原标题: 厦门朝天鼻整形价格飞度咨询快速问答网
Science and Technolgy科技Metal fatigue in old aircraft老旧飞机的金属疲劳Flying rivets飞行侦查兵A new technique that listens for cracks in ageing aircraft一项侦听老化飞机断裂的新技术WHEN they were built, no one thought they would fly for so long.建造飞机的时候,没人认为它们会飞行这么久。But fitted with new engines and avionics, aircraft can be kept going for a very long time.但是装有新式引擎和航空电子设备的飞机能持续飞行很长一段时间。The average age of the worlds airliners is more than ten years, with some passenger jets 25 years old or more.全世界飞机的平均机龄超过10年,有些客机的机龄超过了25年。Military planes are more geriatric: the Sikorsky Black Hawk helicopter entered service 31 years ago and the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy 40 years back.军用飞机更是超龄:西科斯基公司的黑鹰直升机31年前开始役,洛克希德公司的C-5(运输机)早用到40年了。Both are still going strong.这两款飞机还都强劲地飞行着。Some Boeing KC-135 aerial-refuelling planes, which are based on the venerable 707, have been flying for over 50 years.波音707原型机上发展起来的波音KC-135空中加油机有些已经飞行50多年了。Engineers reckon they could still be in the air when they are 80.工程师们测算80机龄时它们仍然能飞上蓝天。One thing that does ground old aircraft is the impending failure of their aluminium structure from metal fatigue.让老旧飞机搁浅的一件事就是飞机铝构造因为金属疲劳产生的故障隐患。This begins in parts that are subjected to repeated strains, such as where the wings join the fuselage.这种故障始于承受反复拉紧的部位,象机翼与机身的连接处。Constant flexing of the structure concentrates stress, which leads to microscopic cracks.这些构造部位的频繁伸缩使应力集中,导致微裂纹的产生。These cracks become more numerous and eventually large enough for the structure to fail.这些微裂纹越来越多,最后多到足以使这些部位的构造断裂。Aircraft engineers know a lot about how these cracks progress and keep an eye on them in routine overhauls.飞机工程师们对这些裂纹如何发展以及在例行检修中如何注意这些裂纹所知甚详。Nevertheless, they can be difficult and costly to find.不过发现这些裂纹可能很难且费用高昂。Apart from careful visual inspection, techniques like X-rays and ultrasonic probes are also used.除了仔细地目视检查外,也使用象X射线和超声探头这样的技术。Now a British company has come up with a low-cost way of monitoring cracks in aircraft, even while they are airborne.目前一家英国公司提出了一种成本低廉的监测飞机裂纹方法,即使飞机在飞行中(也可进行监测)。The trick that Ultra Electronics uses is to listen for them with a system called Asis.超级电子公司采用的诀窍是侦听带有自动语音识别系统(Asis)的飞机。It does this by fitting small piezoelectric acoustic sensors to parts of the structure to detect the particular frequency of noise caused by a crack in aircraft-grade aluminium.把小型压电声传感器安装到这种构造部位上,检测由航空级铝材裂纹所致的特定频率的噪音,靠这样就能监测飞机裂纹。When first set up, Asis is calibrated to the acoustic signature of the aircraft.安装之初,Asis就按飞机的声波标记图进行了校准。The system can point engineers to where cracks are occurring because the sensors also record the precise moment it is ;heard;.这个系统能向工程师指明哪里正在出现裂纹,因为传感器也记录裂纹噪音被;听到;的精确时刻。As the sound ripples through the structure it arrives at different sensors at different times, which can be used to work out the location and severity of the crack.因为声音呈波形在飞机构造中传播,它在不同的时间到达不同的传感器,这点能用来算出裂纹的位置和严重程度。Once on the ground, a touch-screen device a bit like an iPad is plugged into the system and shows where any cracks are on a three-dimensional image of the aircraft.一经在地面上把有点象iPad的触摸屏设备用插头插入系统中,它就会在飞机的三维图像上显示所有裂纹。Asis will be tried out later this year by Americas Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency.Asis将由美国国防高级研究计划局在今年晚些时候进行试验。A basic set-up to monitor the boom on a small helicopter (a particularly stress-prone part) starts at around ,000, says Rob McDonald, Ultra Electronics marketing director.超级电子公司的营销总监罗伯?麦克唐纳说,监测小型直升机(特别是易受压力的部位)嗡嗡声的基本设备起价大约6.5万美元。As to the future, he expects the company will explore how Asis might also monitor carbon-composite materials, which are being used increasingly in new aircraft.至于未来,他期待公司会探究怎么让Asis也能监测碳复合材料,碳复合材料在新式飞机中的应用渐增。Less is known about the long-term structural integrity of carbon fibre, but it is not prone to corrosion and is extremely tough, so with a bit of care and attention it might allow aircraft to fly even longer.虽然对碳纤维的长期结构完整性所知甚少,但是它不易腐蚀且极为坚硬,因此稍加关注它就可能让飞机飞行得更久。 /201210/206218

Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:Im a 15-year-old girl, and my friend Kendall has stolen a ring from me. Ive known Kendall for a couple of years, and recently weve become best friends. I invited her over to my house and showed her the ring, and she really liked it. The moment she left, I noticed the ring was missing.我是一个15岁的女孩。我的朋友肯德尔偷走了我的戒指。我认识肯德尔两年了,最近,我们成了最好的朋友。我邀她到我家玩,把我的戒指给她看。她真地很喜欢它。她离开的那一刻,我发现戒指失踪了。I didnt want to accuse Kendall of stealing, so I asked if she had ;borrowed; my ring. She denied it, but would not look me in the eyes. She is known for getting in trouble, and though I think she is a wonderful friend, I am convinced she took the ring.我不想指责肯德尔窃取戒指,所以我问她是否;借;了我的戒指。她否认了,但她不敢看我的眼睛。她惹下麻烦了。虽然我觉得她是一位难得的挚友,但我深信是她把戒指偷走了。What is the best way to persuade her to come clean so we can get this behind us? I really enjoy her friendship, and it saddens me to have this come between us. - Troubled in California有没有什么好办法可以说她向我坦白,使我们继续和睦相处?我真地很珍视我和她的友谊,但这件事令我非常难过。;;苦恼的加利福尼亚人Dear Troubled:亲爱的;苦恼的加利福尼亚人;Do you want the friendship or the ring? Its unlikely Kendall will simply return the ring because that means admitting she took it, and as you can see, she didnt take the opportunity to do so when you tried to make it easy for her. If you want to keep the friendship, tell Kendall to let you know if she ever finds the ring-and then forget about it. We also suggest you stop inviting Kendall to peruse your jewelry.你想要的是友谊还是戒指?看来肯德尔不大可能简单地将戒指交回,因为这意味着她承认她偷了戒指。而且,你也看到了,当你给她一个台阶下时,她并没有抓住这个机会。如果你想保持你们的友谊,告诉肯德尔,她是否找到了戒指,然后把这事忘掉。我们还建议你以后不要再邀请肯德尔欣赏你的首饰了。201203/173405

Don: Hey Yael, did you know that people with red hair need more anesthesia during surgery than other people?唐:嘿,雅艾尔,你知道吗,红发的人在做手术时需要注射比别人更多的麻醉剂?Yael: Oh, cmon Don, thats just another superstition about redheads—like redheads have hotter tempers. Back in the Middle Ages they used to think that people with red hair were witches.雅艾尔:啊,少来了,唐,这是人们对红发的又一个迷信——就像红发的人脾气更暴躁。在中世纪人们认为长有红发的人是巫师。Don: But Im not being superstitious. Dozens of studies have shown that it takes about twenty-percent more anesthesia to knock out redheads than it does people with other hair colors.唐:但这次不是迷信。几十项研究表明:相比其他发色的人,红发的人昏迷所使用的麻醉剂要多出20%。Yael: Why?雅艾尔:为什么?Don: Well, its all about pigment.唐:其实,这与色素有关。Yael: You mean the particles that determine the color of hair and skin?雅艾尔:你是指决定头发或皮肤颜色的粒子?Don: Right. So the amount of pigment you have is controlled by a hormone in the brain. Redheads have more of this hormone—and that matters because the pigment hormone is also involved with pain perception. So for some reason, because redheads have an abundance of this pigment hormone, theyre more sensitive to pain...唐:对。因为色素的数量由大脑中的荷尔蒙控制。红发人分泌更多这种荷尔蒙——这是关键的一点,因为色素荷尔蒙也涉及到痛知觉。因此出于某种原因,红发人体内含有更多的色素,因此对疼痛也更加敏感。Yael: ...which is why it takes more anesthesia to knock them out. So does this matter in any major way?雅艾尔:...这就是为什么需要更多麻醉剂才能使其迷昏的原因。