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重庆激光脱毛价钱重庆注射瘦脸针一般多少钱重庆市星宸整形美容医院口腔美容中心 The Census of Marine Life has released the most comprehensive inventory life in the ocean today. Its an unprecedented database of marine species living in 25 key ocean areas around the world.海洋生物普查已经公布了现今海洋里最全面的生物种类。这是一个前所未有的海洋物种居住在世界25个关键地区的数据库。The findings published in the open access scientific journal Plus One, describes species found in oceanic regions ranging from A Antarctic waters, to the tropics, to temporary waters throughout the world, and the Arctic.研究结果刊登在开放的科学杂志《Plus One》上,描述海洋中发现的物种从南极海域,热带,以及遍布世界的临时水域,当然还有北极。Thiss the first time ever that all the information is available in one single source for the public worldwide. So anyone around the world who wants know about Caribbean marine diversity for example, just goes to one place, clicks, well have full article, and then well also have, through the supporting material, well have list of species of the most representative or most studied groups in the area.这是有史以来第一次所有的信息都以单一的来源公之于众。所以如果世界上的某人想要了解关于加勒比海海洋生物的多样性,只需去一个地方,点击,我们就会呈现很多的文章,然后我们还会呈现辅助材料,我们就会有物种的名单或在该地区大部分最具代表性的研究团体。166168Sublimation升华现象Sublimation on this moment of science.今天我们的节目要讲的是:升华现象。Pop quiz, everybody put away your books, and keep your eyes on your own radio.各位,请放下你们手中的书本,专心听收音机,我们来做一个突击测验。You fill the ice tray up to the rim and put it in the freezer. The ice that results will be用水将冰格填得满满的,漫过冰格的边缘,然后再将冰格放到冰箱的制冷室里,最后结成的冰会:a. at the rim b. over the rim c. under the rim. Answer? It depends.a. 刚好齐边 b. 边缘以上 c. 边缘以下 是?要看情况而定。I know, you hate that. But it does depend —it depends on how long you wait before checking on the ice again. My guess would be that most folks chose answer b: over the rim. That is correct, if you checked on the ice trays after only a couple hours. Thats because water expands when it turns into ice, as you know if you ever put a soda bottle in the freezer and came back to find it exploded all over the fish sticks.我明白,你们不喜欢这样的。但是,实际情况确实如此——取决于你要过多长时间去查看。我猜,很多人都会选择b选项:边缘以上。如果你在放入制冷室仅两个小时之后去查看的话,这个就是正确的。这是因为水在变成冰的时候会膨胀。就像大家所知道的,如果将一瓶汽水放在制冷室中,回头去看的时候会发现,汽水已经炸开了,整个制冷室中到处都是汽水。But if you were to leave the ice tray untouched for a couple of months, you might find the ice to be under the rim, or lower than the water was.但是,如果你将冰格放在制冷室中,好几个月都不动它的话,你会发现,冰在边缘以下,或是低于你之前装的水的高度。Huh? Didnt we just say water expands when it freezes? Initially, yes. But frozen water can do something else as well: it can sublimate. To sublimate is to go from one state to another without passing through the usual intermediary state.哈?我们刚刚不是才说了水在变成冰的时候会膨胀吗?最开始的时候,会。但是冷冻之后的水也会有其他的变化:升华。升华也就是物质不经中间状态直接从一个状态转变成另一个状态。By adding heat, ice can be melted into liquid water, which can be evaporated. Thats three states: solid, liquid, gas. But given enough time, ice can also turn into a gas without melting first! When your ice cubes seem to have shrunk, its because they are sublimating: the frozen water is slowly evaporating off the cubes, without ever actually melting.通过加热,冰可以化成液态水,液态水可以被蒸发为水蒸气。这是三个状态:固态,液态,气态。但是,如果时间足够的话,冰可以在不被融化的情况下转变为气态。如果你的冰“缩水”了,那是因为被升华了:在没有被融化的情况下,固态水以非常缓慢的速度在蒸发着。Will this work in any freezer? Next time.这种现象在任何的制冷器中都会出现吗?下次再谈。 /201208/194828重庆双眼皮多少钱

