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来源:飞度咨询免费问答    发布时间:2018年11月20日 19:38:04    编辑:admin         

The International Organization for Migration says the number of migrants and refugees entering Europe in 2015 has gone over the one million mark, the largest influx of its kind since the end of World War Two.国际移民组织说,2015年进入欧洲的移民和难民数量已超过一百万,为二战结束以来最大的移民潮。The Geneva-based organization issued figures Tuesday showing 1,005,504 migrants from Africa and the Middle East have crossed into the continent by a combination of irregular land and sea routes, a four-fold increase from 2014.设在日内瓦的国际移民组织星期二公布的数字显示,一百万零五千五百零四名非洲和中东的流动人口,以非常规方式通过陆路和海路进入欧洲大陆,这个数字是2014年的四倍。Refugees from Syria, which has been torn apart by a five-year-old civil war that has left over 200,000 people dead and millions more displaced, account for half of all those counted, followed by refugees from two other war-torn countries, Afghanistan and Iraq.叙利亚五年内战使国家分裂,造成20多万人死亡,数百万人流离失所。叙利亚难民就占了报告清点人数的一半,接下来难民人数最多的是同样为战争所困扰的国家阿富汗和伊拉克。The refugees have streamed into Greece, Bulgaria, Italy, Spain, Malta and Cyprus during 2015, with a huge majority -- over 800,000 -- arriving by sea in Greece. About 3,600 died or disappeared trying to make the perilous Mediterranean Sea crossing between North Africa and Italy.2015年期间,难民源源不断涌入希腊、保加利亚、意大利,西班牙、马耳他和塞浦路斯,其中绝大多数,超过80万人是经海路抵达希腊的,大约3600人在横穿北非和意大利间的地中海危险旅途中丧生或失踪。The IOM says fewer than 35,000 migrants, or about three percent, have crossed by land into Greece and Bulgaria from Turkey.国际移民组织说,不到三万五千人,或者说大约百分之三的移民,是从土耳其经陆路进入希腊和保加利亚的。 /201512/418098。

DONGGUAN, China — Walking around an abandoned furniture factory, Fang Minghua pointed out the workshops where several hundred employees once toiled, transforming sheets of raw wood into TV stands or wardrobes for the aspiring middle class in China and other emerging economies.中国东莞——方明华(音)在一家废弃家具厂的周围走着,指着曾经是上百名工人辛勤工作的厂房,工人们曾在那里用粗木板制造电视柜和衣柜,供应给中国及其他新兴经济国家里渴望成为中产阶级的人The factory is relocating to a new facility two hours away, priced out by rising costs and falling orders. Mr. Fang estimated that as many as a third of the furniture factories around town had gone out of business, while many others were struggling.这家工厂正在搬到距此地两小时车程的新址,由于成本不断上升、订单减少,它在这里已无法生存。据方先生估计,东莞有多达三分之一的家具厂已经倒闭,许多其他厂家也在苦苦挣扎。“The economic slowdown is real,” said Mr. Fang, 46, who over the past 22 years had worked his way up from -a-month laborer to production supervisor.46岁的方先生说,“经济放缓是真的。”在过去的22年里,他从每月挣50美元(约合400元人民币)的打工者升到生产主管的位置。The downturn in Dongguan, a once-thriving manufacturing hub, is part of the Chinese economic puzzle that global investors are trying to solve.东莞曾是繁荣的制造业中心,这里出现的衰退是全球投资者在试图解决的中国经济难题的一部分。While China has been moving away from the type of low-end manufacturing that has been Dongguan’s specialty, the protracted slump in the country’s vast industrial sector is a major threat to the nation’s aly slowing economy. As the government tries to manage the situation, the risk is that the Chinese economy is worse off than expected — a concern that has put markets around the world on edge.虽然中国已经逐渐从东莞特长的低端制造业转型,但国内庞大工业部门的长期低迷对国家已经放缓的经济是个严重的威胁。