那么对某些重要的方面有影响吗?Don: Well, I guess it does if youre a redhead. But its not like you have to be worried about waking up during surgery, screaming in pain. Surgeons and anesthesiologists are well aware of the phenomenon. Because, Yael, its science, not superstition.唐:好吧,我觉得如果你张着红发,就有影响。但不要担心会发生半路在手术台上醒来,痛得大叫这种情况。手术医师和麻醉师也充分了解这种情况。因为这是科学,不是迷信,雅艾尔。Yael: Touché.雅艾尔:言之有理。原文译文属!201210/203863Science and technology.科技。Animal testing.动物实验。Be nice to mice.善待小鼠。and they may return the favour.它们可能会知恩图报。Home, sweet home.家,舒适的家。ONLY one drug of every ten successfully tested in laboratory animals ends up working in people. One reason, of course, is that mice are not men. Another, though, might have to do with the fact that whereas human patients are afforded all manner of creature comforts, their animal proxies are not.用实验动物试验成功的药物最终只有十分之一对人体起效。原因之一当然是:老鼠毕竟不是人。但另一个原因可能是,患病的实验动物无法像人类患者一样能够得到方方面面的呵护。Although medical sciences favourite critters relish temperatures of a little over 30°C, laboratories routinely keep them at five or ten degrees below that. This is not in order to torture the beasts but, rather, because when kept warm they are unmanageably aggressive. The downside is that they have to eat more than they otherwise would, in order to keep their bodies warm. That changes their physiology. And that in turn alters the way they metabolise drugs, with possibly confusing results.虽然老鼠这种医学实验最喜欢使用的啮齿动物偏爱呆在稍高于30摄氏度的环境里,但实验室却常被控制在比这低5到10摄氏度的温度上。这并不是要存心虐待这些动物,而是因为当环境暖和了,它们会变得十分好斗,很难应付。而这样做的弊端是动物们为了保持体温,要比平常吃得更多。这样动物的生理机能就会有所改变,因此会影响到药物在动物体内的代谢,出来的实验结果也可能会很费解。Joseph Garner, of Stanford University, thinks the answer is to keep the labs cool, but let mice cope with the low temperatures as they do in their natural habitat: not by eating more but by building nests. So far, though, no one has a clear idea of how much nesting material is needed to keep mice happy. Dr Garner and his colleagues therefore decided to find out. They have just reported their results in the Public Library of Science.斯坦福大学的约瑟?加纳(Joseph Garner)认为,解决办法就是令实验室保持低温,但让老鼠们像在自然环境中一样通过筑巢(而非吃得更多)来自行应对低温。不过至今都没有人清楚到底需要多少材料才能让老鼠们筑一个舒适的窝。于是约瑟?加纳士及其同事决定要弄清这点,他们的实验结果刚刚发表在《公共科学图书馆》上。Dr Garner and his team let each of their mice, 36 males and as many females from three strains commonly used in trials, roam free in two cages connected by a narrow tube. One cage was kept constant at one of six temperatures between 20°C and 35°C. The other was maintained at 20°C but was stocked with up to ten grams of finely shredded paper, which the mice could use to weave a nest. The idea was to check whether the animals would rather build a nest in the cooler cage or move to the warmer one, possibly tugging nesting material along with them strand by strand.约瑟?加纳士及其实验小组让所有老鼠(公鼠、母鼠各36只,属于三个常用于实验的品系)在两个由一条窄通道相连的笼子里自由活动。其中一个笼子的温度保持在20-35摄氏度之间(总共有六档温度)。另一个温度保持在20摄氏度,但里面储有多达十克撕得很碎的纸条,以供老鼠们用来筑窝。实验目的是看看老鼠们是会在更冷的笼子里筑巢还是会移居到更暖的笼子里(可能还会将筑巢用的纸条一条条拖过去)。The researchers found that the rodents preferences varied slightly between strains, as well as between sexes (with females partial to higher temperatures, possibly because of their thinner protective layer of fat), confirming that there is no single set of conditions in which all mice feel cosy. In general, though, with little nesting material around, the animals laboriously carried strands of paper over to the warmer spot, one or two at a time. But leave at least six grams of paper in the chilly cage, and many mice will prefer instead to brave the cold and build a nest there. That seems a small price to pay for better drug trials.