2019年08月26日 04:55:17|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度管家医院排行榜
There is no textbook on what to do. 没有教科书教该怎么做。The US has a history of meddling in other countries’ politics during the cold war — and since. 美国在冷战期间以及之后都干预过其他国家的政治。But Russia’s thinly-disguised intrusions into the 2016 election is the first time the US has clearly been the object of such attention. 但如今俄罗斯对2016年美国大选几乎毫不掩饰地加以干预,这还是美国首次明显成为此类关照的对象。Moreover, the Russian bear is pushing at an open door. 而且,俄罗斯熊正在推的是一扇敞开的大门。All Vladimir Putin needs to do to cause trouble is to sow doubt about the integrity of the US electoral process. 要制造麻烦,弗拉基米尔#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)只需让人们对美国大选的公正性产生怀疑就可以了。Large numbers of Americans aly suspect the November result will be rigged. 许多美国人已经怀疑11月的大选结果将会受到操纵。So does Donald Trump, who is the first US presidential nominee to invite a foreign power to leak material that would damage his opponent. 唐纳德#8226;特朗普(Donald Trump)也只需要这么做,他是首位邀请外国势力泄露会打击对手的资料的美国总统候选人。If ever US democracy was vulnerable to skulduggery that time would be now.如果说美国民主什么时候容易受到蒙骗,那就是现在。What chance does it have of succeeding? To some extent it aly has. 俄罗斯成功的可能性有多大?在某种程度上来说,它已经成功了。In a Bloomberg interview last week, Mr Putin offered a blatant non-denial denial that Russia carried out the recent hacking episodes. 在上周接受彭(Bloomberg)采访时,普京公然做出了不是否认的否认,即俄罗斯从事了最近的黑客攻击活动。To do that you need to have a finger on the pulse and understand the specifics of domestic political life in the US, he said with a knowing smile. 他带着心照不宣的微笑说道:要做到这些,你需要紧贴脉搏,理解美国国内政治生活的细节。I’m not sure that even our foreign ministry experts are sensitive enough. 我不太确定我们的外交部专家是否足够敏感。The Russian president might as well have winked at the camera. 普京也可能是对着摄像机开玩笑。Nobody, from the cyber security firms looking into the hacking of US political outfits, to the FBI, which is investigating them, doubts Russian intelligence agencies were behind the breaches.从研究美国政治机构遭黑客攻击的网络安全公司,到调查它们的美国联邦调查局(FBI),没有人怀疑俄罗斯情报机构是幕后黑手。Nor is there much question about motive. 动机方面也没有多大问题。The email trove hacked from the Democratic headquarters showing insider bias for Hillary Clinton over Bernie Sanders, was leaked on the eve of Mrs Clinton’s convention in July. 在今年7月希拉里#8226;克林顿(Hillary Clinton)获得民主党总统候选人提名的大会前夕,窃自民主党总部的电子邮件遭到泄露,这些邮件表明民主党内部偏向希拉里,而不是伯尼#8226;桑德斯(Bernie Sanders)。It inflamed Mr Sanders’ supporters, many of whom aly thought Mrs Clinton had rigged the primaries. 这让桑德斯的持者怒火冲天,许多人已经认为希拉里操纵了初选。Last week Julian Assange, the holed up founder of WikiLeaks, which released that first batch of emails, promised there would be more to come before November. 上周,躲藏起来的维基解密(WikiLeaks)创始人朱利安#8226;阿桑奇(Julian Assange)承诺,将会在今年11月前披露更多的邮件。之前是维基解密公布了第一批邮件。It is not a question of whether Russia leaks more data but when, says Dmitri Alperovitch, co-founder of CrowdStrike, one of the largest US cyber security companies. 美国最大的网络安全公司之一CrowdStrike的联合创始人德米特里#8226;阿尔佩罗维奇(Dmitri Alperovitch)表示:这不是俄罗斯是否会泄露更多数据的问题,而是何时泄露的问题。Mr Assange, who is Russia’s preferred data dump, promises teasers in the next few days.受俄罗斯青睐的数据发布人阿桑奇承诺,将于今后几天公布一些先导邮件。It would be easy — but probably wrong — to assume Mr Trump is working directly with Mr Putin to build mistrust in the November outcome. 很容易假定特朗普在和普京直接联手让人们怀疑11月的选举结果,但这样假定很可能是错误的。The prima facie case looks strong. 乍看上去这种假定很有道理。