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2019年01月17日 18:03:42来源:度排名快答

Russian President Vladimir Putin has been named worlds most powerful person by Forbes magazine.俄罗斯总统普京被《福布斯》(Forbes)杂志评为全球最有权力的人物;Putin continues to prove hes one of the few men in the world powerful enough to do what he wants and get away with it,; the magazine said of the Russian leader, who has topped the list three years in a row.杂志道,普京继续明了他是世界上仅有的几位权力强大到可以为所欲为并且不会受罚的人物。他已连续三年蝉连榜首。Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel took over the second spot from U.S. President Barack Obama, who dropped to third.德国总理默克尔取代美国总统奥巴马登上权力排行榜第二位,而奥巴马滑落到第三位。It marks the first time a U.S. president has not been in the top two in the seven-year history of the rankings, according to the 73-person list named by Forbes.这是七年间,美国总统第一次在《福布斯》提名的73位最有权人物中没有进入前两名。Pope Francis was named fourth most powerful, the same as last year, and China President Xi Jinping came in at fifth, dropping two spots.教宗方济各被评为第四位最有权力的人物,与去年的排行相同。而中国国家主席习近平位列第五,比去年下降了两位。Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe was the biggest mover on the list, rising 22 places to 49th.日本首相安倍晋三的排行榜上升幅度最大,上升2个位次,名列49位。Presidential hopefuls Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump were both on the list, ranking 58th and 72nd, respectively.美国总统参选人希拉釷克林顿和唐纳德·川普均榜上有名,分别位列58位和72位。The highest-ranking newcomer to the list is Saudi King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, who ranked 14th.在今年新上榜的人物中,排名最高的是位4位的沙特国王萨勒曼·阿卜杜勒。Forbes said several factors were taken into account to select the most powerful people, including ;the amount of money they control, the number of people they impact, their total spheres of influence, and how actively they wield their power.;《福布斯》表示,挑选最有权力的人物需要考虑很多因素。包括“他们控制的金钱数量,他们影响的人口数量,他们在全球的影响范围以及他们如何积极地动用自己的权力。”来 /201511/408147。

  • Clothes, jewelry and political mementos owned by Margaret Thatcher, Britain’s longest-serving prime minister of the 20th century and the country’s only female prime minister to date, are to be auctioned after the Victoria and Albert Museum in London turned down the chance to preserve her wardrobe for the nation.玛格丽特·撒切Margaret Thatcher)是英0世纪在位时间最长的首相,也是该国到目前为止唯一的女首相。伦敦的维多利亚与艾伯特物Victoria and Albert Museum)拒绝为国家保存她的装,所以她的装、珠宝和政治纪念品将被拍卖。The news prompted a firestorm of protest on social media and the airwaves, particularly from members of the Conservative Party, which Baroness Thatcher once led. “Shame the Vamp;A has turned down Thatcher’s personal collection. I for one would have loved to see it!Britain’s business secretary, Sajid Javid, said on Twitter. Conor Burns, another member of Parliament, denounced the snub on B radio, adding that the collection’s breakup would be a “tragedyand that “her dresses embodied her and a period, and I hope they can be saved.”这一消息在社交媒体和电视广播上引发强烈抗议,主要来自撒切尔女男爵曾经领导的保守党成员。英国商务大臣赛义德·贾维Sajid Javid)在Twitter上说,“维多利亚与艾伯特物馆拒绝收藏撒切尔的个人物品,真是可耻。我就很想去参观她的藏品!”另一位国会成员康纳·伯恩斯(Conor Burns)在B广播中谴责该物馆的怠慢之举,称这些藏品的解体是“悲剧”,“她的装是她这个人和她那个时代的缩影,我希望它们能得到保存”。The despair provoked wry amusement in some quarters. “Is it me, incidentally, or is there something slightly kinky about male Tory MPs who want Lady Thatcher’s clothes put on public display?mused the historian Robert Harris on Twitter.这种失望情绪在某些领域也引发嘲讽。历史学家罗伯特·哈里Robert Harris)在Twitter上说:“英国保守党的男党员们希望撒切尔夫人的装能够公开展示,这让我感觉怪怪的。