研究者发现,老鼠们的偏好稍有差别,与性别和品系都有关(母鼠偏爱较暖和的环境,可能是由于其脂肪保护层比较薄),这就明没有一个温度能让所有老鼠都感觉舒适。但通常在周围没什么筑窝的材料时,老鼠们会费力地将纸条拖至更暖的地方,每次一到两条。不过如果在温度较低的笼子里放至少六克纸条,那么会有很多老鼠宁愿忍受寒冷,在那里筑窝。用六克纸条就能让药物试验有更好的效果,这个代价看来微不足道。 /201209/199823I recently an article in which one of my favorite columnists, William Safire, explores the use of ;generation; in a litany of literary references to American writers. He begins with Hemingways ation of ;lost generation; and then explores other references throughout recent history.最近,我在最喜欢的作家William Safire的专栏里看到一篇文章,他擅长研究“generation”一词在美国冗长文学史上的含义。William Safire以海明威的《垮掉的一代》为开始进行研究,然后又探索近代其它文献。 This massive amount of repetition of ;generation; in the column by Mr. Safire ought to have aly driven home the point. We all belong to specific generations, and cultures and eras tend to identify, mark and classify us according to our age and time on this planet.在William Safire的专栏里“generation”一词大量重复得出现,强烈突出了其观点。我们正处在一个特殊的时代,只有根据人类在地球上的年代和时间,才能给我们的文化、时代加以定义和标记,从而将我们分类。 What about my generation? I am a baby-boomer. I grew up in the light of Dr. Martin Luther King and the Kennedys, and under the shadow of the Vietnam War. I have always believed in hope. If asked, I would say that I belong to the Generation of Hope.我们这一代是什么样的呢?我出生于人口高峰期。我在马丁·路德金和肯尼迪的光环下成长,同样也经受了越战的阴霾。我一直相信希望。如果被问到,我会说我属于希望的一代。 When I was young, I was convinced there was more good in the world than evil. I still believe that. I thought then and still think that one person can make a difference.我小的时候就相信世界上有比罪恶更美好的东西。不管是过去还是现在,我仍然相信人们可以创造奇迹。Hope is taking some very hard knocks these days. Hope may be down at the moment, but it is far from out. Many of us are hopers. We know to which generation we belong.怀有希望的日子是痛苦的。希望也许会在某一刻消失,但希望不会离我们而去。我们当中大部分人都有过希望。我知道我们属于哪一代。原文译文属!201207/190309

Its Monday, Aug. 30th, 2010, Im Jeff Bakalar and its time to get loaded.2010年8月30日周一,我是Jeff Bakalar,欢迎收看今早的节目。CPU and graphics manufacturer AMD is dropping its ATI brand which it acquired when it purchased the company. The ATI name was best known for their Radeon graphics chips. AMD however has long term plans to integrate their CPUs with graphics processing technology and fells that right now is the best time to drop the ATI brand. Strange as it sounds, that means youll be seeing AMD processors inside iMacs.CPU及显卡生产商AMD超微半导体公司(Advanced Micro Devices)决定放弃已并购的ATI品牌。ATI是生产Radeon显卡芯片的知名品牌。AMD的长期计划是整合其CPU和显卡技术,因此,AMD认为现在是放弃ATI品牌的时候。听起来很奇怪,这也就是说,iMac电脑将使用AMD处理器。Apple is set to announce some new products this Wednesday. And as always, with Apple events rumors are abound. Aside from an iOS-powered Apple TV, the most prominent rumor seems to be a radically redesigned and significantly smalller iPod nano. Early pictures of cases seem to show a more squarish iPod without the iconic click-wheel and just a few centimeters wide.周三,苹果公司又推出新产品。同以往一样,苹果公司的传言四起。除了苹果系统的电视外,最引人注目的就是全新设计的更小巧的ipod nano。早起产品介绍的图片展示的是有点儿方的,去掉触摸转盘,仅仅几厘米厚的小巧可携式媒体播放器。USA Today, the nations second largest newspaper has announced that it is dramatically restructuring to focus on emerging platforms like the iPad and iPhone. The internet says USA Today has robbed the newspaper of many of its ers and ad revenues. But the company hopes that its new focus on mobile and emerging platforms will give it the edge it once had when it introduced color photos to newspapers.《今日美国》,美国第二大报纸宣布将重组并专注于媒体的新兴平台如iPad和iPhone。网络版《今日美国》抢走了大量原先的报纸读者和广告商。但《今日美国》希望将重心转移至手机和新兴平台用户后,能将色图片引入到报纸中。