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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年11月17日 23:35:42
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A guy walks into a bar, and sits down next to an electron.有一个人走进了酒吧,刚刚好坐在了电子的旁边。The electron has two empty beers in front of him, and was working on a third.电子面前已经摆了两个空啤酒瓶子了,正在与他的第三瓶奋战着。My life is a worst, says electron.我的生活真的很糟糕电子说道,I just got fired from my job, my dog bit me, my wife left with another guy.我刚刚被公司辞退了,我的要咬我,老婆也和别的男人跑了!The guy says, Why are you so negative?这个人问道:你为什么这么负面呢?OK, now the explanation.OK,现在来解释一下。The nucleus of an atom is composed of neutrons and protons.原子核由中子和质子两种微粒构成。Around this nucleus swirls a cloud of electrons.在原子核外部,电子云围绕原子核旋转。Why are theelectrons there?为什么这里会有电子呢?They are attracted and held in place by an electromagnetic interaction with the nucleus.电子通过与原子核的电磁相互作用,被吸引到了这里。The nucleus has a net positive charge, while electrons carry a negative charge.原子核带正电荷,而电子则带负电荷。And opposite charges attract.而我们知道,异性相吸。I get it! Why so negative? Hes talking to an electron.我懂了。谁叫你带负电呢?他对电子说的话应该是这样理解的吧。Right!So electrons have a negative charge,while protons, neutrons and nucleus have a positive charge?是的。那么,也就是说电子是带负电荷,而质子、中子和原子核都是带正电荷?Almost! The protons have the positive charge, while the neutrons, as their name suggests, have no charge at all.这样说也差不多!质子是带正电荷的,而中子就像他的命名所暗示的一样,是不带电的。If you have three protons in the nucleus, youll need three electrons to make whats called a stable atom.如果一个原子核中有三个质子,那么必须要有三个电子,这个原子才能够称得上是稳定的原子。 201405/297253

Business商业报道Advertising to the super-rich掘金超级富豪Posters for plutocrats为财阀们量身打造的海报How to sell more stuff to those who want for nothing如何向什么都不缺的人销售更多的东西If you doubt that the rich are different from you and me, try visiting a private-jet terminal.如果你怀疑有钱人不同于你我,你可以去一个私人飞机候机厅看看。One group waiting to board at Farnborough airport near London recently was a family of three generations and five dogs,最近一家祖孙三代人和五只宠物在伦敦附近的范堡罗机场等待登机,who would enjoy more in-flight pampering than any economy-class passenger could hope for.他们在飞机上享受到的务超越了任何一个经济舱旅客的想象。Passengers do not linger long:他们等待登机的时间并不长:15 minutes or so before boarding.大概也就15分钟。There are no duty-free shops.机场里没有任何免税商店。But it would be a pity not to tap into these travellersdeep pockets as they pause between limo and aircraft:但是没能在这些富豪走出轿车和登上飞机的间隙时间中,好好利用这段商机,还是挺可惜的:if you cannot sell, at least you can market.如果你卖不出去东西,至少你可以进行营销嘛。That is the ambition of Adlux, a Swiss firm that runs ads in private-jet terminals,这也正是瑞士公司Adlux的志趣所在。Adlux在私人飞机起始站做广告,perhaps the most rarefied form of out-of-home advertising, a category that includes billboards and bus-shelter posters.可能这是户外广告中最少见的一种形式,相比较而言,户外广告牌和公车站的海报倒是比较常见。The richest 0.5% of the world population owns half the wealth, its brochure cheerfully notes, and 1m people fly by private jet each month.公司的宣传册上写道:世界上最富裕的人只占总人口的0.5%,但是却拥有世界一半的财富,而且每个月乘坐私人飞机的人达到100万。Before boarding they are in a completely captive environment with few distractions, says Lisa Rokny, an Adlux executive.公司经理Lisa Rokny说,这些人在登机之前都是绝佳的买主,并且这种时候他们往往都无事可做。Mounted above the coffee station in Farnborough, a screen shows a silent .范堡罗机场一家咖啡店上方有一个大屏幕,一直播放着一段消声视频。Pastimes that the rich are presumed to enjoy are interspersed with ads for things they might buy.富豪们可能喜欢的消遣活动中不时穿插着一些广告,宣传的都是一些他们可能会买的东西,比如奢侈手表和私人务等。Adluxs loops, illuminated posters and product placements appear in 83 terminals worldwide.世界上83个私人飞机航站楼都有Adlux的循环视频、霓虹展板和植入式广告。