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2019年02月18日 04:05:58来源:度排名好医院

Glance through a popular magazine’s listof healthy breakfast foods and you’ll likely find oatmeal in the group. Among other benefits, oatmeal is touted as having the ability to keep you full, effectively squelching the desire for that midmorning snack. In fact, a group of researchers recently found that a serving of instant oatmeal decreased the desire to eat more than the same amount of Honey Nut Cheerios, an oat-based cereal. I decided to talk with lead author Candida Rebello of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center to find out what makes oatmeal so special.据《科学美国人》(Scientific American)25日报道,随便看看流行杂志列出的健康早餐食物,你总会发现燕麦的身影。燕麦有很多益处,其中之一就是它能够让你有饱腹感,能有效地阻止你在早上10-11点吃零食的欲望。其实,一些研究人员最近发现比起同量的蜂蜜坚果麦片(含燕麦的谷物),一份速食燕麦更能降低人的食欲。我决定采访一下潘宁顿生物研究中心的主任卡迪达·瑞伯乐(Candida Rebello),看看到底是什么让燕麦如此特别。The story begins with dietary fiber, the part of plant foods that the body can’t digest, which has been shown to promote a feeling of fullness. Both the oats in oatmeal and y-to-eat oat-based cereals contain β-glucan, a type of soluble fiber.一切要从食物纤维说起。食物纤维是植物性食物不能被人体消化的那部分,正是这一部分提高了人的饱腹感。燕麦片中的燕麦和含燕麦的即食谷类食物都含有可溶纤维beta葡聚糖。However, it’s not just the fiber content that matters, according to Rebello and her fellow researchers. Fullness and the desire to eat may also be influenced by a property of fluids called viscosity, which, in this case, is generated by oat β-glucan. Rebello described viscosity as the slimy feel of oatmeal that you can both see in the bowl and feel in your mouth. Scientists think viscosity affects appetite by influencing the way foods interact with the mouth, as well as the stomach and intestines. For example, increased viscosity in the intestinal tract can stimulate the release of appetite-regulating hormones. The oral and gastric effects work together, according to Rebello, meaning a food with both a high initial viscosity in the mouth and a high subsequent viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract will likely produce a greater feeling of fullness.但是,瑞伯乐和其同事的研究发现,纤维不是让人产生饱腹感的唯一原因。一种粘稠状液体也可以影响饱腹感和食欲。这种粘液就是由beta葡聚糖产生的。瑞伯乐解释道,这种粘液就像燕麦片的那种滑腻的感觉,不管是装在碗里还是吃进口里你都能感到这种滑腻感。科学家们认为粘液是通过影响食物与嘴和胃与肠接触的方式来影响食欲的。比如,肠道内粘液增多会刺激调解食欲的荷尔蒙分泌。瑞伯乐说,口感和胃部感受共同作用使人产生了饱腹感。也就是说,能够让人首先在嘴里感受到高粘稠度,其次再在肠胃中保持高粘稠度的食物很可能引起人的饱腹感。The study Rebello and colleagues recently authored looked at instant oatmeal, old-fashioned oatmeal and Honey Nut Cheerios and measured each food’s viscosity and effect on satiety. (I should note that though Rebello works for the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, the study was a collaborative effort with researchers from PepsiCo Ramp;D Nutrition and was funded by PepsiCo Ramp;D Nutrition’s Quaker Oats Center of Excellence.)瑞伯乐及其同事们最近联名发表的一项研究观察了速食燕麦,传统燕麦和蜂蜜坚果燕麦饮品,测量了每一种食物的粘稠度和带来的满足感。(我要事先声明:虽然瑞伯乐在潘宁顿生物研究中心工作,但是这份研究报告是他和百事公司营养研发部的研究人员一起撰写而成,这项报告也是由百事公司营养研发部旗下的桂格优质燕麦中心出资赞助的。)