只有我一个人这么想吗?”However, even Dame Vivienne Westwood, the anarchic British fashion designer who mockingly dressed as the baroness for the cover of the society magazine Tatler in 1989, chimed in, adding that she thought that “Lady Thatcher has terrific taste and that it would have been lovely for the Vamp;A to put her dresses on display.”不过,甚至连肆无忌惮的无政府主义英国时装设计师薇薇恩·韦斯特伍德夫人(Dame Vivienne Westwood)也加入讨论,说她认为“撒切尔夫人品味极佳,要是维多利亚与艾伯特物馆能展示她的装就好了”989年,韦斯特伍德曾嘲弄地打扮成撒切尔女男爵的样子,登上社会杂志《Tatler》的封面。But the museum, like the former prime minister herself, was not for turning.不过,维多利亚与艾伯特物馆和这位前首相一样,是不会动摇的。After Mrs. Thatcher died in 2013, her family offered items ranging from her blue velvet wedding dress and trademark handbags to signed copies of key speeches to the Vamp;A, which has one of the largest fashion collections in the world. It recently has shown exhibitions devoted to Alexander McQueen, famous wedding dresses and the stage outfits of the rock star David Bowie.2013年,撒切尔夫人去世后,她的家人向维多利亚与艾伯特物馆提出将她的很多物品交由该物馆保管,包括蓝色天鹅绒结婚礼、标志性手袋和关键演讲的署名文本。该物馆是世界上最大的装收藏机构之一,最近刚组织了亚历山大·麦Alexander McQueen)展、著名婚纱展以及摇滚明星大卫·鲍伊(David Bowie)的舞台装展。A museum spokeswoman said on Monday that the focus of its clothing collection was items of “outstanding aesthetic or technical qualityrather than those with “intrinsic social historical value,so it had chosen not to accept the Thatcher collection.周一1日),该物馆的一位女发言人说,该物馆的装收藏重点是那些具有“杰出的审美或技术品质”的装,而非具有“内在社会历史价值”的装,所以决定不接受撒切尔的装。“The Vamp;A has politely declined the offer of Baroness Thatcher’s clothes, feeling that these records of Britain’s political history were best suited to another collection,she said.这位女发言人补充说:“维多利亚与艾伯特物馆委婉地拒绝了撒切尔女男爵的装,认为这些关于英国政治历史的记录更适合交由其他物馆收藏。”As the furor continued, the museum clarified its statement on Tuesday: “Several years ago, a general discussion took place to explore whether some pieces from the wardrobe of Baroness Thatcher might be added to the Vamp;A’s collection. These conversations did not develop. The Vamp;A would like to make it clear that no formal offer was made for the museum to acquire the collection.”’由于人们的愤怒继续蔓延,周二1日),该物馆对它的声明进行了解释:“几年前,我们就是否应该把撒切尔女男爵的部分装加入我们的收藏进行了宽泛的讨论。这些讨论没有继续下去。维多利亚与艾伯特物馆想要说明这一点:我们从未收到希望我们购买这些藏品的正式要约。”Mrs. Thatcher, who once summed up her style as “never flashy, just appropriate,was renowned for her distinctive sartorial trademarks, from wool suits, pearls and pussy-bow blouses to boxy handbags and bouffant hair. Many saw the so-called “Iron Ladyas a pioneer of consistent power dressing and image manipulation as well as the first female leader of a major Western power.撒切尔夫人曾把自己的着装风格总结为“从不奢华,得体而已”。她独特的饰标志众所周知,包括羊毛套装、珍珠饰品、蝴蝶结衬衣、四方方的手袋和蓬松的头发。很多人认为,这位“铁娘子”是保持一贯权力着装和形象控制方面的先驱,也是首位西方大国女领袖。Christie’s, which has held several previous sales of Thatcher-related lots (including one in 2012 that featured a black leather handbag the former prime minister carried during a 1985 visit to the White House that sold for ,500), was quick to take advantage of the news. On Tuesday, it announced that it would sell 350 of the Thatcher pieces one by one at an auction on Dec. 15 in London. The sale will take place 25 years after the departure of Baroness Thatcher from office, in the year that would have been her 90th birthday.佳士得拍卖行(Christie’s)之前举办过几场与撒切尔相关的拍卖会(拍品包括这位前首985年拜访白宫时携带的黑色皮包,它在2012年拍出,价格.85万美元)。该拍卖行很快开始利用这一消息。周二(11日),它宣布,将25日在伦敦举办拍卖会,逐件拍卖撒切尔的350件物品。这场拍卖会是在撒切尔女男爵退5年后举办的,今年也是她诞0周年。来 /201511/409950。