Clients pay 60,000-70,000 for a four-week campaign at ten fixed-base operators,facilities that handle non-scheduled flights.一场在十个固定运营商举办的为期四周的广告,就收入了6-7万欧元。Business-jet travel in the rich world took a knock in the recession and has yet to recover.在富人世界里,商务飞行在经济危机中遭受打击,至今仍未恢复。But emerging economies are minting new jet-setters.不过新兴经济体正在打造新一代的富豪阶级。Indias business-jet fleet has grown from about 25 in 2005 to over 150 last year.印度的商务客机数量已经从2005年的25架上升到去年的150多架。Moscows Vnukovo airport is Europes busiest for international flights by larger private planes.莫斯科的伏努科沃机场是欧洲范围内大型私人飞机国际航班最繁忙的机场。The pitchmanship adjusts to plutocratsmigration patterns.销售模式随着富豪们的出行模式而进行调整。The middle-aged men who flock to Davos in January are receptive to cars and banking services.那些在一月份搭乘苏黎世基地航班而群聚达沃斯的中年男子们,对汽车和务都乐于接受。Ads for yachts ran in Nice during the Monaco motor-racing Grand Prix.在纳哥托车锦标赛期间,有关游艇的广告在尼斯持续播出。Passengers watch the s for 12 minutes on average, claims Ms Rokny, though the dog-owners did not seem quite so riveted.Rokny表示,乘客们平均观看视频的时间在12分钟左右,虽然那些富豪看得并不认真。This is a slightly old-fashioned approach to seducing the super-rich; experiences are a newer way.这种吸引超级富豪的方式稍稍有点老套了,顾客体验则是一种更加新式的方法。Samsung launched its Bluehouse Club for gadget-loving moneybags with a dinner for 60 at Annabels, a London club.三星推出的青瓦台俱乐部就是针对那些有钱的小电子迷,在伦敦Annabel俱乐部组织60个人的晚餐。A dancer performed on a new high-definition television, then in person.在一台高清电视上表演的舞者,一会就真人出现了。But there is more gold to be mined as the revellers fly home.但是当这些挥霍享乐的有钱人往回飞时,仍然是商机无限。Adlux is thinking of installing vending machines at FBOs which dispense Swiss watches.Adlux现在正在考虑在固定运营基地安置自动贩卖机,销售瑞士手表。 /201308/252650

If youre planning a trip to Greece in the future, youll want toschedule a visit to the temple of Apollo at Delphi.如果有一天,你打算去希腊旅游,你可能会将特尔斐的阿波罗神庙列入行程单。This famoustemple was the home to the Pythia, a specially chosen andtrained woman who, according to legend, channeled the voiceand wisdom of Apollo, the god of prophecy.阿波罗神庙的女祭司皮提亚,传说,皮提亚是掌管预言的阿波罗神钦点传达预言和智慧的女祭司。Generals,politicians, and private citizens of the ancient world flocked to Delphi to question the Pythia andseek her divinely inspired advice.古时候,将军、政治家、普通百姓蜂拥而至,只为求得宣示的神谕。Ancient scientists and philosophers attributed the oracles power to vapors that bubbled upthrough a chasm and spring running through the oracles chamber inside the temple.古代的科学家和哲学家称,神谕的力量来自从深坑冒出的袅袅蒸气以及神庙内殿神龛喷出的泉水。Inhalingthese vapors, according to the ancients, induced a trance-like state that endowed the oracleswith divine prophetic power.祖先们认为,吸入气体,飘飘欲仙,并赋予了神圣的预言神力。Around 1900, excavations at Delphi revealed no chasm orescaping gases, and so the ancient accounts were discredited.直到公元1900年,科学家挖掘遗址,并未发现所谓的深坑,也没有飘散的气体。实前人的记载并非属实。Until recently, that is Geological surveys of the area have detected two faults, or cracks in theearths crust, intersecting directly under the oracles chamber.直至最近,在对当地进行考察中,发现了地壳有两道断层或裂缝,正好交错于神庙内殿神龛下面。Samples from Delphic spring waterand rock from the intersecting faults revealed traces of several chemicals including ethylene.特尔斐泉水的样本以及断层裂缝岩石的样本中提炼出几种化学物质,其中包括乙烯。Tests have shown that when administered in proper dosage, ethylene can result in a trance state.实验显示,适当剂量的乙烯使人精神恍惚,Those affected are conscious, able to sit upright, can answer questions, and afterwardsexperience amnesia.但是神志清醒,可以笔直地坐着,可以回答问题,但是可能很健忘。Some subjects react violently, screaming and throwing themselves about.有些个体变得很暴力,大吵大闹,疯疯癫癫。Such reactions to ethylene are consistent with ancient reports.这些对乙烯的反应和前人的记载吻合。Unlike their Greek predecessors,modern scientists leave Apollo out of the picture.与希腊的祖先不同,现代科学家慢慢解开了阿波罗神庙的面纱。But once again, science gives at least partialcredence to something that was once considered only a myth.至少,曾经我们对曾认为是神话的事情有所了解了。201407/310283

  

