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2019年05月20日 21:08:47 | 作者:飞度新闻推荐医院 | 来源:新华社
When Gretty Amaya took an unpaid maternity leave five months ago, she started what she calls a part-time job to help pay the bills. Ms. Amaya, who lives in Miami, has made more than ,000 so far by pumping breast milk and selling what is left over after feeding her baby daughter.格莱迪·艾梅亚(Gretty Amaya)在五个月前开始休无薪产假时,为了增加收入,开始从事一项她所谓的“副业”。住在迈阿密的艾梅亚女士,靠卖襁褓中的女儿喝不了的母乳,已经赚到了两千多美元。Frozen milk from Ms. Amaya — and from hundreds of other women throughout the country — is flown here to what resembles a pharmaceutical factory. Inside, it is concentrated into a high-protein product fed to extremely premature babies in neonatal intensive care units, at a cost of thousands of dollars a baby.艾梅亚挤出的人乳经冷冻后,被空运到一个类似药厂的地方,全国其他几百名女人提供的人乳也都送到这里。这里把母乳浓缩为一种高蛋白制品,专门提供给新生儿特护病房中的早产儿使用,每个早产儿要为此花费数千美元。Breast milk, that most ancient and fundamental of nourishments, is becoming an industrial commodity, and one of the newest frontiers of the biotechnology industry — even as concerns abound over this fast-growing business. The company that owns the factory, Prolacta Bioscience, has received million in investments from life science venture capitalists.母乳是最古老、最基本的营养品,如今已经成为一种工业品,成为生物科技工业最新的前沿产品——尽管这项快速增长的生意存在着不少争议。这家工厂是由普罗拉科塔生物科学公司(Plolacta Bioscience)公司开设的,该公司从生命科学领域的风险投资人那里获得了4600万美元投资。“This is white plasma,” said Scott A. Elster, the company’s chief executive. He was comparing milk to blood plasma, which has long been collected from donors and made into valuable medical products like immune globulin, which helps fight infections, and clotting factors for hemophiliacs.“这就相当于白色的血浆,”公司首席执行人斯科特·A·埃尔斯塔(Scott A. Elster)将母乳比作血浆,长期以来,医药业从捐赠者那里收集血浆,制成昂贵的药品,诸如抗感染的免疫球蛋白,以及给血友病人用的凝血因子。Concentrated milk could be just the start. Researchers say that breast milk, which evolved over eons to provide optimal nutrition and protect babies from infection, is brimming with potential therapeutics, not only for babies but possibly for adults, to treat intestinal or infectious diseases, like the bowel ailment known as Crohn’s disease, for example.浓缩人乳可能只是个开始。研究人员称,经历了长期的进化后,母乳可以提供最优的营养,保护婴儿不受感染,其中充满各种疗法的可能性,不仅仅可以用于婴儿,或许也可以用于成人的肠道或感染性疾病治疗,比如名为克罗恩病(Crohn’s disease)的肠疾。“We are at the tip of the iceberg for milk,” said Bruce German, director of the Foods for Health Institute at the University of California, Davis, and chairman of Evolve Biosystems. Evolve and some other small companies like Glycosyn, Jennewein Biotechnologie and Glycom are trying to develop products based on complex sugars that are abundant in breast milk and that appear to nourish bacteria in the digestive tract that are important to health.“关于母乳的功用,我们还只是看到了冰山一角,”加州大学戴维斯分校健康食品研究院院长、进化生物系统公司(Evolve Biosystems)董事会主席布鲁斯·日耳曼(Bruce German)说道。“进化”以及格里康辛(Glycosyn)、詹内怀恩生物科技(Jennewein Biotechnologie)、格里康姆(Glycom)等小公司都在研发基于复糖的产品,复糖大量存在于母乳之中,可以在消化道内培养菌群,对健康非常有益。But the commercialization of breast milk makes many people uneasy. They worry that companies might capture most of the excess breast milk and make products that would be too costly for many babies, while leaving less milk available for nonprofit milk banks.