  • When it comes to treating glaucoma, the goal of eye doctors is assuring their patient don’t go blind.在治疗青光眼上,眼科医生的目标通常是确保病人不会失明。That would seem relatively easy. Give them eye drops or refer them to surgery, which helps relieve what is known as intraocular pressure (IOP) inside the eye. But with current technology, it can often be difficult to measure this pressure because it fluctuates so much and those measurements have to be done in a doctor’s office.这个目标看似不难,只要给他们开点眼药水或让他们去做手术就行了,手术主要是为了降低眼压。但是凭借现有技术,测量眼压是有难度的,因为眼压的波动比较大,而且测眼压的过程必须要在医生的办公室里完成。That soon could change, thanks to a new device described in Nature Medicine.但是借助于《自然医学》杂志描述的一种新设备,这种情况可能很快就会改变。A team of researchers from Stanford University and Bar-Ilan University in Israel has designed an implantable sensor that can be with a smartphone camera. This allows the patient to take ings themselves and should improve the accuracy of pressure data.美国斯坦福大学(Stanford University)和以色列巴伊兰大学(Bar-Ilan University)的研究团队设计了一款可植入式的传感器,通过智能手机摄像头就可以获得它的读数。因此患者完全可以自行读取读数,同时它也提高了眼压数据的准确性。“We believe this self-monitoring capabilities of the implant can significantly enhance the treatment and make it significantly better for the patient,said Bar-Ilan’s Yossi Mandel, who co-authored the paper with Ismail Araci, Baolong Su and Stephen R. Quake of Stanford.巴伊兰大学的约西o曼德尔表示:“我们认为,这款可植入眼压传感器带来的自我监测能力,可以显著提高青光眼的治疗,并改善患者的处境。”《自然医学》杂志上的这篇论文就是曼德尔与斯坦福大学的伊斯梅尔o阿拉西、苏宝龙(音译)和史蒂芬oRo奎克合作撰写的。“Today, we think we are not treating them good enough,he added. “They come once in a while and we take a single point in time of measurement. This probably is not good enough and we know from other studies that there is large variation in the IOP. In the same day, it can vary a lot.”曼德尔补充道:“现在,我认为我们对青光眼治疗得还不够好。患者偶尔到医院来一趟,然后我们测量到的是他们在某个时间点上的眼压。这可能不够奀?我们从其它研究得知,眼压会有很大变化。哪怕在同一天里,眼压也会有很大的变化。”Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that in most cases produces increased pressure within the eye and affects more than 65 million people worldwide. When the eye pressure is increased, the optic nerve becomes damaged, resulting in the death of the retinal cells, degeneration of the nerve fibers and eventually permanent loss of vision.青光眼是一系列眼科疾病的统称,在大多数情况下会导致眼内压增高,全球青光眼患者超500万人。一旦眼压升高,视神经就会受到损伤,导致视网膜细胞死亡,神经纤维退化,最终直至永久失明。There are several good methods to diagnosing glaucoma but only one that monitors the disease to ensure the prescribed treatments are working. Called the Goldman applanationtonometery, or GAT, the method requires that the eye be anesthetized in a physician’s office and then a plastic prism makes contact with the cornea to measure the pressure. Not only is this uncomfortable and complex but this technique has been found in several studies to be inaccurate.青光眼有好几种不错的诊断方法,但是能对病情进行监测,以了解治疗是否有效的办法只有一种——它叫做Goldman压平眼压计测量法或GAT。用这种方法测量眼压,首先需要在医生的办公室里将患者的眼部麻醉,然后用一根塑料棱镜按压患者的角膜来测量眼压。这种方法不仅难受、复杂,而且根据多项研究显示,并不是非常精确。“Unfortunately, the patient can’t today measure his own IOP like he would with hypertension where you can measure your own blood pressure. Glaucoma patients have to go to their physicians,Mandel said in a phone interview. “In one study, they measured IOP over 24 hours and saw there were large variations. In about 80 percent of the patients, they changed the treatment.”曼德尔在接受电话采访时表示:“可惜的是,现在病人还不能像量血压一样自行监测自己的眼压。青光眼病人必须到医院去。在一项研究中,研究人员测量了患4小时内的眼压,发现患者一天内的眼压有很动。所以他们对80%的患者改变了治疗方法。”