  Arrears and foreclosures拖欠期款与丧失抵押品赎回权Staving off the repo man阻止回购者 When the global housing boom turned to bust, mortgage arrears spiked. In America, the proportion of troubled loans rose from 0.2% before the financial crisis to a peak of 11% in 2012. In Ireland 18% of all mortgages are now in arrears; by value, they account for 23% of the market.当全球房地产业由繁荣变得萧条,按揭贷款拖欠就上升了。2012年,美国不良贷款的比例从金融危机前的0.2%上升至11%的历史新高。目前,爱尔兰18%的抵押贷款处于拖欠状态。据估测,拖欠金额占了市场份额的23%。This crisis is partly self-inflicted. In Greece and Ireland, where foreclosure is very difficult, arrears have piled up. Greece has banned almost all repossessions since 2008. That means the total cost to local banks of the property crash is still worryingly uncertain. A recent paper from the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta found that slowing foreclosure in America lowered, rather than supported, property prices during the crisis. Banks may need to be cruel to borrowers to be kind to the wider economy.这场危机部分是由自己造成的。在希腊和爱尔兰,欠款者不易丧失抵押品赎回权,他们的欠款累积成堆。自2008年起,希腊就废除了绝大多数没收抵押物的条例。这就意味着对于本地,房地产崩盘的损失总额仍然是不确定的,这令其忧心忡忡。亚特兰大联邦储蓄最近发布一篇文章称:在经济危机期间,美国国内丧失抵押品赎回权的速度放缓,但这并没有维持住房地产价格,反而拉低了房价。可能需要严待借贷者,而善待更加广泛的经济。 /201405/294728。

  Sri Lankas Muslims斯里兰卡穆斯林Buddhist power佛教武装Another minority is under threat又一个少数群体遭受威胁Living in fear活在恐惧中FIVE years after the end of a bloody civil war that pitted Sri Lankas ethnic-Sinhala-dominated government against members of its Tamil minority, fears are growing about mounting violence along another of the countrys fault-lines—religion. On June 15th Sinhala Buddhist mobs rampaged through three towns on the southern coast, burning and attacking Muslim businesses and homes. Families cowered in marshes and took refuge in mosques as crowds banged on doors, baying for Muslims to come out. Some carried clubs, others flung petrol bombs.五年之前,主要民族僧伽罗人控制的政府军和泰米尔少数民族之间的血腥内战让斯里兰卡变得遍地弹坑。如今,对于该国不同宗教间不断增加的暴力冲突的担忧也越来越多。6月15日,僧伽罗佛教暴徒在南部沿海的三个城镇实施暴行,焚烧和袭击了穆斯林商店和居住地。大群暴徒敲打着穆斯林的家门,叫嚣着让他们滚出去。这些暴徒拿着木棒,挥舞着汽油炸弹,所以居民们只能退缩到沼泽或到清真寺里去寻求保护。The violence sputtered for nearly two days. Four people, three of them Muslims, were killed, and about 80 were injured. Calm was restored only when the army stepped in on June 17th. Outnumbered, the police and their special forces had struggled to beat back the mobs. Angry Muslims say many stood by and did nothing.暴行持续了两天,造成4人死亡,80人受伤。直到17日,军队进入事发地区后才恢复了平静。这之前,寡不敌众的警方和特殊武装一直在勉强对抗暴徒。愤怒的穆斯林表示很多军人只是在围观,而没有采取任何行为。The mobs were incited by an inflammatory speech from a Buddhist monk named Galagoda Aththe Gnanasara. A rabble-rouser like the Burmese monk, Wirathu, whom he recently visited, Mr Gnanasara leads an organisation called Bodu Bala Sena (BBS), or Buddhist Power Force, that supports militancy against minorities to preserve the dominance of the Buddhist majority. Muslims have been particular targets. Although just 10% of the population, they are making headway in business and finance. Most shops attacked this week were run by Muslims. Some were razed to the ground.这些暴徒是受到了佛教僧侣Galagoda Aththe Gnanasara讲话的煽动。Gnanasara是一个和缅甸僧侣维拉图一样的煽动者,他最近还拜访了后者。Gnanasara领导着一名为Bodu Bala Sena的组织,该组织持用武装力量打击少数教派来保住多数人信奉的佛教的统治地位。穆斯林被列为主要的打击对象。只占10%的人口的穆斯林在贸易和财政行业表现出色。本周受到袭击的店铺大多为穆斯林经营的。