随着政府试图对情况进行控制,存在着中国经济情况实际上比预期差的风险,这种担忧已让世界各地的股票市场坐立不安。The latest signals from China don’t offer much reassurance, with the economic weakness showing little sign of abating. On Tuesday, China reported growth of just 6.8 percent for the fourth quarter, its slowest expansion since the depths of the financial crisis in 2009.来自中国的最新信号并没有给人提供多少安慰,经济疲软没有任何减弱的迹象。周二,中国公布的去年第四季度增长率只有6.8%,这是自2009年的金融危机深渊以来,最慢的经济扩张速度。When it comes to the economy, Mr. Fang said, politicians and business leaders talk about industrial innovation and upgrading, “but I think that is just a slogan. It’s really hard to carry out.”方先生说,每当说到经济时,政客和商业领袖们就大谈特谈产业创新和升级,“但我认为那只是个口号。其实很难实现。”Dongguan is at the heart of south China’s Pearl River Delta. For decades, the region drove the country’s global ascent in exports, rolling out furniture, garments, shoes and other goods.东莞位于中国南方珠江三角洲的核心位置。几十年来,这个地区推动着中国向全球出口量的上升,制造了从家具到装和鞋等各种商品。But the world’s workshop has been stumbling as cheaper production bases in Asia have gained ground. Last year, Chinese exports fell for the first time since the financial crisis — and for only the second time since the country’s economy began reopening to the outside world in the late 1970s.但是,随着亚洲成本更低的生产基地逐渐形成,东莞的世界工厂已经面临困境。去年,中国的出口量自金融危机以来首次下降,这也仅仅是经济自从在20世纪70年代末向世界开放以来,中国出口量的第二次下降。That position is likely to be further eroded by the Trans-Pacific Partnership. The ed States-led trade agreement deepens American ties with Asian countries like Vietnam and Malaysia, but it excludes China.中国在全球制造业的地位很可能会由于跨太平洋伙伴关系而受到进一步的削弱。这一以美国为首的贸易协议将深化美国与越南和马来西亚等亚洲国家的关系,但不包括中国。The slump has created a tricky situation for the government.经济低迷已给政府制造了一种棘手的局面。Officials have encouraged phasing out low-end exports in favor of promoting the service sector and high-tech manufacturing. While newer and more dynamic companies are on the rise in China, the risk is that they won’t develop fast enough to offset the hollowing out of light manufacturing, which remains a shrinking but significant employer across the country.官员们在鼓励逐步淘汰低端出口产品,同时在提倡务业和高技术制造业。尽管更新、更充满活力的公司在中国呈上升的趋势,但风险在于,这些公司的发展速度不够快,不足以弥补轻工制造业的空缺,轻工制造业虽然在收缩,但仍是全国各地的主要用人单位。Some traditional manufacturers have responded to the downturn by relocating farther inland or overseas, where costs are generally lower. Others are trying to reduce their reliance on export orders by establishing their own branded products for domestic sale.一些传统的制造商对经济衰退的响应,是把工厂向内地或海外搬迁,因为这些更远地方的成本通常相对较低。其他制造商则努力在国内市场上建立自己的品牌产品,以减少对出口订单的依赖。“This is an unfortunate pain being felt in traditional, older sectors,” said Louis Kuijs, the head of Asia economics at Oxford Economics. However, he added, the shift away from low-end, labor-intensive manufacturing “is an unavoidable part of the structural change that the economy is undergoing.”“这种不幸的痛苦正在传统老行业中感受到,”牛津经济研究院(Oxford Economics)亚洲经济负责人高路易(Louis Kuijs)说。他补充说,但是,从低端的劳动密集型制造业转型,“是正在发生的经济结构性变化的一个不可避免的部分。”Zhang Lin, 43, is trying to adapt to the shifting terrain.43岁的张林(音)正在努力适应这种转型。