The researchers found that instant oatmeal improved several measures of satiety, or the feeling of fullness, over a four-hour period more than Honey Nut Cheerios did. Old-fashioned oatmeal improved one measure of satiety when compared to Honey Nut Cheerios. As might be expected, the study found that instant oatmeal had greater initial and subsequent viscosity compared to Honey Nut Cheerios. Old-fashioned oatmeal had greater subsequent viscosity but not higher initial viscosity, which could explain why it was less effective at promoting fullness.研究者发现,在四个小时内,速食燕麦能大大提高满足感,也就是饱腹感,相比起来蜂蜜坚果燕麦饮品的效果比速食燕麦低很多。传统燕麦比燕麦饮品效果好一些。跟预期一样,研究发现速食燕麦比燕麦饮品的原始粘稠度和进入肠胃后的粘稠度都要高。传统燕麦片原始粘稠度低,而进入肠胃后的粘稠度高。这就是它为什么在增加饱腹感的效果上要比速食燕麦稍逊一筹的原因。Viscosity of oatmeal or cereal appears to be a key player in promoting fullness, so my next question was naturally about what determines differences in viscosity.燕麦片或者谷物的粘稠度似乎在促进饱腹感方面是至关重要的原因,所以我的下一个问题自然就是粘稠度的高低是由什么决定的。“Viscosity is generated by the particular fiber in oatmeal, which is called β-glucan,” said Rebello, who is a research dietitian. “The fiber is affected by the manner in which it is processed.”作为一名做研究的饮食学家,瑞伯乐解释说:“粘稠度是由燕麦片中一种叫做beta葡聚糖的特殊纤维产生的。这种纤维会受到处理方式的影响.Ready-to-eat oat-based cereals, instant oatmeal and old-fashioned oatmeal are processed differently, which can lead their β-glucan to have a different structure and result in a different viscosity.即食燕麦谷物类食品,即食燕麦和传统燕麦的处理方法不同,那么他们中所含的beta葡聚糖的结构也就不同,导致他们的粘稠度也不一样。So if you find yourself feeling satisfied until lunch after a bowl of instant oatmeal, now you’ll know why.所以如果你发现自己吃了一碗速食燕麦片后到午饭时间都还不饿,现在你应该知道其中的原因了吧。 /201407/312546。

  • 1. Cable TV1. 有线电视Cable television#39;s heyday is over. Subscribers have been declining since 2004, and analysts say there#39;s no end in sight. Roughly 54.8 million households currently pay for cable TV, down 3.3% from 2012 and down 17.6% from a decade prior, according to research firm IHS. Cable companies are expected to shed roughly 1.3 million subscribers in 2014.有线电视的黄金时代已经结束了。有线电视用户2004年以来一直在减少,分析师称,预计这种态势还将继续保持下去。研究公司IHS的数据显示,目前约有5,480万个家庭付费收看有线电视,较2012年减少3.3%,较十年前减少17.6%。预计在2014年有线电视公司将损失约130万用户。The decline is due in part to so-called cord-cutters: consumers who are canceling cable and transitioning to lower-cost services, such as Hulu and Netflix (NASDAQ:NFLX) , which provide much of the same programming at a fraction of the price. Using an Internet connection, consumers can stream many cable shows, news programs and sports games, as well as movies, directly to their TVs. Some channels#39; websites also provide viewers access to their shows. (MarketWatch recently launched a calculator - Are you y to cut the cord? - that allows consumers to find the shows they normally watch through such lower-cost options.)有线电视用户的减少在一定程度上要归因于所谓的“剪线族”(cord-cutter):这些消费者取消有线务,转向Hulu和Netflix等费用较低的务,后者提供的节目与有线电视基本相同,但价格要便宜得多。通过互联网连接,用户可以将许多有线电视节目、新闻报道、体育比赛和电影直接串流到电视上观看。一些电视频道还允许观众通过其网站收看节目。(MarketWatch近期推出了一个名为“你为剪线做好准备了吗?”的计算工具,可让消费者通过这类费用较低的选择方案找到他们通常收看的节目)These services are mostly beneficial for people who do not mind watching shows after they#39;ve aired and are willing to part with most live programming.这些务主要适合那些不介意观看非实时节目,愿意与大多数直播节目挥手告别的人士。 /201401/272944。