但母乳的商品化令许多人感到不安。他们担心这些公司可能会获取绝大部分可用的剩余母乳,用以为其他婴儿制造昂贵的物品,剥夺非盈利的“母乳”的母乳来源。“The competition comes in the form of how much surplus breast milk is there in the country and who’s getting it,” said Kim Updegrove, executive director of the nonprofit Mothers’ Milk Bank at Austin. “The nonprofit milk banks have a long history of providing milk to the sickest babies, and provide it based on medical need and not on insurance reimbursement or financial resources.”“竞争源自这个国家的母乳剩余量,以及由谁来得到它们,” 非盈利机构、奥斯汀“母乳”的执行会长基姆·厄普德格洛夫(Kim Updegrove) 说道。“非盈利的母乳会将母乳提供给最弱小的婴儿,这是一种悠久的传统,它们提供母乳是基于医学上的需要,而不是基于保险赔偿或经济状况。”Debate is also intense over whether women should be paid for their milk or donate it altruistically. Opponents of payments, worried about breast milk “farming,” say women might try to increase their milk output unsafely, hide health problems that could make the milk unsafe, mix in cow milk to increase volume or deprive their own babies so they can sell more.对于女人是否应当出售人乳,抑或应当无私地捐赠出去,也存在激烈的争论。反对出售母乳的人担心母乳的“农场化”,他们说女人可能会用不安全的方式增加母乳产量;隐瞒自己的健康问题,从而令母乳来源变得不安全;在母乳内掺加牛奶;抑或克扣亲生子女的食量,以便多卖一点母乳。When Medolac Laboratories, a competitor of Prolacta, said last year that it wanted to buy milk from women in Detroit, it was accused of profiting at the expense of black women.普罗拉特卡的竞争对手美多拉克实验室(Medolac Laboratories)去年称,公司希望从底特律的母亲们那里购买人乳,结果被控告为损害黑人妇女利益而牟利。“We are deeply concerned that women will be coerced into diverting milk that they would otherwise feed their own babies,” the Black Mothers’ Breastfeeding Association wrote in an open letter in January. Medolac, which said it was working with the Clinton Foundation and wanted to encourage breast-feeding by making it financially attractive, abandoned its plan.“我们深切担心女人会被胁迫进入提供母乳的行业,从而无法喂养自己的婴儿,”1月,黑人母亲母乳喂养协会(the Black Mothers’ Breastfeeding Association )在公开信中称。当时正在与克林顿基金会(Clinton Foundation)合作,通过提供经济援助来鼓励母乳喂养的美多拉克公司表示,公司只得放弃原计划。Defenders of payments say that if companies are going to profit, it is only fair for them to pay the suppliers for their raw material, especially since pumping takes considerable time and effort. (Prolacta, which started paying only last year, was accused previously of not making clear to women that their milk donations were going to a for-profit company). Moreover, they say, the commercialization of breast milk could increase the supply available.母乳交易的辩护者们认为,如果公司要用母乳盈利,那么只有向原材料的提供者付酬才是公平的,特别是吸取母乳十分费时费力(普罗拉科塔公司只是在去年才开始付费的,之前它曾被控告没有对女人们澄清,她们所捐赠的母乳将会被盈利公司使用)。此外,他们说,母乳的商品化有助于增加母乳供应。The American Academy of Pediatrics says that because of the “potent benefits of human milk,” all premature babies should receive breast milk, preferably from their mothers, but if not, then from donors. But there is not enough donor milk for that, experts say, partly because many women do not know that they can donate or sell excess milk.美国儿科学会(The American Academy of Pediatrics )称,由于“人乳的潜在好处”,早产婴儿都应当食用母乳,最理想的来源是生母,但如果无法做到这一点,则应食用来自捐赠者的人乳。专家称,但目前没有足够的母乳捐赠来源,部分原因是因为很多女人不知道她们可以捐赠或贩卖多余的母乳。