As a supervisor, Mr. Zhang, who left his home in western Sichuan Province 25 years ago to work in Dongguan shoe factories, once oversaw about 7,000 production-line workers at a Taiwanese-owned factory here. At their peak, before the financial crisis, factories in the city accounted for about one in every four pairs of athletic shoes sold globally, according to estimates from the Dongguan Shoe Industry Commerce Association.25年前,张先生离开了他在四川省西部的老家,到东莞鞋厂打工,后来当了主管,他曾在这里的一家台资工厂负责监督大约7000名生产线上的工人。在金融危机之前的鼎盛时期,东莞工厂生产的运动鞋,大约占到全球出售运动鞋的25%,据东莞鞋业协会的估计。But rising costs have weighed heavily on the shoemaking business. The Taiwanese factory where Mr. Zhang worked closed in 2012. He and several partners went out on their own, setting up a plant making shoes and leather boots for brands like K-Swiss and Durango. Today, Mr. Zhang’s factory employs about 700 people.但是,成本上升也给制鞋企业带来了沉重的压力。张先生为其工作的台资工厂已于2012年倒闭。他和几个伙伴一起办了一家自己的工厂,为盖世威(K-Swiss)和杜兰戈(Durango)等品牌生产鞋子和皮靴。如今,张先生的工厂雇了大约700名工人。While costs are rising, demand from overseas customers has also been declining. The company’s orders slipped to about 1.2 million pairs of shoes last year, down about 15 percent from 2014.成本在上升,海外客户的需求也在不断下降。去年,公司订单上的鞋子减少了约120万双,与2014年相比,下降了15%左右。 /201601/424057。

Where the steel industry is involved, especially in rich countries, shuttered plants, job losses and complaints about unfair competition are rarely far away.但凡涉及钢铁行业,尤其是在富裕国家,工厂倒闭、工作岗位流失和对不公平竞争的抱怨几乎从未远去。Having seen global steel prices halve over the past year, European steel-makers are ratcheting up their choruses of complaint. Yesterday they demanded blocks on cheap steel imports, particularly from China, and lower energy input prices.过去一年,全球钢铁价格下跌了一半,欧洲钢铁制造商正一同加大抗议的声音。昨日,它们要求阻止进口廉价的钢铁(尤其是来自中国的钢铁),并降低能源投入的价格。The impact of steel plant closures can be devastating for local communities. The recent closure of the Sahaviriya Steel Industries (SSI) plant at Redcar in north-east England was a severe blow to a town with few other job opportunities. But resorting to wide-scale protectionism is only likely to displace job losses elsewhere. And while there is certainly a case for the EU to revisit the cost of power to energy- intensive industries, it is not clear that would do much to mitigate the damage the steel industry is sustaining.钢铁厂倒闭对当地社区的影响可能是毁灭性的。近来,泰国伟成发钢铁工业(SSI)在英格兰东北部雷德卡(Redcar)的工厂倒闭,对这个几乎没有其他工作机会的小城造成了重创。但诉诸大规模贸易保护主义只有可能将失业转至别处。尽管欧盟的确有理由重新考虑能源密集型产业的能源成本,但目前还不清楚这能否大大减轻钢铁行业正在遭受的损害。Steel has long been a battleground for trade disputes. With high fixed costs of production, and exposed to large swings in demand from the economic cycle, the industry goes through repeated phases of overcapacity, glut and falling prices, with governments implored to intervene to keep production going and preserve jobs.长期以来,钢铁一直是贸易争端的战场。钢铁行业固定生产成本高,经济周期导致的需求大幅波动还容易对它造成冲击,因此这个行业一次次重复经历产能过剩、供过于求、价格下跌的阶段,政府被恳求进行干预,以维持生产并保留工作机会。European steelmakers have frequently had recourse to antidumping and antisubsidy tariffs to tackle low-cost products entering the EU market. A larger-scale use of such “trade defence” measures is likely to do more harm than good. Not only does it risk inflaming EU-China trade tensions more generally, but raising the price of steel in Europe will merely disadvantage other manufacturers.欧洲钢铁制造商时常诉诸反倾销和反补贴关税,以应对进入欧盟市场的低成本产品。