In his July acceptance speech, Mr Trump said: Big business, elite media and major donors are lining up behind the campaign of my opponent because they know she will keep our rigged system in place. 今年7月,特朗普在接受共和党总统候选人提名时表示:大企业、精英媒体和主要捐赠者正排队持希拉里的竞选,因为他们知道,她将会保持我们受到操纵的体系。That same week Trump officials purged language from the Republican platform which had urged support for the Ukrainian government against Russia. 就在同一周,特朗普方面的官员们抹除了共和党纲领中敦促持乌克兰政府、反对俄罗斯的语句。It came four years after Mitt Romney, the then Republican nominee, had described Russia as America’s number one geopolitical foe.4年前,当时的共和党总统候选人米特#8226;罗姆尼(Mitt Romney)将俄罗斯称为美国的头号地缘政治对手。Nothing better captures Mr Trump’s hostile takeover of the Republican party than its 180-degree turn on Russia. 没有什么事情比共和党在俄罗斯问题上180度大转弯更能反映出特朗普对共和党的敌意接管了。Every hacking — most recently last week’s exfiltration of electoral rolls in Arizona and Illinois — appears to benefit Mr Trump. 每一次黑客攻击——最近的一次是上周亚利桑那州和伊利诺伊州选民名册外泄——似乎都有利于特朗普。Anything that could implant doubt about Mrs Clinton’s likely victory in November is grist to his mill. 一切让人们对希拉里11月可能的获胜产生怀疑的事情,都为特朗普利用。Only he seems to question Russia’s role in the leaks. I think it’s probably unlikely. 似乎只有他在质疑俄罗斯在这些泄露事件中的角色。Maybe the Democrats are putting that out, Mr Trump last week told Russian television (yes, you that correctly). 特朗普上周向俄罗斯电视台表示,我认为这似乎不太可能,或许这是民主党人搞出来的(是的,你没有看错)。He also told the state-owned broadcaster that Mr Putin was far more of a leader than President Barack Obama. 他还向这家国有电视台表示,普京比巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)总统更像一个领导人。As I say, the surface evidence for Trump-Putin connivance looks plain.如我所说,特朗普和普京联手的表面据看上去很明显。Yet Mr Putin is a far wilier operator than Mr Trump. 然而,普京比特朗普更为老谋深算。In his early career he trained in the active measures wing of the KGB, which specialised in political warfare. 普京政治生涯早期曾在克格勃(KGB)的积极策略部门接受过培训。Its goal was to generate disinformation that would disrupt other countries’ politics. 克格勃专攻政治斗争,其目标是制造谣言破坏其他国家的政治。Mr Trump has given the Russian leader a golden chance to tarnish the US democratic model with the far more sophisticated tools now available. 特朗普为普京提供了大好机会,让他可以利用如今先进得多的工具抹黑美国的民主模式。Mr Trump’s victory would not necessarily be in Mr Putin’s interests. Damaging the world’s faith in the US system is. 特朗普获胜不一定符合普京的利益,但破坏世界对美国制度的信心符合他的利益。Mr Putin is also a savvier tactician than Mrs Clinton. 普京在战术方面也比希拉里精明。When Mr Obama came to power in 2009, he and Mrs Clinton tried to create a split between Mr Putin and Dmitry Medvedev, Russia’s then president. It failed. 当2009年奥巴马上台的时候,他和希拉里试图离间普京和俄罗斯时任总统德米特里#8226;梅德韦杰夫(Dmitry Medvedev)之间的关系,但没有取得成功。In 2011 Mrs Clinton backed Moscow demonstrators against Mr Putin’s allegedly rigged presidential election. This also backfired. 2011年,希拉里持莫斯科游行者抗议普京涉嫌操纵总统选举,结果也适得其反。Washington gave critical help to those supporting the 2014 overthrow of the pro-Russian government in Ukraine. 华盛顿为那些在2014年持推翻乌克兰亲俄罗斯政府的人士提供了关键的帮助。Mr Putin responded by annexing Crimea. 普京的回应是吞并了克里米亚。What sweeter revenge than to meddle in a US election?还有比干预美国大选更快乐的复仇吗?The bar is not that high. 而且这并没有那么难。No vote rigging need occur — assuming it was even possible. 根本不需要操纵选举——假设操纵是可能的。All Mr Putin needs to do is contaminate the results in people’s minds. 普京需要做的只是让人们对选举结果产生怀疑。Mr Trump and his media backers would do the rest. 特朗普及其媒体持者会完成剩下的事。Sound improbable? It should not. 听起来不太可能?不应这样想。