Mr. Elster said Prolacta processed 2.4 million ounces, or 18,750 gallons, of milk last year and aimed to do 3.4 million this year. That compares to the 3.1 million ounces dispensed in 2013 by all 18 nonprofit milk banks that belong to the Human Milk Banking Association of North America. Those milk banks do not pay women for milk but do charge hospitals a few dollars an ounce to cover the costs of screening donors and pasteurizing the milk.埃尔斯塔说,普罗拉科塔去年生产了240万盎司,或18750加仑母乳(约合7万升——译注),今年计划提供340万盎司母乳。相比之下,2013年,18家属于北美人乳协会的非盈利母乳分发了310万盎司母乳。这些母乳不向提供母乳的母亲们付酬,但向使用母乳的医院收取费用,主要是筛选捐赠者和对母乳进行消毒的成本费,大约每盎司几美元。Some women give milk directly to other mothers who need it, using milk-sharing sites like Eats on Feets. Some sell their milk to other mothers (or in some cases to male body builde rs who believe it builds muscle), through websites like Only the Breast, hoping to receive more than the an ounce that Prolacta and Medolac pay. Some health authorities say direct sales or sharing pose risks because the milk is usually unpasteurized.有些女人通过“Eats on Feets”等母乳分享网站直接向其他有需要的母亲提供母乳。有些女人通过“Only the Breast”等网站把自己出产的母乳直接卖给其他母亲(有时也卖给相信母乳能促进肌肉生长的男性健身者),普罗拉科塔和美多拉克等公司收购母乳的价格是每盎司一美元,在这些网站上出售母乳的价格要高一些。但是有些健康专家称,直接贩卖或分享母乳存在风险,因为这些母乳通常并未经过高温消毒。Prolacta’s products are intended for extremely premature infants who weigh less than 1,250 grams, or 2.76 pounds, at birth, babies who can fit in the palm of a hand. Those babies need more nutrition than they can receive from breast milk alone.普罗拉科塔的母乳制品是提供给体重在1250克(2.76磅)以下的极早产儿的,这样的婴儿出生后可以用一只手掌捧起来。除了母乳,他们还需要更多营养。Prolacta makes a fortifier containing high levels of protein, fats and minerals, which is used to supplement breast milk. It costs about 0 an ounce, and a baby would typically consume ,000 worth over several weeks. Generally, the cost is paid by the hospital or insurers, not the parents.普罗拉科塔公司的产品提供了加强营养,包括高蛋白、脂肪和矿物质,作为母乳的补充。这种产品每盎司售价180美元,一个早产婴儿通常在数周时间里要吃价值一万美元的该种制品。一般而言,这笔钱并不由父母付,而是由医院或保险公司承担。Although the fortifier is vastly more expensive than formulas or fortifiers made from cow milk, Prolacta argues that it saves money in the long run. Clinical trials it has sponsored suggest that by allowing tiny babies to avoid cow proteins, its product reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, a devastating and costly infection that can require the surgical removal of part of the intestine.尽管这种加强营养品比由牛奶制成的配方奶或者加强营养品昂贵,但据普罗拉科塔公司称,从长期而言,使用它其实是更省钱的。公司赞助的临床试验表明,这种制品因为没有让小婴儿食用牛乳蛋白,从而减少了坏死性小肠结肠炎的发病率,这种疾病后果严重,治疗费用不菲,可能需要动手术切除部分肠道。Mr. Elster said Prolacta, which is privately held and does not disclose its revenue, is growing 40 percent a year. He said its product was used by about 150 of the 900 neonatal intensive care units that care for these extreme preemies.普罗拉科塔公司现为私人所有,并未公开自己的收入,但埃尔斯塔表示,公司在一年内收入增长了40%。他还说,在900个早产儿特护病房中,有150个都使用该公司的产品。But not all doctors are persuaded, and others say that while they would like to use the product, it is too expensive.但他们并没有说所有的医生,有些医生称,他们倒是愿意使用这种产品,但它实在太贵了。