更大规模地使用这种“贸易防卫”措施,可能会弊大于利。这不仅有可能在更大范围内激化欧盟和中国紧张的贸易关系,且抬高欧洲钢铁的价格只会对欧洲其他行业的制造商不利。Steelmaking is of great importance to local communities, but it employs only about 1 per cent of the 30m total manufacturing workers in Europe. Since steel is a vital input to large parts of manufacturing, holding prices in the EU above the global level merely sps international uncompetitiveness more widely through the sector. The future for European manufacturing is in high value-added production, such as Germany’s successful machine tools sector, not in churning out basic commodities in a fickle global market.钢铁制造对当地社区十分重要,但这个行业雇佣的劳动者仅占欧洲3000万制造业工人的1%左右。由于钢铁对于更广泛的制造业是一种重要原料,将欧洲钢铁价格维持在高于全球价格的水平,只会让欧洲更多制造业行业在国际上失去竞争力。欧洲制造业的未来在于高附加值制造(比如德国成功的机床业),而不在于在变化无常的全球市场中生产基础大宗商品。The industry, or at least parts of it, is on somewhat firmer ground when it complains about energy costs. Successive iterations of energy taxes and levies aimed at combating climate change have undoubtedly made industrial electricity more expensive. But that is often a bigger problem between different EU states than it is between the EU and the rest of the world.这个行业(或者至少这个行业的一部分)在抱怨能源成本的时候理由更充分一些。为对抗气候变化而不断增收的能源税费无疑使工业用电更加昂贵。但这个问题往往在不同欧盟国家之间(而非欧盟和世界其他地区之间)更为突出。UK producers, for example, complain their electricity is more than 50 per cent more costly than for competitors in France or Germany. But the European Commission last year found that while electricity prices for EU companies as a whole were twice those in the US and 20 per cent higher than in China, the differential with the US disappeared once tax and levy exemptions for European energy-intensive industries were taken into account.比如,英国钢铁制造商抱怨,它们的电力价格比法国或者德国竞争对手高50%以上。但欧盟委员会(European Commission)去年发现,尽管欧盟境内企业的整体电力价格是美国的两倍,也比中国高出20%,但一旦算上欧洲能源密集型工业税费的减免,欧盟和美国之间的差距就不复存在了。Moreover, energy inputs are on average only about 5 per cent of total production costs for the EU iron and steel industry. Electricity prices relative to those elsewhere would have to change spectacularly to have a decisive effect. 此外,能源投入平均只占欧盟钢铁产业总生产成本的约5%。只有用电价格相对于欧盟以外地区出现明显变化,才会有决定性效果。 /201511/409334。

China’s government hit out at EU steel anti-dumping penalties on Tuesday, saying it would defend Chinese business and denied it was exporting its own overcapacity problems as critics have suggested.中国政府周二抨击了欧盟(EU)对中国钢铁的反倾销惩罚措施,表示将维护中方企业,并否认了批评者提出的中国对外输出产能过剩问题的说法。Gao Hucheng, minister of commerce, told a press conference in Beijing that overcapacity in the metals industry was not just a Chinese problem. “Steel oversupply is a global problem and a global problem requires collaborative efforts by all countries,” he said.商务部部长高虎城在北京的新闻发布会上表示,钢铁行业的产能过剩并不仅仅是中国的问题。“就钢铁来说,这是全球性的产能过剩。全球性问题必须大家一起坐下来解决,”他说。“China safeguards the right to defend Chinese businesses in accordance with the rules of the World Trade Organisation,” he added, in an apparent threat to impose tit-for-tat penalties.“我们要按照世贸组织有关的贸易救济规则,维护中方企业的合法权益,”他补充道,此言显然是威胁中国可能实施针锋相对的惩罚措施。“Consumers and some other businesses benefit from the lower prices, so let us make the point that this is purely market behaviour, not the behaviour of the Chinese government or the EU governments.”