The self-monitoring device, Mandel said, is about 50 microns in diameter and a few millimeters long. Looking much like a small tube, Mandel said the device developed in Quake’s lab is implanted in the eye.曼德尔表示,这款自测试备的直径只0微米,长度只有几毫米,看起来像一根极微小的管子。曼德尔称,这款在奎克的实验室开发出来的设备可以植入人的眼中。“It looks very simple,Mandel said. “The pressure in the eye causes a shift in the position of the fluid column in the device which then can be much like the temperature in a thermometer.”曼德尔解释道:“它的原理非常简单。眼内压会导致设备内的液柱位置变化,然后读取它的读数即可,原理很像温度计。”Glaucoma experts welcomed news of the device, saying it offers several advantages over the current methods including that it s the pressure and does it around the clock.青光眼专家们都对这款设备表示欢迎,并表示它与以往的测量方法相比有很多优点,包括它可以显示读数,而且可以随时监测。“If patient comes in for cataract surgery and, if at the same time you can implant the device that would allow monitoring IOP more accurately and remotely, that has a huge benefit,Dr. Andrew Iwach, chairman of board for the Glaucoma Research Foundation and executive director Glaucoma Center of San Francisco said. He also founded the foundation’s annual event, Glaucoma 360, which brings together researchers, industry executives and philanthropist to find a cure for glaucoma.美国青光眼研究基金会(Glaucoma Research Foundation)的董事会主席、旧金山青光眼中心常务主任安德鲁o伊瓦施表示:“如果患者做了白内障手术的话,如果在做手术的同时,你把这款设备植入进去,那么就能更精确地监测眼压,这是有巨大好处的。”伊瓦施还是青光眼基金会“青光眼360”活动的发起人,这个活动旨在召集青光眼研究专家、行业高管和慈善人士来寻找治疗青光眼的方法。“So if you look at the risk benefit ratio the question wouldn’t be why did you put it in but why you didn’t put it in,he said.他表示:“因此,如果你看看风险收益比,问题就不会是你为什么要植入,而是你为什么不植入。”There is a similar device available in Europe to measure pressure around the clock called the Sensimed Triggerfish. But this contact lens sensor doesn’t measure the eye pressure directly, which makes it less accurate and, according to a 2012 study in Arch of Ophthalmol, caused blurred vision and other adverse reactions in over 80 percent of the patients.欧洲也有一款类似的可以随时测量眼压的设备,名叫Sensimed Triggerfish。不过这款接触式镜片传感器并非直接测量眼压,导致测量结果精确度不高。另外根据《眼科学报》(Arch of Ophthalmol012年的一份研究显示,它会导致80%的患者出现视觉模糊和其它负作用。Iwach said the lack of a reliable device to measure pressure in the American market has prompted a competition of sorts with at least five companies vying to be the first to get a device inserted into the eye, which transmits an electronic signal out onto the American market.伊瓦施指出,由于美国市场缺乏一款可以测量眼压的可靠设备,现在至少有五家以上的公司都在这个领域进行竞争,他们都希望能第一个在美国市场上推出植入式眼压测量设备。“This is an exciting a horse race,Iwach said. “Different camps realize the first to market, the one who figures out how to do this best, is going to potentially revolutionize how we manage glaucoma and ultimately patients will be better for it.”伊瓦施表示:“这是一场令人兴奋的竞争。大家都意识到,第一个进入市场、第一个知道怎样最好地测量眼压的公司,可能会给青光眼的治疗带来革命性的效果,而且最终会造福患者。”While showing promise to be the first, the latest device still is several years away from being commercially feasible. It has only been tested in pigs so the next step, Mandel said, is to do further research to ensure the device is safe in humans and can remain in the eye for an extended period of time.虽然上文提到的这款微传感器还是该领域的第一款设备,但它离正式商用还有好几年。目前它只在猪身上测试过。因此曼德尔表示,下一步重点是要进一步深入研究,以确保它对人体的安全性,并且确保它能长期妥善地存在于眼部。“As scientist we are always skeptical about what we and others do,Mandel said. “There are challenges that have to overcome but this device shows a lot of promise.”曼德尔表示:“作为科学家,我们总是对我们和其他人做的事感到怀疑。不过虽然前路还有一些挑战需要克,但这款设备的确带给我们很多希望。 /201409/326311。
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