“I’ve been stymied by the cost equation,” said Dr. Jae H. Kim of the University of California, San Diego. He said his hospital spends no more than ,000 a year for donor milk for all babies. Adding Prolacta’s fortifier for just the 50 to 70 extremely premature infants each year would cost more than 0,000.加州大学圣迭戈分校的基伊·H·基姆(Jae H. Kim)医生说,“成本平衡令我困扰。”他还表示,自己的医院每年花费不到2.5万美元,用来处理捐赠而来的母乳,提供给所有婴儿。然而如果仅仅是对50到70名极早产儿使用普罗拉科塔的加强营养品,每年就要多花50万美元。Each batch of milk arriving at the million factory here, outside Los Angeles, is tested for viral infections, nicotine, drugs of abuse, dilution and adulteration by cow’s milk. The women who supply the milk take blood tests for infectious diseases, must provide notes from doctors saying they and their baby are healthy and must furnish DNA samples to verify that their milk came from them.每一批母乳都来到洛杉矶城外那座价值1800万美元的工厂进行检验:是否有病毒感染、是否含尼古丁、过量药品、是否经过稀释、是否掺加牛奶。提供人乳的女人要经过血检,以便排查传染病,还必须提供医生明,实她们和她们的婴儿身体健康,并需提供DNA样本,以便验人乳的来源确实为她们本人。“Even the vitamins you take you have to report to them,” said Ms. Amaya.“连你吃的维生素都得申报,”艾梅亚说。Prolacta now faces competition from its own founder, Elena Medo, who left in 2009 and started Medolac, which is based in Lake Oswego, Ore. Prolacta sued Ms. Medo in January, accusing her of “absconding” with its customer list. Ms. Medo called the suit “extremely anticompetitive and certainly unjustified.”普罗拉科塔如今面对竞争,对手正是该公司的创始人伊莉诺·美多(Elena Medo),2009年,她离开普罗拉科塔,在俄勒冈州的奥斯威戈湖创立了美多拉克。1月,普罗拉科塔控告美多携带公司客户名单“潜逃”。美多说这起案子“完全是反竞争的,根本不公平”。Medolac’s first product, which it sells to hospitals, is donor milk that is sterilized rather than pasteurized, so it does not have to be frozen or refrigerated.美多拉克的第一件产品是卖给医院的,它使用经灭菌处理的捐赠母乳,而非使用巴氏消毒法,因此无需冷冻或冷藏。A third competitor could be Glenn Snow, who founded the milk-selling website Only the Breast. He has started a company, International Milk Bank, to buy the milk offered on that website and turn it into products for hospitals.第三个竞争者可能是母乳交易网站“Only the Breast”的创始人格伦·斯诺(Glenn Snow),他已经开了一家名为“国际母乳”的公司,通过网络购买母乳,并将它制成产品,卖给医院。“It’s a fascinating industry, and it’s brand-new,” he said.“这是很棒的产业,而且是崭新的,”他说。The next frontier could be the complex sugars in milk. Glycosyn, Jennewein and Glycom, which has worked with Nestlé, are trying to synthesize them to make products that would nurture a healthy gut “microbiome.” Prolacta and Medolac say their ability to collect milk nationally will allow them to extract those sugars from the milk.下一项研究前沿是人乳中的复糖。格里康辛、詹内怀恩与格里康姆与雀巢公司合作,试图人工合成这些复糖,令产品中含有有益健康的“微生物菌群”。普罗拉科塔和美多拉克称,在未来,他们在全国收集人乳的能力可以令他们足以将这些糖类从人乳中提取出来。Until now, “there’s never been enough milk in one place to be able to do it,” Ms. Medo said.迄今为止,“在单一地点收集的母乳数量都足以进行这项研究,”美多说。 /201504/367534Nathaniel Branden wrote Ayn Rand a fan letter when he was a teenager in Canada in the 1940s. He wanted to tell her how much he admired “The Fountainhead,” her novel about a brilliant architect’s proud resistance to what he perceived as the world’s inclination toward collectivism and mediocrity.20世纪40年代,十几岁的加拿大人纳撒尼尔·布兰登(Nathaniel Branden)给安·兰德(Ayn Rand)写了一封崇拜信,想告诉她自己有多么热爱她的《源泉》(The Fountainhead),这本小说讲述一个杰出的建筑师意识到这个世界正在滑向集体主义与平庸,于是骄傲地与之对抗。