“进口企业和消费者从中获利。这些钢材都是欧盟进口商或者消费者从中国按照合理的定价去购买的……企业提起申诉也是市场行为,不要把这点解读成政府或者欧委会的行为。”Brussels has imposed tariffs on a type of steel from China to try to defend Europe’s manufacturers from a flood of cheap imports.欧盟对从中国进口的一类钢铁产品开征关税,试图维护欧洲制造商不受廉价进口钢材洪流的影响。The EU said last month it would slap provisional duties on “high-fatigue performance reinforcement bars”, known as rebar, used in the UK and Ireland to strengthen concrete.欧盟上月表示将对俗称螺纹钢的“高抗疲劳性能混凝土钢筋”征收临时性关税,这类钢筋在英国和爱尔兰用于加强混凝土。Steel producers worldwide accuse China of triggering a global collapse in prices by dumping its excess output — meaning selling below home market prices or the cost of production.世界各地的钢铁生产商指责中国倾销过剩产出,即以低于国内市场价格或者生产成本的价格出售钢材,引发全球钢材价格大幅下滑。However, Mr Gao rejected the charge China was to blame, saying the price falls have occurred in many commodity industries, not just steel.然而,高虎城驳斥了钢铁价格下滑应归咎中国的说法,称许多大宗商品行业都出现了价格下滑,而不仅仅是钢铁行业。“It boils down to changes in global supply and demand,” he said. “Overcapacity is a pronounced problem facing all countries... is still the problem of oversupply with steel and energy products and other commodities. ”“不可回避,也必须正视的,就是供需关系问题,”他说,“产能过剩成为全球性问题……钢铁如此,能源如此,其它产品也是如此。”China’s steel exports rose 20 per cent to hit a record 112.4m tonnes last year.去年中国钢铁出口量提高20%,达到1.124亿吨的创纪录高点。Job losses in European steel plants have put pressure on Brussels to halt the flow of cheap Chinese steel to Europe. Last month Tata Steel announced than 1,000 job cuts, adding to the thousands aly lost over the year, along with several plant closures.欧洲钢铁厂的裁员问题使欧盟蒙受压力,要求其遏止廉价中国钢材涌入欧洲。上月,塔塔钢铁(Tata Steel)宣布裁员逾1000人,而去年一年已经有数千个工作岗位流失,还有几家工厂关闭。This week the EU Chamber of Commerce in Beijing said in a study of Chinese industries that overcapacity in China is a growing problem.北京的中国欧盟商会本周表示,对中国几个行业的调查表明,中国的产能过剩问题日益严重。Six out of eight industries studied by the chamber, ranging from glass to paper to steel, show signs that factories are operating at even lower rates than they were in 2009 in the immediate aftermath of the global financial crisis. In all of the industries studied, Chinese companies compete with large European businesses.从玻璃业、纸业到钢铁业,该商会研究的8个行业中,6个行业有迹象显示,业内工厂的开工率比2009年全球金融危机过后更低。在这些被研究的产业,中国企业与欧洲大型企业展开竞争。 /201602/428505。

A bus featuring a new security system debuted in south China#39;s Guangdong province last Friday to make it easier for passengers to escape during emergencies.上周五,配有新型安全逃生系统的汽车在广州面世,这会使得广大乘客在遭遇仅仅状况时更容易逃生。The electric-powered bus, designed by the Municipal Commission of Transport in Guangzhou, will perform trial runs before it is adopted more widely.这种电动公交车是由广州市交通委员会主导设计的,在大面积投入使用之前将进行试运行。According to Zhao Jiantong, manager of the information office of the Guangzhou electrical bus company, there are eight emergency buttons inside the bus. One of the buttons is for the driver, while the remaining seven are for passengers and are located near seven safety windows.据广州有轨电车公司信息办公室经理赵见同介绍,整辆车中共设有8个紧急按钮,其中一个供司机控制,其余的7个全部由乘客自己控制,而且位置靠近7个安全窗口。In the case of explosion or fire, people can escape through nine exits, Zhao was ed as saying by the Guangzhou Daily.