Mr Putin is a past master at setting cats among democratic pigeons. 普京过去就擅长让民主国家鸡犬不宁。He knows well that propaganda works best when there is a receptive audience. 他深知,当听众愿意相信时,宣传最有效。Forget America’s global reputation. 忘掉美国的全球声誉吧。Look at how it sees itself. 看看它是如何看待自己的。With some justification, many Americans believe their political system has been captured by the rich and powerful. 许多美国人有一些理由地相信他们的政治体系被富人和权贵掌控。It explains why so many are taking a desperate gamble on Mr Trump. 这解释了为什么这么多人孤注一掷地押注于特朗普。Their horse will probably be beaten. 他们的押注可能失败。Mr Putin, on the other hand, is enjoying a lucrative day at the races.而普京则在这场中大赚特赚。 /201609/468045

Tadashi Maeda was visibly agitated. Addressing an investment forum in Kuala Lumpur, the senior managing director at Japan Bank for International Cooperation assured the packed hall that Japan would redouble its efforts to secure a contract to build the proposed 350km high-speed railway to link the Malaysian capital to Singapore, at an estimated cost of between .7bn and .5bn. 去年10月,在马来西亚首都吉隆坡的一个投资论坛上,日本国际协力(JBIC)执行董事前田匡史(Tadashi Maeda)向满场观众保日本将加倍努力获取马新高铁的建设合同。这条拟建的高铁全长350公里,将连接吉隆坡和新加坡,预估费用在97亿美元到145亿美元之间。前田匡史讲话时,可以明显看出他的不安。 Mr Maeda had good reason to be agitated. He was speaking last October, a month after the Indonesian government surprised many by awarding a .5bn, 150km Jakarta to Bandung high-speed railway contract not to Japan — which had spent five years on feasibility studies and pushing Jakarta to get the project going — but to China. It shocked the Japanese establishment , which had been certain of success. 他的不安是有充分理由的。就在那之前的一个月,印度尼西亚政府将投资55亿美元,全长150公里的雅加达—万隆高铁项目给了中国,而不是日本,令许多人感到惊讶。此前,日本已经花了五年时间对这个项目进行可行性研究,并推动印尼政府实施这个项目。这件事震惊了一直觉得自己胜券在握的日本当局。 Mr Maeda should brace himself again. FT Confidential Research, a unit of the Financial Times, believes China is the early favourite to win the Malaysian contract, too. 眼下前田匡史应该再次做好心理准备。英国《金融时报》旗下“投资参考”(FT Confidential Research)认为,中国在争取马新高铁合同的竞争中也初步领先。 Japan was the favoured development partner for Malaysia under former premier Mahathir Mohamad in the 1980s and the 1990s. But under Najib Razak, prime minister since 2009, China has moved to the fore. 上世纪八九十年代,马来西亚前总理马哈蒂尔#8226;穆罕默德(Mahathir Mohamad)执政期间,日本曾是马来西亚所青睐的开发合作伙伴。但自现任总理纳吉布#8226;拉扎克(Najib Razak)2009年上台以来,中国跑到了前头。 Over the past five years, China-based companies have successfully participated in high-profile infrastructure projects. The .1bn Second Penang Bridge — partly financed by an 0m loan from the Chinese government — was built by the state-owned China Harbour Engineering Company (CHEC) together with Malaysia-based UEM Group. 过去5年里,中国企业已成功地参与了一些备受瞩目的基础设施项目。国有的中国港湾工程(CHEC)与马来西亚UEM Group一起建造了“槟城第二大桥”(Second Penang Bridge),这座桥投资11亿美元,部分资金来自中国政府提供的8亿美元贷款。 More significantly, in the rail sector about 80 per cent of Malaysian rolling stocks are Chinese made. The Malaysian rail business is so lucrative that China Railway Construction Corporation (CRCC) opened a m rolling stock manufacturing plant in the country in July 2015. 更值得注意的是,马来西亚铁路部门80%的列车是中国制造的。2015年7月,中国铁建(CRCC)在马来西亚投资9700万美元开设了一家铁路车辆制造厂,从中可以看出马来西亚铁路业务利润多么丰厚。 CRCC is part of the Chinese consortium led by freight transporter China Railway bidding for the Kuala Lumpur-Singapore line. The party also includes China Railway Signals amp; Communication and China Communications Construction (the parent company of CHEC). 