重庆去除红色胎记价格重庆星辰医疗美容医院打溶脂针多少钱 Its a city within the city. You have to look over 50,000 people. Youll be so alive when youre down here. What you would see mostly is when you came out for lunch on a beautiful day, when everyone is coming out of the buildings and then of course, youll sometimes look up and see these majestic mountains just staring down actively.那是一个城市中的城市。你得看看这里有超过50000人。当你来到这里,你会感到活力。你会看到大多是当你在美好的一天出来吃午饭,当每个人都走出大楼,然后,有时候你会抬头看见这些峻岭只是盯着下面。Then came 9/11. You know, we can just describe it like a death in the family. A collapse of the World Trade Center south tower obliterated the PATH Station. The station is the lowest point on the trade center site. All the water from fighting the fires poured in. Broken water mains flooded the PATH tunnel all the way to New Jersey. Workers built a temperate plug to sea of the tunnel. It took 40 days to pump all the water out. A crucial link to the subway system was destroyed. Now began the hard work, rebuilding. And Im president defeat of transient engineering. Workers got it one and a half kilometers of tunnels.之后就是9/11。你知道,我们可以把它描述成家庭的死亡。世界贸易中心南塔楼倒塌导致帕斯车站被毁。列车站是世贸中心的最低点。所有的水都在为灭火而战斗。断水淹没了帕斯从纽约到新泽西的隧道。工人们建造了温度插头来控制。而要花40天才能将水抽干。地铁系统的一个关键环节被摧毁。现在开始艰难的重建工作。而我则担任重建工程的总工程师。工人们的工作是1.5公里的隧道。注:听力文本来源于普特201202/172709西南医院去痘多少钱

四川脱小腿毛多少钱Science and Technology科技Bacteria and behaviour细菌和行为学Gut instinct肠道反应Tantalising evidence that intestinal bacteria can influence mood诱人的据表明,肠道细菌可以影响人的情绪A GOOD way to make yourself unpopular at dinner parties is to point out that a typical person is, from a microbiologists perspective, a walking, talking Petri dish.一个让你自己在晚宴上不受欢迎的好方式就是,从微生物学家的角度指出,一位有代表性的人就是一个会走动并会说话的皮氏培养皿。An extraordinary profusion of microscopic critters inhabit every crack and crevice of the typical human, so many that they probably outnumber the cells of the body upon and within which they dwell.每位有代表性的人的裂纹和缝隙里生活着无数的微小生物,它们的数目如此之多可能超过它们所依靠并栖息的人体细胞。Happily, these microbes are mostly harmless.幸运地是,这些微生物大部分都是无害的。Some of them, particularly those that live in the gut, are positively beneficial, helping with digestion and keeping the intestines in good working order.其中一些,特别是那些生活在消化道里的微生物,实际上是有益的,不仅有助于消化还保持肠道良好的工作秩序。That is no surprise—bacteria as much as people have an interest in keeping their homes in sound condition.这毫不奇怪——细菌和人一样也喜欢保持家园状态完好。What is surprising is the small but growing body of evidence which suggests that bacteria dwelling in the gut can affect the brain, too, and thereby influence an individuals mood and behaviour.奇怪的是,虽然数量不多,但越来越多的据表明,生活在肠道的细菌也可能影响大脑,继而影响个人的情绪和行为。The most recent paper on the topic, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, reports (like much of the research in this field) on results in mice.本周有关该主题的论文刊登在《美国国家科学院院刊》上的一篇文章报道(像这个领域的许多研究一样)了应用小鼠的实验结果。The researchers, led by Javier Bravo of University College, Cork, split their rodent subjects into two groups.科克大学学院的哈维尔?布拉沃(Javier Bravo)带领下的研究人员将这些啮齿目动物分成两组。One lot were fed a special broth containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a gut-dwelling bacterium often found in yogurt and other dairy products.一组以一种在酸奶和其它乳制品中经常发现的含乳酸杆菌属鼠李糖乳杆菌(学名为Lactobacillus rhamnosus)的特别液体培养基喂食。The others were fed an ordinary diet, not fortified with microbes.另一组则以不用微生物强化的一般食物喂食。The team then subjected the mice to a battery of tests that are used routinely to measure the emotional states of rodents.然后,研究组人员对小鼠进行了一套测试。这套测试经常用于衡量啮齿类动物的情感状态。Most (though not all) of these tests showed significant differences between the two groups of animals.大部分(虽然不是所有的)测试表明,两组动物之间有着显著的不同。