时间:2019年10月17日 08:25:57

The trouble with half and half这一半与那一半之间的苦恼The plan to fix California’s budget has run into problems 解决加州预算的方案陷入困境JERRY BROWN was being forced to contemplate plans B and C to save his governorship as The Economist went to press. He was sworn in this year (for the third time, having last been governor in 1983) as California confronted yet another budget deficit considerably larger (at more than billion) than the entire budget in most other states. And because California has aly made painful cuts in recent years, Mr Brown wanted to solve roughly half of the problem by cutting spending and half by extending a collection of temporary increases in income, sales and car taxes. The idea was to get a deal by making Democrats and Republicans share equally in the political discomfort.在本期《经济学人》出版时,为了保住自己的职位,杰里.布朗正被迫考虑备用方案二和方案三。他在今年初宣誓就职(这是他第三次任职,上次任职是在1983年),当时加州再次面临预算赤字,且和其他大多数州的整体预算相比,都多很多(至少250亿美元)。因为在近几年间,加州已经进行了痛苦的削减,布朗希望通过削减出方案大致解决一半的问题,再通过延长一系列在个人所得税,销售税和汽车税方面的临时加税措施解决另一半问题。布朗希望,通过让民主党和共和党共度政治困境来达成协议。The first half has proved relatively easy. The legislature, controlled by Democrats and newly empowered by voters to pass budgets by a simple majority rather than one of two-thirds, has aly adopted most of the necessary cuts, sparing only schools among the main spending items. Democrats made the sacrifice knowing that the alternative—an “all-cuts” budget—would double the pain.事实明,前一半完成得比较轻松。由于州议院受民主党控制,最近又获得选民授权以绝对优势通过预算方案,而不是以仅仅三分之二的微弱优势,所以大多数必要削减已被批准,在主要出中只有教育出被宽免。民主党之所以做出这个牺牲,是因为他们知道另一种选择——“全面削减”方案——加使痛苦加倍。It is the other half, the tax extensions, that is proving intractable. Mr Brown won his election in part by promising no new taxes without “a vote of the people”. So his plan, and his fate as governor, requires getting the tax extension onto the ballot.结果是另一半,即延长税收让人伤脑筋。布朗竞选胜利,在某种程度上,是由于他承诺没有进行“选民投票”就不征收新税。所以他的方案,连同他作为州长的命运,要求采用无记名投票来决定是否采取延长税收方案。He was hoping to do this in June, just before the start of the new fiscal year in July, when the temporary taxes are set to expire. That way the vote would still be about “extending” (rather than “raising”) taxes. In the latest polling, a majority of voters do, in fact, favour putting the decision on a ballot, although their support has been declining. More worrying, only 46% now say they would vote for the proposed tax extensions.他希望在今年六月前进行投票,这样正好赶在七月新的财政年度开始之前,届时临时税收将到期。这样,投票内容将还是关于“延长”(而不是“提高”)税收。事实上,最近的一次民意调查显示,虽然选民持度一直在下降,他们大多数还是赞成采用无记名投票来做出决定。更令人担忧的是,目前只有46%的选民称他们会对提出的延长税收方案投赞成票。But if Republican legislators have their way, the voters will never make that decision. To put the vote on the ballot the traditional way, Mr Brown needs a supermajority (two-thirds) in the legislature. That means winning over at least two Republicans in each chamber. So Mr Brown has been negotiating with five who seemed amenable. These five apparently demanded huge cuts in public pensions and red tape, and a spending cap for future years. It might seem to be a Republican dream: a wish list of goodies that make the Democratic governor (backed by public-sector unions) squirm.但如果共和党议员从中作梗,参选者将连投票的机会都没有。采用传统方式以不记名形式投票,布朗需要在议会有绝对多数(至少三分之二)的持率。这意味着在参、众两院中,都至少要争取两位共和党员。所以布朗一直在同五位较为温和的共和党员协商。很明显,这五位要求大幅度削减公共养老金和政府出,并且为未来出做出限定。这似乎是个共和党梦想:一列美好的愿望名单,使这位民主党州长(受公共事业联盟持)坐立不安。201104/132747