  • Woman Marries Herself After Six Years OfBeing Single. Here#39;s Why...经过6年的单身生活,英女子决定嫁给自己It#39;s not your typical wedding scenario,marrying yourself.这不会是你心目中典型的婚礼场景,因为新娘将自己嫁给了自己。However it#39;s not unheard of either, asproven by Grace Gelder who is now happily married to...Grace Gelder.不过这种情况也不是前所未有,GraceGelder就幸福地将自己嫁给了自己。The reason? After a long spell of beingsingle, Grace decided that enough was enough.她为何要这么做呢?在长期单身之后,Grace确定自己已经受够了这样的日子。She#39;d built up a ;brilliant relationship; with herself and was y to commit toan ;adventurous period of self discovery; while also looking forwardto a new phase in her life.她同自己建立了“绝妙的关系”并准备投入“自我发现的冒险阶段”,同时也期望人生开启新篇章。The obvious answer following thisreflection was, of course, marriage.经过认真的思考,不言自明,当然,她需要步入婚姻殿堂。So, Grace paid a visit to Parliament Hillin London lastNovember and proposed to herself on a park bench.于是,Grace于去年11月份去了伦敦的国会山,她在一个公园的长椅上向自己求婚。After announcing her news, Grace wasslightly anxious that people would see it as a bit self-absorbed.在公布了消息之后,Grace有点担心人们会认为她有点自恋。She told The Guardian: ;Obviously, if you#39;ve just announcedyou#39;re marrying yourself, it is plainly a statement of self-love, and I wasunder no illusion how self-indulgent that might appear.;她对《卫报》说:“如果你公布要同自己结婚的话,那显然就是自恋的表现,”;But I was completely comfortable withmy motivations.;“但是我完全没有因自己的动机感到不自在”。The day itself was a humble affair, with 50guests in an ;idyllic farmhouse in rural Devon.;婚礼当天一切都很低调,50名宾客来到了位于“德文郡田园诗般的乡下农家”。The dress was vintage (snapped up a coupleof days before the ceremony) .婚纱是老式的(在举办婚礼的前几天抢购的)。Since the wedding, Grace has been told byher female friends that she#39;s an example to women. Her response?自从举办了婚礼之后,Grace的女性朋友们都说她是女性的榜样。那她对此作何反应呢?;Why not an example to men too? I reallydon#39;t see it as any kind of feminist statement, but creating a wedding of thiskind on my own terms felt incredibly empowering.;“为什么不会也是男性的榜样呢?我的确没把这看作是任何女权主义的宣言,但按照我自己的意愿举办一场这样的婚礼让我感到自己的不可思议”。Although it#39;s an unusual event, Grace isnot the first woman to marry herself.虽然这样的事情非同寻常,但Grace并不是第一个与自己结婚的女性。In 2012, Huffington Post reported that Nadine Schweigert from North Dakota had marriedherself following a painful divorce.据《赫芬顿邮报》报道,2012年,美国北达科他州的Nadine Schweigert在经历痛苦的离婚之后,自己独自举办了婚礼。Nadine told Inforum: ;I was waitingfor someone to come along and make me happy. At some point, a friend said, ;Why do you need someone to marry you to be happy? Marry yourself.;Nadine对Inforum 说:“我等待那个能让我幸福的人出现。某日一个朋友提到,;为何要嫁给别人以获得幸福?何不嫁给自己;。Additionally, 30-year-old Taiwanese woman,Chen Wei-yih married herself back in 2010.此外,30岁的台湾女子Chen Wei-yih于2010年嫁给了自己。 /201410/334629。
  • Nathan Rothschild was the richest man in the world when he died in 1836. A list compiled by Forbes magazine, ranks him as the second richest man who ever lived – ahead of John D#8201;Rockefeller, and way ahead of Mexican telecoms mogul Carlos Slim and Bill Gates of Microsoft. (The richest was a Roman general who was the power behind Julius Caesar’s throne.) The figures used by Forbes are, of course, adjusted for inflation.内森#8226;罗斯柴尔德(Nathan Rothschild)于1836年去世,当时他是世界首富。在《福布斯》(Forbes)杂志编撰的一份榜单上,他被评为有史以来第二富有的人——排在约翰#8226;D#8226;洛克菲勒(John D. Rockefeller)之前,远远领先于墨西哥电信巨头卡洛斯#8226;斯利姆(Carlos Slim)和微软(Microsoft)的比尔#8226;盖茨(Bill Gates)。(有史以来最富有的是一位罗马将军,是他把凯撒(Julius Caesar)推上皇位的。)当然,《福布斯》使用的数字经过了通胀调整。