但其中不少被夷为了平地。The BBS organised a rally in the town of Aluthgama at which Mr Gnanasara raged that any “marakkalaya”who laid a finger on a Sinhalese was doomed. His timing was pointed. Three days earlier hundreds of angry people had surrounded the Aluthgama police station after a Muslim man assaulted the driver of a Buddhist monk following a traffic dispute. The monk claimed that he too had been wounded. The government was blamed for allowing the BBS meeting to take place so soon after the incident. The inspector-general of police said he had thought the rally would end peacefully. Muslim parliamentarians countered that they had tried hard to stop it from going ahead. Mr Gnanasaras hate speech clearly violates the law. Nor is this the first time he has incited violence against Muslims. He has not yet been arrested for his latest speech, though on June 17th the police got a court order to stop another BBS rally. They have been authorised to shoot violators.“佛教武装力量”曾组织在Aluthgama镇发起了一次集会,集会上Gnanasara愤怒地表示任何一个动了僧伽罗人的“marakkalaya”都完蛋了。他刻意选择了这个时机。3天前,因为一名穆斯林男子在一次交通纠纷后袭击了佛教徒司机,数百民愤怒的民众包围了Aluthgama警察局。这个佛教徒司机称自己也受了伤。在事故发生后这么短的时间内居然让“佛教武装力量”举行了集会,政府因此饱受指摘。警察总长表示,他本以为集会和平结束。穆斯林议员们也反驳说,他们已经为阻止集会发生做了很多努力。Gnanasara充满恶意的演讲明显违反了法律,而且这已经不是他第一次煽动对于穆斯林的仇恨。目前,Gnanasara还没有因为最近的这次演讲而被逮捕,但警方在6月17号接到了阻止“佛教武装力量”集会的法庭命令。他们也被允许对反抗者开。The local press has largely ignored or played down the rioting. As it was under way President Mahinda Rajapaksa was in Bolivia at the G77 summit, tweeting breezily about climate change. After being criticised for his apparent insouciance, he did take to Twitter again to pledge to “bring to book” those responsible. He has promised an investigation and has said the government will rebuild destroyed houses and shops. But his government will find it hard to portray itself as a staunch defender of its Muslim minority.大部分地方媒体忽视或是淡化了这次暴动。正在玻利维亚参加77国集团峰会的马欣达·拉贾帕克萨总统也是如此,他轻描淡写地发布着关于气候变化的推特。被批评为漠不关心后,总统又再发推特,保会“谴责”这些不负责任的人。他还承诺会展开调查,并表示政府将修复被摧毁的房屋和店面。但是拉贾帕克萨政府很难让人相信他们会成为为穆斯林少数群体坚定的保护者。 /201407/309314

  Hi,Lisa,is that Lyse or Lisa?你好 Lisaa 是lyse 还是lisaIts Laiza, but Ill respond to anything.是Laiza 但是我也无所谓了Lisa,Lyse, Ill take it all.Lisa,Lyse 我都能接受get as far away from me as you can, because...backing up.退后点 因为 好啦 回来吧All right, here is how it works, its like...好的 这个大家伙是这么弄的you know the slot machines in Vegas,你知道赌城的吧So we are kind of doing that kind of theme.我们也要玩那个And you are gonna pull the lever on the slot machine.你要推动拉杆And if you get three planet hollywoods logogs in a row,如果出现了三个好莱坞星球的图案you are gonna win that trip that I just described.你就会赢得我刚才说的大奖All right, good luck, Laiza.好 祝你幸运There is no way...不可能Oh,no. thats impossible.不 不可能啊It seems like it would be rigged or something and yet.我还想是不是会在机子上动动手脚好让你赢呢Try it again.再试一次Oh,thats...奥 这Maybe its not. maybe its just random. one more time?机子大概没动过手脚 随机看运气了 能在玩一次吗No, thats it.不行No Im kidding. one moer time.我开玩笑的 再来一次Wow, it happened.哇 真的转到了You are going.你要去旅行了Yeah, you are welcome.好 不用谢Thats great. thats gonna be fun.太好啦 旅途会很有意思的And since Im in the holiday spirit,既然节日气氛这么浓all of you are also gonna go to see Britney in Las Vegas.发福利了 大家一起去看布兰妮吧注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201401/271534

  

  

  