Electronic education电子教学Flipping the classroom电子教学——跃然于教室间Sep 17th 2011 | LOS ALTOS | from the print edition Hopes that the internet can improve teaching may at last be bearing fruit但愿旨在改善教学互联网终能修成正果THE 12-year-olds filing into Courtney Cadwell’s classroom at Egan Junior High in Los Altos, a leafy suburb of Silicon Valley, each take a white MacBook from a trolley, log on to a website called KhanAcademy.org and begin doing maths exercises. They will not get a lecture from Ms Cadwell, because they have aly viewed, at home, various lectures as clips on KhanAcademy (given by Salman Khan, its founder). And Ms, logged in as a “coach”, can see exactly who has watched which. This means that class time is now free for something else: one-on-one instruction by Ms Cadwell, or what used to be known as tutoring.Egan初中坐落于硅谷郊外郁郁葱葱的洛斯拉图斯,那里12岁的孩子们选了Courtney Cadwell老师的课程,他们每个人都从手推车里拿一部白色笔记本电脑,然后登陆到KhanAcademy.org网站去做数学题。Cadwell老师用不着再给他们上课,因为学生们已经在家看过了Khan教育网站上的各种授课视频(该网站得名于其创始人Salman Khan)。Cadwell老师以“指导老师”的身份登陆便可以对每位同学的学习进度了如指掌。这样一来,课堂时间就可以留作他用,Cadwell老师可以给学生们作一对一的指导,也就是相当于平常说的家教。So Ms Cadwell, in her own web browser, pulls up a dashboard where KhanAcademy’s software presents, through the internet, the data the children are producing at that instant. She can view information for the entire class or any individual pupil. Just then she sees two fields, representing modules, turning from green to red, one for Andrea, the other for Asia. Ms Cadwell sees that Andrea is struggling with exponents, Asia with fractions. “Instead of having to guess where my students have gaps, I can see it, at that moment, and I walk over to that one student,” says Ms Cadwell, as she arrives at Asia’s chair.于是,Cadwell老师在自己的浏览器上调出了Khan教育软件,它可以通过网络即时传输孩子们的学习数据,这样她就可以看到整个课堂或者每一个学生的信息。就在这时,代表教学模块个两个板块的由绿变红,分别显示出了Andrea和Asia两位同学。Cadwell老师发现Andrea不太会做代数题,而Asia的在做分数题时遇到了困难。“我用不着去猜学生们哪里会有问题,我可以即时发现并走到学生的面前去做单独辅导”,Cadwell一边说一边走到了Asia的座位旁。While the other pupils continue to work at their own pace and at different problems, Ms Cadwell now spends a few minutes just with Andrea and Asia. Soon Andrea has an epiphany and starts firing correct answers, getting, in KhanAcademy’s jargon, a “badge”, then going “transonic”. A few minutes later, Asia also gets a “streak”. She lets out a shriek. Ms Cadwell, with a big smile, is off to another pupil. “The growth in these kids is just staggering,” she says. “This is the future. I don’t see how it couldn’t be.”其他同学继续按照自己的节奏去攻克不同的难题,Cadwell老师则用几分钟的时间指导Andrea和Aisa。很快Andrea恍然大悟并火速的写出了正确,用Khan网站上的话说,她得到了一个“徽章”,然后开始了“超音速”的进步。几分钟之后,Asia叫了一声,她也突然“灵光一闪”。Cadwell老师笑容满面并走向了其他学生。“孩子们取得了惊人的进步,”她说,“将来用这用教育模式,在我看来未尝不可。”201109/154818

Life on Earth wiped out every 27 million yearsLife on Earth is wiped out every 27 million years – and we have about 16 million years left until the next extinction, according to scientists.Research into so-called ‘extinction events’ for our planet over the past 500 million years - twice as long as any previous studies - has proved that they crop up with metronomic regularity.Scientists from the University of Kansas and the Smithsonian Institute in Washington DC are 99 per cent confident that there are extinctions every 27 million years.In the 1980s scientists believed that Earth’s regular extinctions could be the result of a distant dark twin of the Sun, called Nemesis.The theory was that Nemesis crashed through the Oort cloud every 27 million years and sent a shower of comets in our direction.The Oort cloud is a vast belt of dust and ice that is believed to lie around one light year from the Sun and is the origin of many of the comets that pass through our solar system.But now scientists claim that the regularity of the mass extinctions actually disproves the Nemesis theory because its orbit would have changed over time as it interacted with other stars.‘Fossil data, which motivated the idea of Nemesis, now militate against it,’ say the researchers.The last extinction event, 11 million years ago, saw 10 per cent of the Earth’s inhabitants wiped out.This means there is around 16 million years until the next event takes place, although the graph shows that it occasionally the event takes place up to 10 million years early.Asteroids crashing into the Earth are commonly believed to be one of the main reasons behind mass extinctions like that suffered by the dinosaurs - the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) extinction.The extinction wiped out more than half of all species on the planet clearing the way for mammals to become the dominant species on Earth.The extinction was caused by a massive asteroid slamming into Earth at Chicxulub in Mexico.The asteroid, which was around 15 kilometres wide, is believed to have hit Earth with a force one billion times more powerful than the atomic bomb at Hiroshima.Vocabulary:metronomic: 有节奏的militate against sth.: to prevent something; to make it difficult for something to happen or exist(防止、阻碍某事的发生或存在)asteroid: any one of the many small planets which go around the sun(小行星)Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) extinction: 白垩-第三纪灭绝事件,地球历史上的一次大规模物种灭绝事件,发生于中生代白垩纪与新生代第三纪之间,约6550万年前,灭绝了当时地球上的大部分动物与植物,含恐龙。背单词 — 装英语词汇201007/109123