《广州日报》援引赵经理的介绍称:“一旦发生火灾或是爆炸,乘客可以通过九个应急出口逃生。The safety windows are larger than those on the old buses and are positioned lower to allow seniors and children to escape.相比旧的公车设置,新车的安全窗口更大,位置更低,这样方便老人和孩子逃生。When a button is pressed, information on an electronic screen outside the bus immediately changes from the bus number to ;SOS,; accompanied by emergency lights and alarms. The new bus is also equipped with a ;black box; that automatically sends information and footage from the bus to the control center when an accident happens.一旦按下了紧急按钮,汽车外部电子显示屏上的车号就会变成SOS,应急灯和报警鸣笛同时开启。”此外,这种新研发的汽车还设有“黑匣子”,当发生事故的时候,它可以向控制中心自动发信息并记录公车的路径。A bus carrying a tour group from Dalian in northeast China#39;s Liaoning province crashed into a highway barrier and caught fire near Taiwan#39;s Taoyuan Airport on July 19 as tourists were end route to the airport for their flight home. All 26 people on board, including a local driver and a local tour guide, were killed. The accident renewed people#39;s concerns over public transportation safety.7月19日,运送来自东北辽宁的一个旅游团的汽车,在前往台湾桃园机场时,撞上高速路路障后起火,车上包括当地司机和导游在内的26人全部死亡。这次事故引发了大众对于公共交通安全的担忧。 /201608/459500。

1. Make plans to volunteer your time.1.做好主动贡献你的时间的计划。Volunteering your time at a local nonprofit is a free way to give back to your community. Giving Tuesday, however, falls on a workday, which means you might not be able to afford to take time off.在一个当地的非盈利机构主动贡献你的时间,是回馈你的社区的一个免费的方法。然而,“周二回馈日”却是在工作日,这就意味着你不或许不能请假。Instead of volunteering on Giving Tuesday itself, make concrete plans to give back on a future date that fits your schedule.不在“周二回馈日”当天的时候参加志愿活动的话,可以通过详细的计划在适合你的将来的某一天回馈社会。You can find nonprofits that welcome volunteers in your area on Giving Tuesday#39;s website or on VolunteerMatch. To find more volunteer work online, check out our resource here.你可以在周二回馈日网站或者志愿者配对网站上,找到你所在区域欢迎志愿者的非营利性机构。为了在网上找到更多的志愿工作,可以点击查看我们这里的资源。2. Offer your skills instead of your funds.2.贡献你的技能而不是现金Skills are irreplaceable, and they#39;re often overlooked. Aside from volunteering your time, volunteering your skills and talents adds a personal touch to giving back.技能是无可替代的,而且技能往往会被忽视。除了贡献你的时间,贡献你的技能和才能为回馈增添了一种个人的感触。If you#39;re well-versed in literature or math, consider tutoring school children in subjects they struggle to grasp. If crocheting and knitting are more your speed, consider creating prosthetic yarn breasts for women who have undergone mastectomies. If you#39;re an expert conversationalist, visit a senior center to chat with the elderly.如果你精通文学或者数学,可以考虑给那些努力掌握学习课程的学校学生授课。如果钩编和针织技术是你所擅长的,可以考虑给那些经历了乳房切除手术的女性做一些假体纱线乳房。如果你是一位健谈的专家,可以去老年中心和长者交谈。Online services like Catchafire can help you match your skills to a relevant cause. Get creative — and put your talents to work.网上务,比如Catchafire,可以帮助将你的技能,与相关的事件相匹配。变得更加有创造力——将你的才能投入到工作中。3. Harness the power of Facebook fundraisers.3.利用脸书募捐人的力量Creating a Facebook fundraiser page is a simple way to channel your social media prowess for good. Any Facebook user can make a fundraiser on the platform to benefit more than 750,000 nonprofits, promoting a cause to friends who might have some extra money to give.