Ms. Rand did not respond, but Mr. Branden did not give up.兰德没有回复,但布兰登没有放弃。A few years later, while attending college in California, he wrote to her again. This time she did respond, and then some.几年后,已经在加利福尼亚上大学的他再次给她写信。这一次她回复了,两人开始通信。In relatively short order, they became philosophical soul mates, unlikely lovers and business associates. He was 25 years younger than she and, like her, married to someone else. That hardly mattered. Both believed in “rational selfishness” and unlimited capitalism, theories Ms. Rand embraced in “The Fountainhead” (1943) and her later blockbuster, “Atlas Shrugged,” which was published in 1957 and originally dedicated to both her husband, Frank O’Connor, and Mr. Branden.两人很快成了哲学上的灵魂伴侣、不可思议的恋人与生意伙伴。他比她年轻25岁,两人分别同其他人结了婚。但这不是问题。两人都相信兰德在《源泉》和她后来风靡一时的《阿特拉斯耸耸肩》(Atlas Shrugged)中全心信奉的“理性的自私”与不受限制的资本主义。《阿特拉斯耸耸肩》于1957年出版,最初是题献给她的丈夫弗兰克·奥康纳(Frank O’Connor)和布兰登这两个人的。Mr. Branden, who was 84 when he died on Wednesday at his home in Los Angeles County, would go on to change his name at Ms. Rand’s suggestion (it had been Nathan Blumenthal) and to become perhaps her most ardent disciple. In 1958 he started the Nathaniel Branden Institute, where he helped repackage her ideas — Objectivism, she called her philosophy — into lectures, recordings, books and articles.布兰登于周三在洛杉矶郡家中去世,享年84岁。认识兰德后,他成了其最热情的门徒,还按她的建议,把自己的名字由内森·布卢门撒尔(Nathan Blumenthal)改为纳撒尼尔·布兰登。1958年,他创立了纳撒尼尔·布兰登学院,重新把她的思想(她把自己的哲学称之为“客观主义”)包装为讲座、录音、书籍和文章。For the next decade, theirs was a distinctive and largely productive collaboration — at Ms. Rand’s insistence, both of their spouses knew of their extramarital relationship, though few outside their inner circle did — and it raised both her profile and his. Founded in New York, the Nathaniel Branden Institute grew to have branches in dozens of cities. Among its speakers was Alan Greenspan, the future chairman of the Federal Reserve Board.接下来的十年里,两人的合作极为独特,而且非常高产,从而对两人的形象都有提升。在兰德坚持之下,两人的伴侣都知晓了这段婚外恋,不过这段关系在他们的小圈子之外罕有人知。纳撒尼尔·布兰登学院在几十个城市内设立了分校。后来当上美国联邦储备委员会主席的艾伦·格林斯潘(Alan Greenspan)也曾是学院的演讲者之一。But by the late 1960s, Mr. Branden’s relationships with Ms. Rand and with his wife, Barbara, had deteriorated. It did not help that he had begun a relationship that year with a fashion model, 15 years his junior, Patrecia Scott, who had attended his lectures (and whom he later married).但是到了20世纪60年代末,布兰登与兰德和妻子芭芭拉(Barbara)之间的关系每况愈下。同时他又和来听他讲座的时装模特帕特里西亚·斯科特(Patrecia Scott)之间开始了一段恋情,这自然更加于事无补。斯科特比他小15岁,两人后来结婚了。In the summer of 1968, Ms. Rand announced in an article for The Objectivist magazine that their collaboration was over, claiming that both of the Brandens had taken financial advantage of her. The Brandens publicly denied the charge.1968年夏,兰德在为《客观主义者》(The Objectivist)杂志撰写的文章中宣布两人之间的合作告终,并称布兰登夫妇在财务上占她便宜。布兰登夫妇公开否认了这一指责。The split also caused a divide among Ms. Rand’s followers. Mr. Branden had become a draw himself, and he soon began promoting a revised version of their early ideas, shifting the emphasis from self-interest to self-esteem. He moved to Southern California, where he started a new organization, the Institute of Biocentric Psychology, and wrote a book, “The Psychology of Self-Esteem” (1969).