The current clinical diagnosis of Parkinson’s is based on visible tremors and stiffness of limbs. But researchers say a more comprehensive diagnosis is needed. Dr. Fernando Pagan at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington is the director of the National Parkinson Foundation Center.目前对帕金森氏病的诊断是基于可见的颤抖和四肢僵硬。但是研究人员说,需要更全面的诊断方法。乔治敦大学医院国家帕金森氏病基金中心主任费尔南多·帕甘士说:"There are not only motor symptoms, which has been traditionally the mainstay since 1817, but now we are looking at the non-motor features and understanding when they come into play," Dr. Pagan said.“不仅仅是1817年起开始使用的运动机能诊断法,我们现在还要注意非运动技能方面,并且了解这些因素什么时候发挥作用。”Dr. Pagan and other researchers say environmental and genetic factors could provide clues for diagnosis, treatments and a cure.帕甘士和其他研究人员说,环境和遗传因素能够提供线索,从中找到诊断、治疗和治愈的方法。They are looking specifically at a biomarker - or a gene - found in many people with Parkinson’s.他们把目光放在许多帕金森氏症患者身上都存在的一个生物标志,或者说一个遗传因子。"One of the most important genes that we have found out is LRKK2 gene,” he added. “So if we can understand this particular one, we may be able to find a treatment, or a specific cure, for LRKK2."帕甘士说:“我们发现的最重要的遗传因子之一,叫作LRRK2基因。如果我们能够了解这个基因,我们也许就能够找到治疗、或者治愈这种LRKK2的特殊方法。”Dr. Pagan says that up to 40 percent of Parkinson's patients from northern Africa, and some Arab countries, have this gene, and between 11 to 14 percent of patients of Ashkenazi Jewish descent.帕甘士说,在北非和一些阿拉伯国家,多达百分之40的帕金森氏症患者具有这种基因。在德系犹太裔中,也有百分之11至14的患者有这种基因。201101/124174

Oil Prices Dip Briefly Below , Then Rally国际市场原油价格下跌 Oil prices in Asia slipped briefly below a barrel for the first time in more than 18 months, then rallied to , after a two-day plunge. 亚洲市场原油价格在过去18个月里首次降到每桶60美元以下。经过两天的大幅度下跌后,亚洲油价后来又反弹到61美元。Analysts say that worries over the state of the world economy and prospects for growth in the ed States are forcing the oil price down.  分析人士说,全球经济现状以及美国经济增长前景引发的忧虑导致油价下降。Prices have fallen about 60 percent since peaking at more than 7 a barrel in mid-July.  自从国际油价在今年7月中旬达到高峰后,迄今为止已经下降了60%。Tumbling prices have followed mounting economic problems in the ed States, where unemployment is rising and retail sales are falling. There are signs that other developed economies also face a severe recession, which will cut oil demand.The gloom about demand is forcing traders to sell oil contracts.  需求的降低迫使交易商抛售原油期货合同。Bruce Robinson is with the Australian Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, an organization representing scientists. He says that high prices may have contributed to the current financial crisis.  澳大利亚高峰石油天然气研究协会是一个代表科学家的行业组织。该协会的布鲁斯.罗宾逊说,高油价可能助长了目前的金融危机。"The high oil price may well have played a serious part in triggering the recession rather than the other way around," he said. "But either way, the oil price has fallen and OPEC is cutting production, and the bad news is that it gives us false hope that oil prices are on the way down when almost surely they're on the way up in the long term."  他说:“高油价可能在很大程度上诱发了目前的衰退,而不是经济衰退引发高油价。但不管怎么样,油价已经降下来,欧佩克正在减产。坏消息是,这让我们错误地希望油价处在下行周期,而实际上,长期来看,油价几乎毫无疑问地是在往上走。”The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, OPEC, agreed to lower production by 1.5 million barrels a day in October. Its members are scheduled to meet again in December. 今年10月,欧佩克同意每天削减150万桶原油产量。12月,欧佩克成员国将再次开会。The actions of central banks have also affected the market.  全球主要央行的举措也影响了市场。The decision by the Bank of England and the European Central Bank to lower interest rates this week is a further sign of worsening economic conditions in Europe. The cuts sent the euro down sharply against the U.S. dollar, which in turn triggered a sell-off in oil, which is priced in dollars.  本星期,欧央行和英格兰的降息决定进一步显示出欧洲经济的恶化。降息决定宣布后,欧元兑美元急剧贬值。这随即引发了原油抛售。国际市场的原油用美元标价。In Australia, gasoline prices have retreated, although falls have been limited because of the weakness of the Australian dollar against its American counterpart.  在澳大利亚,汽油价格也出现下降。不过,由于澳元兑美元走软,所以澳大利亚汽油降价幅度有限。In Asia Friday morning, oil prices fell briefly to just under , then settled slightly above a barrel. 在亚洲,星期五上午,油价一度跌破每桶60美元,随后稳定在略高于61美元的价位。200811/55630

文章编辑: 飞排名推荐医院