创建一个脸书资金筹集活动页面是很简单地利用你的社交媒体渠道的一劳永逸的办法。任何脸书的用户都可以建立一个资金筹集活动平台来持750,000多的非营利性机构,给那些或许有多余的钱捐献的人一个公益理由。Take the initiative to create and run a fundraiser for a worthy cause on Giving Tuesday. You can encourage others in a more stable financial situation to donate to an organization you love, and use Facebook Live or personal posts to explain why you care about a certain issue.在“周二反馈日”为一个有价值的公益事件来主动创建组织一个资金筹集活动。你可以鼓励处于更加稳定的财务状况的其他人来给你喜欢的机构捐钱,使用脸书直播或者个人客来解释你关心一个特定问题的原因。 /201703/494960。

The decision by Theresa May, the new UK prime minister, to postpone approval for Hinkley Point nuclear power station, apparently because of security concerns about Chinese investors involved in the project, raises questions about another of her predecessors’ flagships: George Osborne’s “Northern Powerhouse”.英国新首相特里萨#8226;梅(Theresa May)推迟批准欣克利角(Hinkley Point)核电站项目,显然是因为中国投资者参与该项目而对安全方面感到担忧。她的这个决定使人对上届政府的另一个旗舰项目产生疑问:英国前财政大臣乔治#8226;奥斯本(George Osborne)的“北部振兴计划”(Northern powerhouse)。Wooing Chinese investment was central to the former chancellor of the exchequer’s plan to harness the collective strength of northern England’s cities and so to rebalance the economy and devolve powers from Whitehall. If Hinkley is cancelled and a promised “golden era” of UK-China commercial relations comes to nought, the Powerhouse will look underfunded.对于奥斯本这一旨在利用英格兰北部城市的集体力量、推动经济再平衡和政府权力下放的计划来说,吸引中国投资是关键所在。如果欣克利角项目被取消,同时承诺的中英商业关系“黄金时代”无果而终,“北部振兴计划”看上去将陷入资金不足的局面。Jim O’Neill, Treasury minister and former Goldman Sachs chief economist, a driving force behind the Northern Powerhouse, is considering quitting the government over Mrs May’s approach to China.鉴于梅的对华姿态,英国财政部商务大臣、高盛(Goldman Sachs)前首席经济学家吉姆#8226;奥尼尔(Jim O#39;Neill)正考虑辞去政府职务。他是推动“北部振兴计划”的人士之一。Before the Hinkley announcement, Mrs May had reaffirmed the government’s commitment to the Powerhouse and spoke of a “gaping chasm” between London and the rest of the country. However, she sees the project a bit differently from her predecessors. She pledged to help “not one or even two of our great regional cities, but every single one of them” — an implied rebuke to Mr Osborne’s focus on Manchester and its near neighbours, such as(notably Leeds andincluding Sheffield.在宣布推迟评估欣克利角核电站协议之前,梅重申了政府对“北部振兴计划”的承诺,并谈到伦敦与国内其他地区“日益扩大的差距”。不过,她对“北部振兴计划”的看法与上届政府官员有些不同。她承诺要帮助的“不是一两个大型地区性城市,而是每一个城市”,言外之意是不苟同奥斯本对曼彻斯特及邻近城市的关注,例如谢菲尔德。The UK’s Brexit vote has added political urgency to the issue. The greatest support for leaving the EU was in predominantly working-class areas of the north and Midlands, where many felt let down by the political establishment. We should not be surprised. Even in the 1975 referendum, when the UK voted by two to one to stay in the European Economic Community, the leave vote was particularly strong in south Yorkshire and the north-east. This timeMore than two-thirds of voters in towns such as Hartlepool, Doncaster, Barnsley and Blackpool voted to leave.英国的退欧公投给这个问题增加了政治紧迫性。持退欧的最大力量来自英格兰北部和米德兰地区以工人阶级为主的地区,在这些地区,很多人对政治当局感到失望。对此我们不应感到意外。在1975年英国以2:1的投票结果持留在欧洲经济共同体(European Economic Community)的公投中,约克郡南部和英格兰东北部持退出的投票尤其踊跃。这一次,在哈特尔浦、唐卡斯特、贝恩斯利和布莱克浦等地,超过三分之二的投票者持退欧。