  Business商业报道American industry and fracking美国工业和水力压裂技术From sunset to new dawn从日落到新的黎明Capitalists, not just greens, are now questioning how significant the benefits of shale gas and oil will be for America. The new sceptics are missing the big picture资本家们,而不仅仅是环保主义者们,现在在质疑页岩气和石油的利益对美国到底有怎样的意义。新的怀疑论者会看不到大局势Fracking the midnight oil水力压裂获取午夜石油IN A new book, The Frackers, Gregory Zuckerman says of the late George Mitchell, a pioneer of the technique of hydraulic fracturing to tap unconventional reserves of oil and gas, that his impact eventually might even approach that of Henry Ford and Alexander Graham Bell.在一本新书《水力压裂技术者》中,Gregory Zuckeman提及乔治·米切尔,运用水力压裂技术开发非传统石油和天然气储备的先锋,说道:他的影响最终甚至会达到亨利·福特和亚历山大·格雷汉姆·贝尔的高度。Yet of late doubters have been making themselves heard too.但是近期怀疑者们的意见也传了出来。In October Peter Voser said that one of his biggest regrets as boss of Shell is the 24 billion his firm has invested in North Americas shale beds.十月份Peter Voser说作为壳牌石油的老板的最大的后悔之一是他的公司在北美的页岩层的240亿美元的投资。This summer, the firm took a big writedown on this investment and slashed its production targets.这个夏天,这个家公司减少了这项投资并且大幅度削减它的生产量。Also last month BHP Billiton, which spent around 20 billion in 2011 in a bet on shale, said it would auction half of its oil and gas acreage in Texas and New Mexico.上个月,2011年在页岩竞标中花了大概200亿美元的必和必拓,也会拍卖它在德克萨斯州和新墨西哥一半的有石油和天然气的土地。It is not just the biggest energy companies that have turned sceptical on shale.不仅仅是最大的能源公司对页岩有怀疑。More than a dozen chief executives of smaller firms specialising in unconventional gas and oil have lost their jobs this year, as the firms troubles have made them the targets of activist investors.更多专注于非传统燃气和石油的较小公司的首席执行官今年也丢掉了工作,由于公司的困难使他们成为了激进的投资者的目标。Adding to the general air of negativity, last month economists at Goldman Sachs put out a report arguing that even at its current cheap price, shale gas would provide only a modest boost to the American economy as a whole.上个月高盛投资的一名经济学家提出一份报告辩称甚至在它目前的便宜价格,页岩气也仅仅为美国整体经济提供一个谦虚的繁荣,更是增添了整个的消极氛围。It argued that the energy industry is itself a fairly small part of the economy and creates relatively few jobs; and it was doubtful about the pace of innovation in fracking, and the extent to which cheap energy will prompt other industries to invest more.报告说能源产业自身是经济非常小的一个部分并且创造相对较少的工作;并且关于在水力压裂技术方面的革新步伐和在什么程度上廉价能源能够促进其他产业更多的投资是很值得怀疑的。No one disputes that the new technology has transformed Americas prospects as a hydrocarbons producer.没有异议的是新技术把美国的前途转换成为一个氢碳制造者。Gas output has risen by one-third since its most recent trough in 2005, and oil production has risen by 30% since its recent low in 2008.自从2005年最近低谷期以来天然气的输入已经上升了三分之一,石油的生产也从2008年的低产量上升了30%。This year America is expected to overtake Russia and Saudi Arabia to become the worlds largest producer of oil and gas combined.今年美国预期超过俄罗斯和沙特阿拉伯成为世界上最大的石油和天然气联合生产者。Jobs in energy have nearly doubled in America since 2005; since the end of the recent recession they have grown at a faster rate than in any other big industry.自从2005年以来能源领域的就业已经上升了两倍;自从最近的萧条结束后他们比其他任何大型产业增长的速率都要快。North Dakota, which sits on the huge Bakken oil and gas field, now boasts an unemployment rate of just 3%, the lowest among all the states.位于巨大的贝肯石油天然气油田的北达科他州目前自夸失业率是所有州中最低的仅仅是3%。Some pessimists worry about the speed at which shale-bed wells run dry.一些悲观主义者们担心页岩层干涸的速度。David Hughes, a geologist at the Post Carbon Institute, a greenish think-tank, says the combination of gass low price and the heavy spending needed to keep it flowing casts doubt on whether the exploitable reserves of unconventional oil and gas are as big as they are fracked up to be.David Hughes,属于绿色智囊团的the Post Carbon Institute的一个地质学家,说天然气的低价和需要保持它流动的沉重花销的结合使可开发利用的非传统石油和天然气的储备是否有他们通过水力压裂技术获取的那么多存疑。