这一分裂也在兰德的持者中造成了分歧。布兰登本人也成了重要人物,很快就开始宣传两人早期观点的修订版,重点从自利转向自尊。他移居南加利福尼亚,开创了新机构:生物中心心理学学院(the Institute of Biocentric Psychology),并于1969年出版著作《自尊心理学》(The Psychology of Self-Esteem)。He was well established in private practice when the extent of his early relationship with Ms. Rand became public. In 1986, his first wife, Barbara, told the story in the book “The Passion of Ayn Rand.” That book also divided Ms. Rand’s followers, but Ms. Branden received generally favorable reviews for what critics said appeared to be her clear effort to be fair to Ms. Rand. The book was made into a 1999 Showtime movie starring Helen Mirren as Ms. Rand and Eric Stoltz as Mr. Branden.与兰德的早年关系曝光之时,布兰登的个人事业已经获得相当大的成功。1986年,他的第一任妻子芭芭拉在《安·兰德的热情》(The Passion of Ayn Rand)一书中披露了他们之间的故事。这本书再次在兰德的追随者之间造成了分裂。但是芭芭拉的书获得了普遍好评,家都认为她显然很努力地去公平对待兰德。1999年,这本书被映时影业搬上银幕,由海伦·米伦(Helen Mirren)饰演兰德,艾瑞克·斯托罗兹(Eric Stoltz)饰演布兰登。In 1989, Mr. Branden offered his own version of the relationship in “Judgment Day: My Years With Ayn Rand.” It was not as well received as his wife’s account.1989年,布兰登出版了《审判日:我与安·兰德共度的岁月》(Judgment Day: My Years With Ayn Rand),从自己的角度讲述了这段关系,不过获得的评价却不如他前妻的那本书。Reviewing the book in The New York Times, the feminist writer Susan Brownmiller called “Judgment Day” “an embarrassing venture.”女性主义作家苏珊·布朗米勒(Susan Brownmiller)在为《纽约时报》撰写的书评中称《审判日》是“令人尴尬的冒险”。“Renegades from extremist movements are seldom likable in their new incarnations: their justifications ring hollow, their demands for sympathy tend to sound whiny,” Ms. Brownmiller wrote. “Mr. Branden compounds this inherent problem by replacing his Objectivist rhetoric with a massive dose of psychobabble from the California human-potential movement, in whose therapeutic vineyards he has fashioned a second, and apparently successful, career.”“极端主义行动中的叛徒如果有了新的化身,也很难被人喜爱:他们的辩解空洞无力,他们要求同情的呼声听上去似乎只是牢骚而已,”布朗米勒写道,“为了调和这个固有的问题,布兰登把自己的客观主义修辞替换成大堆加利福尼亚人类潜能运动中的心理学呓语,在该运动的治疗场所中,他为自己重塑了事业第二春,显然还很成功。”Nathan Blumenthal was born on April 9, 1930, in Brampton, Ontario, and grew up in Toronto. He attended the University of California, Los Angeles, before following Ms. Rand to New York, where he earned a master’s degree at New York University. He later received a doctorate from the California Graduate Institute, where he also taught.内森·布卢门撒尔于1930年4月9日出生于安大略省的布兰普敦,在多伦多长大。他曾在洛杉矶的加利福尼亚大学就读,后追随兰德来到纽约,在纽约大学获得硕士学位。后来他在加利福尼亚研究生院获得士学位,并在那里任教。His wife, Laurie, also known as Leigh, whom he married in 2006, said the cause of his death was complications of Parkinson’s disease. His survivors also include a sister, Elayne Kalberman. Barbara Branden died in 2013. Among Mr. Branden’s many other books are “The Six Pillars of Self-Esteem” (1994), “Taking Responsibility” (1996) and “The Art of Living Consciously” (1997).他于2006年再次结婚,妻子劳里(Laurie)又名利(Leigh),她宣布他的死因是帕金森症引发的并发症。他的姊伊雷恩·考曼(Elayne Kalberman)尚在人世。芭芭拉·布兰登于2013年逝世。纳撒尼尔·布兰登生前有很多著作,包括《自尊的六大柱》(The Six Pillars of Self-Esteem,1994)、《承担责任》(Taking Responsibility, 1996)和《好奇生活的艺术》(The Art of Living Consciously, 1997)。 /201412/348086