A report from the Financial Time says that YouTube is negotiating with Hollywood Studios to stream movies on the site for around each. Google, YouTubes parent owner, has flirted with on demand rentals before, but is looking to make a big push for it now as companies like Netflix have recently signed major deals to secure content from film studios.金融时报报道说YouTube正在同好莱坞工作室商谈网站的付费电影的问题,观看一个电影收费5美元。谷歌YouTube的所有者加紧与工作室的谈判,但情况并不乐观。因为飞网公司(全球唯一的付费视频网站)申请了版权保护。Those are your headlines for today, Im Jeff Bakalar for cnet.com, and youve just been loaded.这些就是今天的头条,我是Jeff Bakalar。欢迎关注cnet.com。Whats up? Brian Tong on here, if you want a scoop for all the good and bad inside the Apple world, then the only thing you should be watching is cnets Applebyte. Ill give you the latest news, rumors, tips, apps of the week, and even call out the bad Apples. So watch it all at cnet.com/applebyte, and Ill see you there.嘿!怎么了?Brian Tong在这儿。如果你想了解苹果公司的产品和配件,你唯一要做的收看cnet的Applebyte。我会告诉你一周最新鲜的资讯,流言,小贴士,甚至是告诉你什么是最差的Apple产品。敬请收看cnet.com的applebyte,到时见!注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201208/193973With the exception of those who are unfortunately handicapped or disabled, most people in the world have the same five senses of hearing, sight, smell, taste and touch. Some people, however, develop one or more of their senses up to a higher level. For example, a wine connoisseur may be able to tell exactly where and when a certain vintage wine was made just by the smell and taste. Someone who ;has a good eye for; art, may be able to discriminate between valuable and worthless paintings.这个世界上的有些人生有缺陷或不幸伤残,但大多数人都有五种相同的感官:听觉、视觉、嗅觉、味觉和触觉。然而,有些人的某一感官却可达到更高的水平。例如,葡萄酒鉴赏家只通过嗅觉和味觉就可说出某一佳酿的确切产地和年份。而一个对艺术敏感的人可以区分出哪些是无价之宝,哪些是平凡赝品。Likewise, someone who ;has a good ear for; music may be able to tell everything about a piece of classical music after hearing only the first three notes. Others may ;have a good ear for; languages, and learn how to speak in several tongues.同样,对音乐敏感的人仅仅在听过三个音符之后就可把一首古典音乐讲得头头是道。还有一些人对语言有天赋,可以学会数种语言。201203/174294

Why Salt Clumps?为什么盐会结块?You probably noticed that sometimes the salt gets clumpy. If its really humid outside—there may even be condensation on top of the salt shaker.生活中,你可能发现盐有时会结块。如果室内很潮湿的话,在盐瓶上甚至会产生液滴。The reason this happens is that salt is hygroscopic. Hygroscopic means that salt absorbs water vapor from the surrounding air.产生这种现象的原因是:盐吸湿。吸湿的意思就是盐从周围空气中吸收水蒸气。Eventually, the salt attracts enough water vapor that the gas changes into liquid, and the salt partially dissolves and starts to clump together. To combat this tendency, manufacturers put additives in salt that keep it from liquefying.最终,盐吸收了足够多的水蒸气后气体就会变成液体,盐就会局部溶解并结成一团。为了避免这种情况,生产商在盐中加了添加剂防止其溶解。Sugar is hygroscopic, too. This is partly the reason cake doesnt go stale as quickly as b. You see, when baked goods such as b or cake lose water, the starch molecules in them undergo a chemical change that make them hard and stale.糖也吸湿。这也是蛋糕比面包更难保鲜的部分原因。要知道,焙烤食品像面包或者蛋糕失去水分后,其淀粉分子就会发生一种化学变化使起变得坚硬,不新鲜。But because cake contains more sugar than b, and sugar is hygroscopic, it retains water better and stays fresh a little longer.但是因为蛋糕中含有的糖分比面包多,糖又吸湿,蛋糕就保持了充足的水分,所以保鲜的时间长些。This also explains why saltines and cookies get soft when they go stale instead of hard—because theyre absorbing water from the air around them.盐薄饼干和饼干不新鲜了就会变软儿不是变硬。因为它们吸收了周围空气里的水分。 /201211/211420

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