One test featured a maze that had both enclosed and open tunnels.一个测试是以封闭和敞开的隧道迷宫为特点。The researchers found that the bacterially boosted mice ventured out into the open twice as often as the control mice,研究人员发现,喂食了李糖乳杆菌的小鼠更经常冒险进入敞开的隧道,而且次数是对照小鼠的两倍之多。which they interpreted to mean that these rodents were more confident and less anxious than those not fed Lactobacillus.他们的解释意味着这些啮齿类动物比那些没有喂食李糖乳杆菌的小鼠更有信心而且焦虑更少。In another test the animals were made to swim in a container from which they could not escape.在另一组测试中,研究人员让这些动物在一个无法逃脱的容器内游泳。Bacteria-fed mice attempted to swim for longer than the others before they gave up and had to be rescued.在这些小鼠放弃游泳并不得不被救出之前,李糖乳杆菌喂养的小鼠试图游泳的时间比其它小鼠更长。Such persistence is usually interpreted by students of rodent behaviour as evidence of a more positive mood.这种持久性经常被研究啮齿类动物行为的学生解释为更积极情绪的据。Direct measurements of the animals brains supported the behavioural results.对这些动物大脑的多次直接测量结果持了行为学方面的效果。Levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, were markedly lower in the bacteria-fed mice than they were in the control group when both groups were exposed to stressful situations.当两组小鼠进行应激实验时,喂食李糖乳杆菌的小鼠体内的应激激素皮质甾酮含量比那些对照组的小鼠体内要明显低地多。The number of receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid, a natural chemical messenger that helps dampen the activity of certain nerve cells, varied in statistically significant ways between the brains of the two groups, with more in some parts of the treated animals brains and fewer in others.γ-氨基丁酸是有助于抑制特定神经细胞活动的自然化学信使。两组小鼠的大脑中γ-氨基丁酸感受器的数目以统计学上显著的方式改变。γ-氨基丁酸感受器在处理过的小鼠大脑的一些部分出现较多些,而在没有处理过的小鼠大脑内则少些。Most intriguing of all, when Dr Bravo cut the animals vagus nerves-which transmit signals between the gut and the brain-the differences between the groups vanished.最引人注目的是,当布拉沃士(Dr Bravo)切断这些动物的迷走神经---传输肠道和大脑之间的信号---两组小鼠间的差异突然消失了。The idea that gut-dwelling microbes can affect an animals state of mind may strike some people as outlandish, and there are certainly loose ends still to be tied up.这个想法---生活在肠道里的微生物能够影响动物的精神状态---可能给一些人留下稀奇古怪的印象,而且肯定还有一些零星问题有待解决。Beyond their evidence that the vagus nerve is crucial to the relationship, for example, Dr Bravo and his colleagues do not yet know the precise mechanisms at work.他们手头的据无法明迷走神经对动物之间的关系至关重要,比如,布拉沃士和其同事至今还不知道其起作用的明确机制。There is also an obvious follow-up question: whether a similar thing is going on in people.况且还有一个明显的后续问题:人类是否也有类似的情况。A few previous studies have hinted at the possibility.以前的几个研究已经暗示这种可能性。For example, bacterial treatments may help with the mental symptoms of illnesses such as irritable-bowel syndrome.例如,细菌的治疗方法可能有助于改善诸如肠易激综合症疾病的精神症状。All this is forcing a reassessment of peoples relationship with the bacteria that live on and in them, which have long been regarded mainly as a potential source of infections.所有这一切正在迫使人类重新评估自身与这些栖居于人体而且人类依靠它们维持生命的细菌之间的关系。An editorial in this weeks Nature raises the possibility that the widesp prescription of antibiotics-which kill useful bacteria as effectively as hostile ones-might be one factor behind rising rates of asthma, diabetes and irritable-bowel syndrome.长期以来,这些细菌主要被认为是潜在的感染源。本周《自然杂志》的社论提出了一种可能性,广泛使用的抗生素处方---抗生素杀死有益菌的有效性就像杀死不利的细菌一样---可能是哮喘,糖尿病和肠易激综合症比例上升的真正因素之一。If Dr Bravos results apply to people, too, then mood disorders may end up being added to this list.假如布拉沃士(Dr Bravo)的结果也应用于人类,那么情感障碍可能最终被添加到这个目录上。 /201211/208228 Business.商业。An intellectual-property exchange.知识产权交易。Marketplace of ideas.创意集市。