Parts of the north, notably city centres, have recovered from deindustrialisation, but the region’s economic output per head remains about 25 per cent below the average for the rest of England. The north lags behind in health, life expectancy, employment, earnings and productivity.英格兰北部的部分地区(特别是中心城市)已从去工业化中复苏,但该地区的人均经济产出仍较英格兰其他地区的平均水平低25%左右。在健康状况、预期寿命、就业、收入和生产率方面,北部地区处于落后地位。The Brexit vote highlighted a criticism of the Northern Powerhouse: that it benefits cities more than small towns and rural areas. Mr Osborne’s aim was to improve transport links and research collaboration between cities such as Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds and Newcastle, areas thatwere among the few in the north that voted to stay in the EU. People elsewhere in the north fear being left even further behind.退欧公投突显出针对“北部振兴计划”的批评:比起小城镇和乡村地区,城市地区受益更大。奥斯本的目标是改善利物浦、曼彻斯特、利兹和纽卡斯尔等城市之间的交通联系和研究协作——这些城市是英格兰北部少数几个持留在欧盟的地区。北部其他地区的人们担心自己所在地区以后会落后得更多。Understandable as those concerns may be, it would be wrong to backpedal on the Northern Powerhouse or its equivalent, the “Midlands Engine”. These regions have suffered too often abortive plans. There is substantial business support for the schemes involved and crucial infrastructure decisions, notably on a trans-Pennine fast rail link and road tunnel are yet to be made.那些担忧或许可以理解,但在“北部振兴计划”上变卦将是错误的。相关项目获得了企业的大力持,而关键的基础设施决定迄今仍未做出。The challenge is this: can the initiative develop in a way that benefits the whole area? Better transport links between and within city regions will help give more people access to jobs in cities. And what is needed in addition is a stronger drive to improve skills and education across the north, which has too few high-skilled workers and too many low-skilled ones. According to think-tank ResPublica, the north’s proportion of residents with higher-level qualifications (31 per cent) is below the national average (36 per cent) and significantly behind London (49 per cent).挑战在于,“北部振兴计划”能以让整个地区受益的方式来推进吗?城市区域之间以及城市内部的交通改善将有助于让更多的人在城市工作。此外我们还需要加大努力提高整个北部地区的技能和教育水平——北部地区的高技能工人太少,而低技能工人太多。智库ResPublica的数据显示,北部地区拥有中高级资格书的居民比例为31%,低于全国平均水平的36%,更是远远落后于伦敦的49%。Skills are harder for politicians to influence than trains and roads, but the north will not catch up without this. The northIt struggles to attract high-calibre teachers: a pay premium for teachers teachers those in poorer areas would help. Northern Its secondary schools have, on average, funding of £1,300 less per pupil than those in London, according to the IPPR North think-tank.对政客们来说,比起火车和道路,要在技能上施加影响更加困难,但缺乏技术,北部地区就无法追赶其他地区。北部地区很难吸引高水准的教师:提高较贫困地区的教师薪资将会有所帮助。智库IPPR North的数据显示,北部地区中学在每位学生身上平均所花经费比伦敦少1300英镑。School standards need a concerted focus by mayors, council leaders and headteachers. That requires restoring local democratic influence over independent state-funded academies: it makes little sense to devolve powers over transport, health, skills and planning while centralising control of schools. The north’s revival cannot be fashioned in Whitehall.提高学校水平需要市长、市议会领导人和校长的共同关注。这需要恢复地方民主对独立的政府拨款的学术机构的影响:移交交通、医疗、技能和规划方面的权力同时集中控制着学校谈不上明智。北部地区的复兴不可能由白厅来完成。 /201608/458432。