But what does “adjusted for inflation” mean? Rothschild died of septicaemia following an abscess, and in spite of buying the best medical attention available in Europe at the time. He had never been in a car, a train or an aircraft, nor visited the Taj Mahal, heard recorded music, seen a film, made a phone call or used electric light. Nor (despite the legends about the killing he made from inside information) could he have heard about the outcome of Waterloo until many hours after the battle was won. And he was dead at the age of 58 from an illness that could today be cured by an antibiotic costing a few pence.但“经过了通胀调整”是什么意思?尽管能够享受当时欧洲最好的医疗条件,罗斯柴尔德仍死于脓肿引发的败血症。他从没坐过汽车、火车、飞机,也没到过泰姬陵(Taj Mahal),没听过录制音乐,没看过电影,没打过电话,也没用过电灯。滑铁卢战役分出胜负几小时后,他才有可能得知结果(尽管有传闻称他利用内幕消息发了大财)。他在58岁那年病逝,若换到今天,那种病只消花上几便士买点抗生素便能治愈。Was Rothschild really the second richest man in history? Was he, in fact, richer than me? True, he could hire a fleet of carriages and eat off gold plate; but I would happily trade both for still being alive , and I suspect that Rothschild would have felt the same.罗斯柴尔德真的是历史上第二富有的人吗?那时的他,比现在的我富裕吗?没错,他雇得起一整马车队,用金盘子吃饭;但跟继续活下来相比,我宁愿不要这两者——我猜罗斯柴尔德也会这么想。The question is prompted by a considerably more mundane event. Inflation in the eurozone has fallen to 0.3 per cent, arousing concerns that there might actually be deflation in the months ahead – and that Eurostat, Europe’s statistics agency, will soon declare that prices in Europe are lower than a year earlier.我是由一件很普通的事情想到这个问题的。欧元区的通胀率已降至0.3%,令人担忧未来几个月可能真的发生通缩,而欧盟统计局(Eurostat)将在不久之后宣布,欧洲的物价低于一年前。That worry is premised on the existence of a qualitative difference between inflation – that is, prices rising, even if slowly; and deflation – prices falling, however swiftly. It is also premised on an assumption that deflation is undesirable and that the goal should be gently rising prices; and on the belief that we are able to tell which state we are in.人们之所以会产生这种担心,一个前提是通胀与通缩性质不同——前者指物价上涨,哪怕上涨缓慢;后者指物价下降,无论降得有多么快。另一个前提是关于通缩是不可取的、应该以物价温和上升为目标的观念,以及我们能够判断通胀形势的想法。Contemplation of the antibiotics not available in 1836 casts doubt on all these premises. It is generally accepted medical costs rise faster than general inflation – and in the US, where they represent more than 20 per cent of consumer spending, they have contributed significantly to that general inflation. But medicine has become better – quite a lot better, even if too late for Rothschild.考虑到1836年还没有抗生素,这就令人对上述所有假设产生了怀疑。大家普遍认为,医疗成本上涨快于总体通胀率。在美国,医疗费用对总体通胀率的贡献很大,因为它在消费者出中的占比高于20%。然而,医疗技术已经进步,比以往好很多,尽管这对罗斯柴尔德来说已太迟了。Price indices are compiled by measuring the changes in the cost of buying a fixed bundle of goods chosen to represent the consumption of an average household. But what the average household buys changes with the arrival of new goods; and with changes in relative prices; as well as with variations – good and bad – in quality. Antibiotics replace leeches, carriages become more expensive, computers become more powerful, and the service from a call-centre deteriorates. That is how modern economies evolve and grow.统计人员选取能代表普通家庭消费状况的一篮子物品,测算这些物品的价格变化,从而计算出物价指数。但普通家庭购买的物品组合会随着新商品的问世而变化;也随着相对价格的变化而变化;还随着商品质量(优与劣)的变化而变化。抗生素取代了蚂蟥,马车价格变得更贵,计算机变得更强大,而呼叫中心的务却恶化了。这就是现代经济演进与发展的方式。