导语:端午节(Dragon Boat Festival)为每年农历五月初五,又称端阳节、午日节、五月节等。“端午节”为中国国家法定节假日之一,并已被列入世界非物质文化遗产名录。端午节起源于中国,最初是中国人民祛病防疫的节日,吴越之地春秋之前有在农历五月初五以龙舟竞渡形式举行部落图腾祭祀的习俗;后因诗人屈原在这一天死去,便成了中国汉族人民纪念屈原的传统节日;部分地区也有纪念伍子胥、曹娥等说法。端午节有吃粽子,喝雄黄酒,挂菖蒲、蒿草、艾叶,薰苍术、白芷,赛龙舟的习俗。端午节的历史渊源:农历五月初五是中国的传统节日——“端午节”,端是“开端”、“初”的意思。初五可以称为端五。农历以地纪月,正月建寅,二月为卯,顺次至五月为午,因此称五月为午月,“五”与“午”通,“五”又为阳数,故端午又名端五、重五、端阳、中天、重午、午日,此外一些地方又将端午节称之为五月节、艾节、夏节。从史籍上看,“端午”二字最早见于晋人周处《风土记》:“仲夏端午,烹鹜角黍”。端午节是我国汉族人民的传统节日。端午节的前世今生(1)端午节的前世今生 (2) 弘扬传统文化:端午节端午节的来历:汉语介绍MP3端午节话题的各种英语表达端午祭屈原:传说屈原死后,楚国百姓哀痛异常,纷纷涌到汨罗江边去凭吊屈原。渔夫们划起船只,在江上来回打捞他的真身。有位渔夫拿出为屈原准备的饭团、鸡蛋等食物,“扑通、扑通”地丢进江里,说是让鱼龙虾蟹吃饱了,就不会去咬屈大夫的身体了。人们见后纷纷仿效。一位老医师则拿来一坛雄黄酒倒进江里,说是要药晕蛟龙水兽,以免伤害屈大夫。后来为怕饭团为蛟龙所食,人们想出用楝树叶包饭,外缠丝,发展成棕子。以后,在每年的五月初五,就有了龙舟竞渡、吃粽子、喝雄黄酒的风俗;以此来纪念爱国诗人屈原。千百年来,屈原的爱国精神和感人诗词,已广泛深入人心,故人们“惜而哀之,世论其辞,以相传焉”,因此,纪念屈原之说,影响最广最深,占据主流地位。在民俗文化领域,中国民众把端午节的龙舟竞渡和吃粽子等,都与纪念屈原联系在一起。时至今日,端午节仍是中国人民生活中一个十分盛行的隆重节日。屈原投江双语阅读小故事屈原的故事flash小故事CCTV9报道:屈原家乡庆端午屈原诗词:“沧浪之水清兮,可以濯吾缨;沧浪之水浊兮,可以濯吾足。”屈原被放逐后,在和渔父的一次对话中,渔父劝他“与世推移”,不要“深思高举”,自找苦吃。屈原表示宁可投江而死,也不能使清白之身,蒙受世俗之尘埃。《楚辞·哀郢》英文是个什么样《楚辞·湘夫人》英文版本《楚辞·离骚》绝美翻译屈原《山鬼》端午玩什么:内容主要有:女儿回娘家,挂钟馗像,迎鬼船、躲午,帖午叶符,悬挂菖蒲、艾草,游百病,佩香囊,备牲醴,赛龙舟,比武,击球,荡秋千,给小孩涂雄黄,饮用雄黄酒、菖蒲酒,吃五毒饼、咸蛋、粽子和时令鲜果等。英文探索端午节习俗弘扬传统文化 品味端午习俗佩戴香包苗族龙船节赛龙舟“赛龙舟”英语长什么样端午吃什么:最早出现的端午时食,应属西汉的“枭羹”。《史记》“孝武本纪”注引如淳言:“汉使东郡送枭,五月五日为枭羹以赐百官。以恶鸟,故食之”。大约因为枭不易捕捉,所以吃枭羹的习俗并没有持续下来。锉是端午的主角-粽子,在稍晚的东汉就已出现。一直要到晋朝,粽子才成为端午的应节食品。《风土记》:“五月五日,与夏至同,……先此二节一日,又以菰叶裹黏米,杂以粟,以淳浓灰汁煮之令熟。”同时又有另一种端午节食,称为“龟”也只在晋朝昙花一现,随即销声匿迹。只有《风土记》中称为“角黍”的粽子,因为附会在屈原的传说上,千百年来,成为最受人欢迎的端午节食。端午节吃什么各种粽子都什么样端午习俗之吃粽子端午说粽子 各地粽子英文都长啥样端午习俗之饮雄黄酒端午节的特别美味盛宴韩国端午:韩国的江陵端午祭及与中国端午节的区别。韩国江陵端午祭是一项大型的庆祝活动,它以端午节为契机,紧密结合了韩国民众信仰和农时活动。不同于中国端午节的是,它以韩民族自己的方式,结合韩国民众的需要和审美观,创造了丰富多的内容和形式。韩国怎么过端午端午传说:白蛇饮雄黄现原形的故事纪念伍子胥端午节的第二个传说,在江浙一带流传很广,是纪念春秋时期(公元前770--前476年)的伍子胥。伍子胥名员,楚国人,父兄均为楚王所杀,后来子胥弃暗投明,奔向吴国,助吴伐楚,五战而入楚都郢城。当时楚平王已死,子胥掘墓鞭尸三百,以报杀父兄之仇。吴王阖庐死后,其子夫差继位,吴军士气高昂,百战百胜,越国大败,越王勾践请和,夫差许之。子胥建议,应彻底消灭越国,夫差不听,吴国大宰,受越国贿赂,谗言陷害子胥,夫差信之,赐子胥宝剑,子胥以此死。子胥本为忠良,视死如归,在死前对邻舍人说:“我死后,将我眼睛挖出悬挂在吴京之东门上,以看越国军队入城灭吴”,便自刎而死,夫差闻言大怒,令取子胥之尸体装在皮革里于五月五日投入大江,因此相传端午节亦为纪念伍子胥之日。纪念孝女曹娥端午节的第三个传说,是为纪念东汉(公元23--220年)孝女曹娥救父投江。曹娥是东汉上虞人,父亲溺于江中,数日不见尸体,当时孝女曹娥年仅十四岁,昼夜沿江号哭。过了十七天,在五月五日也投江,五日后抱出父尸。就此传为神话,继而相传至县府知事,令度尚为之立碑,让他的弟子邯郸淳作诔辞颂扬。  孝女曹娥之墓,在今浙江绍兴,后传曹娥碑为晋王义所书。后人为纪念曹娥的孝节,在曹娥投江之处兴建曹娥庙,她所居住的村镇改名为曹娥镇,曹娥殉父之处定名为曹娥江。图腾祭近代大量出土文物和考古研究实:长江中下游广大地区,在新石器时代,有一种几何印纹陶为特征的文化遗存。该遗存的族属,据专家推断是一个崇拜龙的图腾的部族----史称百越族。出土陶器上的纹饰和历史传说示明,他们有断发纹身的习俗,生活于水乡,自比是龙的子孙。其生产工具,大量的还是石器,也有铲、凿等小件的青铜器。作为生活用品的坛坛罐罐中,烧煮食物的印纹陶鼎是他们所特有的,是他们族群的标志之一。直到秦汉时代尚有百越人,端午节就是他们创立用于祭祖的节日。在数千年的历史发展中,大部分百越人已经融合到汉族中去了,其余部分则演变为南方许多少数民族,因此,端午节成了全中华民族的节日。龙的节日说这种说法来自闻一多的《端午考》和《端午的历史教育》。他认为,五月初五是古代吴越地区“龙”的部落举行图腾祭祀的日子。其主要理由是:1 端午节两个最主要的活动吃粽子和竞渡,都与龙相关。粽子投入水里常被蛟龙所窃,而竞渡则用的是龙舟。2 竞渡与古代吴越地方的关系尤深,况且吴越百姓还有断发纹身“以像龙子”的习俗。3 古代五月初五日有用“五丝系臂”的民间风俗,这应当是“像龙子”的纹身习俗的遗迹。结语:关于端午节还有很多的传说和迷思,如白娘子和许仙等等……,这也正是中国传统节日的魅力所在。欢度端午,粽子节快乐!~ /201506/381311