中国铁建是竞标马新高铁的中国联合体成员之一,联合体由中国中铁(China Railway)牵头,其他成员还包括中国铁路通信信号(China Railway Signals amp; Communication)以及中国交通建设(China Communications Construction,中国港湾工程的母公司)。 China’s cause may have been helped by its support for 1MDB, the controversial state investment fund at the centre of corruption allegations bedevilling Mr Najib. The prime minister and 1MDB deny any wrongdoing over 0m that landed in his personal bank accounts from a mysterious foreign source. 中国在马来西亚的事业可能受益于其对马来西亚国家投资基金“1MDB”的持。该基金备受争议,处于困扰纳吉布的腐败指控的核心。对于纳吉布个人账户上来自海外不明来源的6.8亿美元巨款,纳吉布本人与1MDB都否认存在任何不法行为。 1MDB was at risk of default until China saved it in November and bought a set of power assets from the fund for .3bn. 1MDB also sold part of its stake in a large plot of prime land in Kuala Lumpur to China Railway, the same plot which the Najib government has designated as the Malaysian terminus of the planned high-speed line. 1MDB原本已面临违约风险,直至去年11月中国施以援手——以23亿美元购入该基金旗下电力资产。1MDB还将其在吉隆坡一大片黄金地块的部分股份卖给了中国中铁,纳吉布政府已将这一地块指定为规划中的马新高铁马来西亚段终点站。 Mohd Azharuddin Mat Sah, head of Malaysia’s Public Land Transport Commission, denies the land sale gives China an advantage in the race. He insists Malaysia and Singapore will award the contract through an open tender to be held this year, with 2023 as the target completion date. 马来西亚陆路公共交通委员会(Public Land Transport Commission)首席执行官阿扎鲁丁(Mohd Azharuddin Mat Sah)否认此笔土地出让会让中国在高铁竞标中获得优势。他坚称,马来西亚和新加坡将在今年通过举行公开招标决定合同归属,工程预定完工时间为2023年。 But the denial will be of little comfort to the Japanese consortium comprising East Japan Railway, Sumitomo, Hitachi and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. 但言辞上的否认并不能让由东日本旅客铁路(East Japan Railway)、住友(Sumitomo)、日立(Hitachi)及三菱重工(Mitsubishi Heavy Industries)组成的日本联合体感到安心。 /201603/431113

One out of every three Chinese people over the age of five is nearsighted, according to a recently released white paper on the visual health of the Chinese population, the first of its kind.近日发布的首份研究国人视觉健康的白皮书显示,我国5岁以上人群中,每3个人就有1个人是近视。According to the white paper, 437 million to 487 million, or 35.16 to 39.21 percent, of the Chinese population aged above 5 suffer from myopia — with 29 million to 30.4 million, or 2.33 to 2.47 percent, living with a high degree of myopia.该白皮书指出,在我国5岁以上的人口中,近视的患病人数在4.37亿至4.87亿之间,比例为35.16%至39.21%。其中,高度近视的比例在2.33%至2.47%之间,患有高度近视的总人口高达2900万至3040万。Without effective intervention, the percentage of myopia patients above age 5 is expected to jump to about 51 percent by 2020, it added.该白皮书还补充说道,如果没有有效的干预,预计到2020年,我国5岁以上人口的近视发病率将增长到51%左右。The occurrence of myopia and its harm are irreversible and high myopia can lead to pathological changes in the eye, causing severe and permanent visual impairment, the white paper warned. The disease could also adversely affect future population quality, as it could be inherited and passed on through families.白皮书警告称,近视的发生与危害都是不可逆的。高度近视可能导致各类眼底病变,造成严重、永久性的视功能损害。由于近视可以遗传,这种疾病还会影响未来的人口素质。In addition, prescription lenses are a significant economic burden. In 2012, 232 million to 263 million people above the age of 5 had them. About 102 million to 117 million new lenses were demanded by patients every year, costing somewhere between 45.45 billion and 53.25 billion yuan, the paper said.此外,白皮书还指出,配眼镜带来的经济负担也不低。2012年5岁以上近视人群中,已配镜人数在2.32亿至2.63亿人之间。配镜人群每年配镜1.02亿至1.17亿架次,配镜年成本在454.48亿至532.47亿元之间。 /201606/450303

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