Optimists argue that the fast decline rate has come as no surprise, and that the technology, and the industrys experience in deploying it efficiently, are improving fast enough to mitigate much of the effect of weak prices.乐观者们辩论到无需惊讶迅速下降的生产率,并且高效运用技术和产业经验也在快速提高足以抵消掉不够占优势的价格的大部分影响。Each stage of fracking is significantly evolving, says Rick Grafton, an oil and gas veteran at Grafton Asset Management, an investment firm.水法压裂技术的每个阶段都是有意义的进化发展,Rick Grafton,一个投资公司G2的石油和天然气研究者,说道。Yet he concedes that while gas prices remain at historic lows, it will remain unattractive to invest in wells that produce only gas—as opposed to ones that produce oil or a mix of gas and natural-gas liquidssuch as butane and propane.但是他承认如果天然气价格继续保持历史低价,那投资那些仅仅生产天然气的油田会继续保持没有吸引力的。As new gas has flooded onto the American market since 2008, its price has fallen by two-thirds to less than 4 per million British thermal units.由于从2008年新天然气涌入美国市场以来,它的价格已经下跌了三分之二比每百万BTU4美元还要便宜。The average price needed to cover all the costs over a wells life cycle is around 6, says Mr Grafton.而需要用来付所有覆盖矿井生产周期成本的平均价格大约是6美元,Grafton先生说道。He expects it to stay below that level for three to five years, if not longer.他期待它保持三到五年低于那个水平,如果不能长久维持的话。As a result, gas exploration in America is increasingly being determined by the prices of oil and NGLs.结果是,美国的天然气开发越来越被石油和天然气液体的价格决定。If they are high enough, energy firms will drill for these, treating the gas as a by-product.如果它们足够高,能源公司钻井开发他们,而把天然气作为副产品。In North Dakota, the infrastructure to get much of this gas to market affordably is lacking, so the gas is burned, generating an intense light that can be seen at night from space.在北达科他州,获得大部分这种天然气且花费公司又能够承担的基础设施是缺乏的,所以这种天然气被烧掉了,产生明亮的光晚上从高空都可以看到。Roughly speaking, fracking for oil and NGLs is profitable when oil is trading on American exchanges at above 80 a barrel, as it has mostly done for the past four years.粗略的讲,当石油在每巴仑80美元的美元汇率以上进行交易时,如它在过去的四年大部分时候做的一样,水力裂压法获取石油和天然气液体是有利可图的。As long as energy firms expect this to continue, there will be lots of drilling, and thus lots of gas as well as oil and NGLs.只要能源公司希望这种情况能够继续,这里会有许多的钻井,并且因此有许多的天然气还有石油和天然气凝析油。The market consensus is that the problems of Shell, BHP Billiton and some other big firms mostly reflect a combination of coming late to the party, paying top dollar for drilling sites and choosing some that turned out less productive than expected.市场的一致性体现在壳牌石油、必和必拓公司和其他大公司的问题大部分反映了一个联合,即晚参加这个花费高昂来钻井和选择一些被发现比预期产量要少矿址的聚会。Firms that made better, timelier choices are still doing well.那些做了更好的,及时的选择的公司现在仍然做的很好。Until Twitter went public earlier this month, the years hottest American IPO was of shares in Antero Resources, whose wells in the Appalachians are expected to increase their output by 76% in 2014 and 47% the year after.直到推特这个月的早些时候公开上市,今年最热的美国首次公开募股是Antero Resources天然气公司股票,它在阿巴拉契亚山脉的矿井被期待到2014年将它们的产出提高76%和2015年提高47%。There is a danger that something—an unexpected slide in oil prices, say—might make investors turn cold on shale firms.这里的危险是某些情况,如超出预期的石油价格下跌,可能使投资者在页岩开发公司上转冷。Many of them are master limited partnerships or similar corporate structures that enjoy tax advantages but in exchange must return their entire profits to investors each year.它们中的许多是业主有限合伙企业或者类似享有税收优惠但作为交换必须每年返他们所有盈利给投资者的公司结构。That means the firms, which require vast amounts of capital, must constantly raise it afresh, making them exceptionally vulnerable to sentiment among investors. However, no such freeze is in sight.这意味着这些需要大量资金的公司必须持续重新提升,使他们对投资者情绪特别敏感。但是,没有任何冻结看得见。