A new financial exchange hopes to make it easier to trade patent rights.愿新型金融交易让专利买卖更容易。THE technology industry is at war over intellectual property. On May 7th the first round of a three-part fight between Oracle and Google over patent and copyright claims relating to the Java programming language ended in a decision that denied outright victory to either firm. Apple, Samsung and others are fighting over smartphone patents. Facebook and Yahoo! are at loggerheads over internet patents. Accusations abound that innovation is taking a back seat to litigation. Only the lawyers are smiling.科技产业就知识产权的问题一直纷争不断。5月7日,甲骨文和谷歌就与编程语言Java相关的专利和版权声明进行了多回合的首轮较量,结果双方铩羽而归。苹果、三星及其他厂商在智能手机的专利权问题上拼得焦头烂额。脸谱网和雅虎也因互联网专利闹得很不愉快。官司铺天盖地,逼得创新给诉讼让位。唯独律师喜笑颜开。All of which makes this a good time to launch a new approach to trading intellectual property, says Gerard Pannekoek, the boss of IPXI, a new financial exchange that lets companies buy, sell and hedge patent rights, just like any other asset. The idea is to offer a patent or group of patents as ;unit licence rights; (ULRs), which can be bought and sold like shares. A ULR grants a one-time right to use a particular technology in a single product: a new type of airbag sensor in a car, say. If a company wants to use the technology in 100,000 cars, it buys 100,000 ULRs at the market price. ULRs are also expected to be traded on secondary markets.这些纷争为知识产权交易创造了良机,国际知识产权交易所公司(IPXI)联席主席拉德?潘涅库克如是说到。像处置资产一样,该交易所的新型金融交易可以让公司购买、出售并保有专利权。该公司的构想是将专利单个或打包成授权的专利组合提供,这些专利可以像股份一样买卖。一个授权专利组合允许在单件产品上一次性使用某个技术:这就是说,一个新式的安全气囊传感器仅能用于一辆轿车。若一家公司想在十万量轿车上都应用该技术,它就得按市场价购进同等数量的技术许可。授权的专利组合也可在二级市场上交易。This is simpler, faster and cheaper than the lawyer-intensive process of negotiating bilateral licences for intellectual property, the high cost of which discriminates against small companies, leaves patents unused on the shelf and hampers innovation. IPXIs approach does not work for all types of intellectual property-it does not allow exclusive licensing, for example-but should make it easier for companies to make money from their inventions. ;Its a great form of non-dilutive funding for start-ups,; suggests Mr. Pannekoek.用这种办法交易知识产权,要比采用律师密集型的双边专利授权协商来的快,也更简单、更廉价。司法协商费用高昂,对小企业不公,也会让专利受束高阁,从而有碍创新。然而,国际知识产权交易所公司的这种专利交易方式并不对各类知识产权通通适用——打个比方来说,它就不允许独家授权——但这种方式让企业通过发明创造来获利更加容易。;对刚上市的公司来说,这种筹款方式能够很好地规避股权收益的减损。;潘涅库克先生这样表示。The exchange has signed up 30 members including Philips, an electronics giant, and several universities and research laboratories. IPXI was set up in 2008 by Ocean Tomo, a merchant bank that specialises in intellectual property, and its investors include CBOE Holdings, the parent company of the Chicago Board Options Exchange. On May 4th IPXI published the rulebook that governs how the exchange will work, and it expects to open for business later this year. Its novel approach is ideal for the open, non-exclusive licensing of smartphone-related patents, says Ruud Peters, chief intellectual-property officer at Philips. Good news for innovators, perhaps, but bad news for lawyers?目前该交易所公司的加盟成员已达30个,其中不乏电子巨头飞利浦,此外,数所大学和研究实验室也投身其中。国际知识产权交易所公司由Ocean Tomo于2008年组建,后者是一家专业务于知识产权领域的商业,芝加哥期权交易所的母公司芝加哥期权交易控股集团(CBOE Holdings)是该的投资方之一。5月4日,国际知识产权交易所公司公布了一份规范,用以指导产权买卖,以期于今年晚些时候开放商业性产权交易。飞利浦的首席知识产权官路德?彼得斯称这一新举措将不断开放与智能手机相关的专利、进一步破除独家授权,形势一片大好。对发明家们来说,这或许是个利好消息,可对那些律师来讲呢? /201208/197536重庆市治疗胎记多少钱重庆星辰做双眼皮多少钱

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