业杀手,精于无声无息地除掉那些虐待妻子或侵犯儿童的男人,简直就是史迪克·拉尔森(Stieg Larsson)笔下丽丝贝·莎兰德(Lisbeth Salander)的日本漫画版。Aomames and Tengos parallel stories begin to rub against one another long before the characters do. They both see a black cat and two moons (one shiny and normal, the other misshapen and moss-coloured); and both know about the little people who emerge periodically from the mouth of a sleeping child and disappear under the childs bed. The two heroes were once at school together and even, briefly, held hands at the age of ten. An unresolved longing to recapture that moment permeates both their lives, and the will-they-wont-they question overshadows the whole book.早在两位主角在这个反乌托邦世界里相遇之前,青豆和天吾这两条平行的故事线就开始交织在一起了。他们都看见了一只黑猫和两轮月亮(一轮形状正常,散发着光芒,另一轮却形状诡异,而且是苔藓一般的颜色);他们也都知道小小人:那些小小人会不时从睡着的小孩口中爬出来,消失在床底下。 两位主角是校友,而且,他们在十岁的时候还有过一次牵手。想要重新拾回那个瞬间的渴望无法满足,渗入了他们两人的生活,而全书充斥着他们最终能在一起吗这个问题。Herein lies the conundrum of “1Q84”. Mr Murakamis reputation as Japans greatest literary surrealist is based on a series of short stories and novels, such as “Hard-boiled Wonderland and the End of the World”, which came out in 1985, and “Norwegian Wood” two years later. His early works were intensely personal fantasies involving unhappy, virtually disembodied men and suffused with references to Western music and literature. “1Q84” is much longer, but also far more conventional.这里有个关于“1Q84”的谜题。村上春树因一系列超现实主义的短文和小小说而被誉为日本最伟大的文学大师,这些文章包括1985年出版的《世界尽头与冷酷仙境》以及1987年出版的《挪威的森林》等。他早期的作品集中于描写郁闷的游魂般的男人的个人幻想,充斥各种西方音乐和文学的参考资料。相比之下,《1Q84》篇幅要长得多,但也保守得多。Like two American writers, Jonathan Franzen and Jeffrey Eugenides, both known for their fizzy inventiveness but whose recent work is more plot-driven, Mr Murakami seems to have made a conscious move towards romantic narrative. Mr Franzens latest book asks whether the married protagonists will stay together; Mr Eugenidess which of the two main heroes will his heroine end up with (if any). It is Mr Murakamis turn, now, to cut in on the boy-girl gavotte. This has certainly proved a popular move. When the first two volumes of “1Q84” were published in Japanese in , more than 1m copies were sold in just a few weeks; the third volume followed to similar acclaim a few months later. Keeping up originality can be hard work. But Mr Murakamis new direction, like that of Mr Franzen and Mr Eugenides, is bringing him thousands of fresh ers. And that is a good thing.和两位均因创造性而闻名(但他们现在的作品更加注重阴谋)的两位美国作家乔纳森·弗兰岑(Jonathan Franzen)和杰弗里·尤金尼德斯(Jeffrey Eugenides)一样,村上春树似乎也有意描写男女之间的爱情故事。弗兰兹的新书怀疑已婚的主角们是否还会在一起;尤金尼德斯则抛出了女主角会跟两位主要男主角中的哪位在一起(如果她要跟一个人在一起的话)的问题。现在,轮到村上春树来决定男女主角之间的关系了,这显然是最近的流行趋势。年当《1Q84》的前两卷在日本出版时,几周之内就卖出了100多万本;几个月之后,第三卷也卖出了同样数目。追求原创性绝非易事,但是就如弗兰兹和尤金尼德斯一样,村上春树的新方向为他带来了成千上万的新读者。 这是件好事。 /201304/236016杭州六院做人流好吗

江干区妇幼保健院专家预约萧山区妇女儿童医院妇科医生 One common explanation of social monogamy is that its a result of females choosing mates based on the males ability to provide for his off spring and protect them from being killed by hostile males or by predators.雌性动物需要一个能养育后代的雄性,这个雄性动物还可以保护幼崽们免于被具有敌意的其他雄性和天敌杀害。人们通常这样解释一夫一妻制的由来。As you can imagine, females who have help from males produce more litters, and have more offspring that survive to pass on that paternal behavior.你可以想象,有了雄性动物的帮助,雌性可以生产出更多幼崽,这样就有更多的后代存活,父系行为模式就可以世世代代传播下去。Actually, a study suggests that maybe things happened the other way around, that monogamy evolved first and that paternal instincts evolved later and helped stabilize monogamy.事实上,一项研究表明,也许一夫一妻制形成的过程恰好相反,即,首先是一夫一妻制逐渐形成,之后才有了父性本能的介入,并最终巩固了一夫一妻制的形成。Researchers in the UK classified more than 2500 mammalian species as either solitary, socially monogamous, or as group living, which is when several breeding females live together.英国的研究人员分类整理了在多个正处于期的雌性动物一起生活时,独居动物,实行一夫一妻制的动物,和群居动物等2500多种哺乳类动物的行为。Then, for the socially monogamous species, they analyzed data from closely related species and discovered that, in each case, the females used to be solitary and territorial, and that infanticide was rare and therefore couldnt have led to monogamy.他们分析了实行一夫一妻制动物近亲的数据,发现在各个案例中,雌性动物以前都是独居,并且地盘意识非常强,杀死幼崽的现象也几乎没有,因此不可能促使一夫一妻制的形成。Then why did monogamy evolve?那么一夫一妻制是怎么形成的呢?The current thinking is that monogamy evolved as a mateguarding strategy in species where females lived alone too far apart for a single male to monopoliz eaccess to more than one female at a time.目前的想法是,当雌性动物离得太远,雄性动物一次无法同时两个及两个以上的雌性动物时,出于雄性动物保卫自身繁衍的目的,出现了一夫一妻制。So monogamy enabled males to pass on their genesmore reliably.这种制度可以增大遗传雄性基因的可能性,于是一夫一妻制就形成了。 201407/309547萧山妇科医院有哪些

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