Renaissance men文艺复兴者As for the effects of fracking on the broader American economy, most of the forecasts that are bullish on this question assume that gas prices will remain at historic lows.至于水力压裂法在拓展美国经济的影响上面,许多关于这个问题的乐观预测假设天然气会继续保持历史低价。I cant see any scenario, other than a widesp ban on drilling, that would push prices higher than 6, says Scott Nyquist, one of the authors of a report by the McKinsey Global Institute which argues that unconventional oil and gas are set to provide a strong lift to American business.我没有看到任何方案,而不是一个在钻井上广泛传播的禁止令,这样会使价格比6美元高,Scott Nyquist说道,他是麦肯锡公司认为非传统石油和天然气被设定为美国商业提供一个有力的撑的报告的作者之一。The report reckons that between now and 2020, shale gas and oil will add 380 billion-690 billion, or two to four percentage points, to Americas annual GDP, creating 1.7m permanent jobs in the process.该份报告认为在现在和2020年之间,页岩气和石油会为美国每年GDP增加3800亿到6900亿美元或者二到四的百分点,在这个过程中创造170万永久的工作岗位。Americas New Energy Future, a recent report by IHS, another research outfit, talks of a manufacturing Renaissance and predicts a 533 billion boost to GDP by 2025, creating around 3.9m jobs.美国的新能源未来,IHS,另外一个研究组织,谈到制造业的文艺复兴并且预测到2025年GDP有5330亿的增长,大概创造390万工作。At first, say both McKinsey and IHS, a lot of the action will be in the energy business itself: not just in drilling and pipelines but in roads and ports, and all the other activities needed to produce and distribute the fuels. Electricity production is being transformed too, with gas-fired power stations being built to replace dirtier coal-fired ones.随着修建燃气电站来代替火电站,电力生产政治被变革.这样帮助美国2010到2012年能源生产排放的温室气体减少了10%。This has contributed to a 10% fall in the greenhouse-gas emissions from American power generation between 2010 and 2012. IHS reckons gas-fired stations will be providing 33% of Americas electricity in 2020, compared with just 21% in 2008.IHS答复相对于2008年燃气电站仅仅供给了美国21%的电力,到2020年燃气电站会提供美国电力的33%。In the next few years the benefits of fracking will become more visible in other industries, especially those, such as chemicals firms, that consume a lot of energy or use raw materials derived from hydrocarbons.在接下来的几年,水力压裂法的利益将会在其他产业中更加可视化,特别是那些,例如化学公司,消费许多能源或者使用源于氢碳化合物原材料的产业。European industry pays around three times as much for its gas as its American counterpart, and Japanese firms pay more than four times as much.相比它的美国竞争对手,欧洲产业要花费三倍的成本来获得页岩气,日本公司要花费多于四倍的成本。A report this week by the International Energy Agency, a think-tank backed by energy-consuming rich countries, predicts that by 2015 Americas energy-intensive firms will have a cost advantage of 5-25% over rivals in other developed countries.本周国际能源机构的一份报告预测到2015年美国能源密集型公司会有比其他发达国家的竞争对手的成本低5-25%的优势。Since 2011, 128 new energy-hungry industrial plants have been announced in the Gulf Coast region alone, with a combined value of 114 billion.自从2011年,128个新的能源密集型工业工厂在墨西哥沿岸地区设立,整体价值1140亿美元。Many are in petrochemicals. Methanex recently started advertising jobs in a methanol plant it has dismantled and shipped from Chile to Louisiana.许多是石油化学产品。梅塞尼斯最近开始广告招聘在一个它所有的分拆出来的并且从智利转移到路易斯安那的甲醇公司的工作。A second plant will start up in 2016.第二家工厂会在2016年设立。In October Yara, a Norwegian fertiliser manufacturer, said it will join forces with BASF of Germany to build a world scale ammonia plant on the Gulf Coast.十月,亚拉,一个挪威化肥制造商,说它会加入德国的BASF在墨西哥沿岸地区建立一个世界范围内的氨工厂。The aluminium, iron and steel industries are also taking advantage of cheap gas supplies.铝、铁和钢工业也在利用廉价天然气供应的优势。Recently 19 new or expanded plants have been announced by firms including US Steel, Alcoa and ArcelorMittal.最近包括美国钢铁,Alcoa 和Arcelor Mittal在内的公司宣布将会有19家新的或者扩张的工厂。