But price indices are ill equipped to cope with these changes. The bundle of goods Rothschild bought in his day might now be prohibitively expensive, even for him – the carriages, the plate – and is certainly very different from the bundle of goods Mr Gates would want to buy. The difference in consumption patterns of an average household is more dramatic still.但物价指标不能很好地适应这些变化。罗斯柴尔德当年买的一篮子物品,放在今天可能价格高不可攀,即便对他来说也是一样——那些马车、金盘子——当然跟盖茨今天想买的一篮子物品也有很大不同。普通家庭消费模式的变化更是大得惊人。There are techniques for measuring and incorporating quality improvements, which are used for many consumer goods – but in the case of medicine, it is the amount of attention received that has increased rather than the price of treatments.如今有一些技术可以衡量并计入质量改进因素,这些技术已使用到许多消费品上——但就医疗而言,上升的是病人得到的护理务总量,而非治疗的价格。Overall, there are probably more upward than downward biases in the way inflation is calculated. But to claim that we know that prices have risen by 0.3 per cent in the past year implies a degree of precision in our estimates to which we cannot lay claim nor realistically aspire.总体而言,在计算通胀率过程中,高估的倾向可能要大于低估的倾向。但是,声称我们知道物价在过去一年里上涨了0.3%,等于暗示我们的估算有一定精确度——其实我们不可能达到那样的精确度,那是不切实际的妄想。 /201411/341766。
  • A daily cup of coffee can save your eyesight, scientists claim.科学家称,每日一杯咖啡可以拯救你的视力。A chemical found in the drink prevents deteriorating eyesight and possible blindness from retinal degeneration due to glaucoma, ageing and diabetes.研究发现,咖啡中的一种化学成分可防止视力下降,甚至可预防青光眼、角膜老化及糖尿病所引起的视网膜退化,从而防止失明。Researchers at Cornell Univesity in New York were looking at coffee#39;s antioxidant effects when they made the discovery.Coffee contains 1 percent caffeine but between 7 and 9 percent chlorogenic acid which is a strong antioxidant.The study, published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, found that in mice this acid prevented retinal degeneration.这项研究是纽约康奈尔大学的研究者们在研究咖啡的抗氧化作用时意外发现的。咖啡中包含1%的咖啡因,但是有7%至9%的强抗氧化剂绿原酸。这项发表在《农业与食品化学期刊》的研究发现,小白鼠体内的绿原酸可以防止视网膜退化。Chang Y. Lee, a professor of food science and the study#39;s senior author said: ‘The retina is a thin tissue layer on the inside, back wall of the eye with millions of light-sensitive cells and other nerve cells that receive and organise visual information.‘It is also one of the most metabolically active tissues, demanding high levels of oxygen and making it prone to oxidative stress.‘The lack of oxygen and production of free radicals leads to tissue damage and loss of sight.’食品科学教授、该研究作者之一李昌说道:“视网膜是眼中一层薄薄的膜状组织,是眼睛数以万计的感光细胞和其他神经细胞的接收和组织视觉信息的后壁。它也是新陈代谢最活跃的组织之一,因此需要很高的含氧量去应对氧化压力。缺少含氧量和自由基的产生能导致视网膜组织损坏和失明。”He added: ‘The study is important in understanding functional foods, that is, natural foods that provide beneficial health effects.他还说道:“这项研究对于了解食物的功能十分重要。也就是说天然食品对我们的健康有益。”‘Coffee is the most popular drink in the world, and we are understanding what benefit we can get from that.’“咖啡是世界上最受欢迎的饮品。我们现在知道了我们可以从中收获什么样的好处。”Previous studies have shown that coffee also cuts the risk of such chronic diseases as Parkinson#39;s, prostate cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer#39;s and age-related cognitive declines.在此之前,曾有研究表明咖啡还可以降低帕金森氏症、前列腺癌、糖尿病、老年痴呆症以及其他由于年老引起的认知衰退等慢性疾病的风险。 /201405/297343。
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