Nucor is rebuilding on a site in Louisiana, whose original plant was dismantled and shipped to Trinidad nearly a decade ago, when gas prices were rising in America.Nutor在路易斯安那州重新建立厂址,近十年前它的原厂被分拆和转移到特立尼达岛,当美国的天然气价格上涨。Makers of such things as cement and tyres are heavy consumers of energy, too, and thus stand to benefit from cheap gas.这些产品的制造者是粘合剂,能源的巨大需求是轮胎,因此坚持从廉价天然气中受益。Fracking the midnight oil水力压裂获取午夜石油Compressed or liquefied gas can also be used to power motor vehicles. American firms with big commercial fleets, such as FedEx and ATamp;T, are looking to cut costs by switching to gas power.压缩的或者液化的天然气也能够被用来给机动车提供动力。美国拥有巨大商业车队的公司,例如联邦快递和美国电话电报公司,在寻求转为天然气动力的方式来削减成本。GM, Ford and Chrysler have launched pickup trucks that can switch between petrol and gas.GM,福特和克莱斯勒汽车公司也发布了能够在汽油和天然气之间进行切换的小卡车拖拉机。The growing supply of cheap shale gas has led to a wave of investment in converting terminals that were built to handle imports of gas into ones that can export it.廉价页岩气的持续供应导致了转换终端设备的投资浪潮,该设备被设计来处理通过该设备天然气输入输出的问题。Some, such as Andrew Liveris, the boss of Dow, a chemicals giant, worry that if too much of Americas gas is exported, prices will rise, robbing it of its competitive advantage.有些,如Andrew Liveris,一家名为Dow化学大公司的老板,担心如果太多的美国天然气被出口,那么价格会上升,抢走了它的竞争优势。However, the new export facilities will come on stream slowly, especially if the government keeps dragging its feet over granting export licences.但是新的输出设备在缓慢投入生产,特别是如果政府坚持通过授予出口许可来拖它的后腿。And even if all the currently planned facilities are opened, which would make America the worlds largest gas exporter, gas prices in America would still be some way below the world price—probably no more than 6 per BTU, says McKinsey.甚至如果所有目前计划的设备开动了,这会使美国成为世界上最大的天然气输出国,美国的天然气价格也会以某种方式低于世界价格水平—可能不会多于每BTU6美元,麦肯锡公司说道。So America should be able to enjoy a boost to its trade balance while still preserving its manufacturers advantage over foreign rivals.所以美国应该仍然能够在对它的外国对手保持它的制造业优势的情况下享受到它的贸易平衡的增长。Look on the bright side光明的一面The argument over the impact on the job market is essentially over whether the glass is half-full or half-empty.就业市场冲击的争论关于玻璃杯究竟是半空还是半满是有必要的。The most that Goldman concedes in its sceptical report is that the long-term decline in jobs in energy-intensive industries has merely bottomed out.大部分高盛在它有疑虑的报告中承认的是能源密集产业长期工作大萧条已经完全降到最低点。But even this would be worth celebrating.但是甚至这样也是值得庆祝的。IHS is not the only forecaster to be much more cheerful.IHS不是唯一的比较乐观的预测者。It predicts that unconventional energy, as well as providing jobs in its own right, will be supporting 400,000 jobs in manufacturing in 2015 and 500,000 jobs, or 4.2% of total manufacturing employment, in 2025.它预计非传统能源,也在它自己的权利范围内提供工作,到2015年会在制造行业提供400,000工作和到2025年500,000工作或者制造业雇佣的4.2%。The spending-power of those new workers, and the cut in businesses and households energy bills, should provide a broad boost to the economy.这些新雇员的消费能力和在商业和家庭能源账单上的削减应该会对经济提供一个广泛的增长。Goldman again puts a cautious spin on the numbers: shale energys overall effects will add just a few tenths of a percentage point to the annual growth rate, says Jan Hatzius, its chief economist.高盛再次在数据方面提供了一个谨慎的说法:页岩能源的全面影响会仅仅对年增长率增加几十个百分点,Jan Hatzius,它的主要经济学家说道。But although this sounds modest, if sustained for a decade or more, it would add up to something big. Not quite a revolution, perhaps, but a significant turnaround in Americas prospects.但是尽管这个听起来很谦虚,如果持续十年或者更久,它会累积很大一笔。不算是一个革命,可能,但是是美国前景上的有重要意义的转弯。 /201311/265679

  

  

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