On October 9, Nature published a paper providing the results of new dating techniques that have been used to determine the age of prehistoric rock art motifs in volcanic caves on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. Archaeologists have determined that some of the art was created at least 40,000 years ago, so that human cave art existed in Southeast Asia as long ago as in Europe.10月9日,《自然》杂志刊登了一篇文章提供了新的年代判定方法,用于确定印尼苏拉威苏岛火山洞穴中史前岩石艺术作品的年代。考古学家已经确认有些艺术作品至少创建于4万年前,因此东南亚洞穴人类艺术作品存在历史与欧洲一样久远。Archaeologists have long been puzzled about the absence of prehistoric rock art in other places beside Europe, especially since they have aly agreed that modern humans were established in South Asia and the Far East by 50,000 years ago. Thanks to new dating techniques, we now know that humans were producing rock art at both ends of the Pleistocene Eurasian world.考古学家一直纠结于在欧洲之外缺乏史前岩石艺术品,特别是他们已经认可了南亚和中东存在现代人类的历史能够追溯到5万年前的实归功于新的年代判定技术,现在我们知道了在更新世期间欧亚大陆两端的人类都曾创作了岩石艺术。Sulawesi is the world#39;s eleventh largest island and is located in Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands that lies between Asia and Australia. The Maros and Pangkep regions, where the rock art has been dated, cover about 450 square kilometers of the island#39;s southwest peninsula. The caves containing the motifs were carved into the landscape by ancient volcanic lava flows that cut into the limestone, forming clusters of towers that erupt from the plains.苏拉威苏是世界上第十一大岛,座落于亚洲和澳大利亚大陆之间的海域内华莱士群岛。发现岩石艺术品的马洛斯和庞格普地区位于该岛的西南部,占地450平方公里。由古老火山熔岩冲击石灰岩形成的洞穴中,存在着雕刻成风景样式的艺术作品,展现了平原上的成群的高塔.The network of foot caves formed around the bases of the towers were occupied by prehistoric humans who migrated east from Africa. As a result of this discovery, the ed Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has added these caves to a tentative list of protected world heritage sites. Final selection to the World Heritage List is based on criteria that demonstrate a site#39;s importance for the world#39;s population.围绕着高塔的基座形成了人类足以进入的洞穴群,当时被从非洲迁徙到东方的史前人类所占据。联合国教科文组织将这一发现增补为临时性世界保护遗址。世界保护遗址最终遴选结果将基于遗址对世界人口影响的重要性进行评判。Bird Cave in Maros马洛斯地区的鸟类洞穴Archaeologists have previously discovered materials used by humans within many of the cave walls and have discovered a total of 90 rock art sites. Previously, the earliest dated evidence for human occupation at Sulawesi came from radiocarbon dates of excavated deposits in two different caves that showed people were using them for habitation approximately 35,000 years ago. Both sites had previously yielded evidence of pigment use, including hematite (iron oxide) crayons and ochre-smeared stone tools, implements that were likely used in the creation of rock art.之前考古学家在很多洞穴墙壁上都发现了人工痕迹,并且总共发现了90块岩石艺术作品。之前,苏拉威苏遗址最早的人类居住痕迹来自于从两处不同的洞穴中挖掘出的沉积物,放射性炭检测显示大约在3.5万前有人类穴居于此。之前两处遗址中出土的据显示有染色的痕迹,包括:使用赤铁块以及褐石,这些都可能用于岩石作品的创作。The Maros-Pangkep rock art was actually first recorded in the 1950s and has been studied extensively by researchers over the subsequent decades. There are two distinct styles of art within the caves, dated to the Pleistocene period, which extends between 2.58 million years ago and 11,700 years ago.事实上马洛斯-庞格普岩石艺术最早记录50年代,随后几十年来研究者们一直对此进行了广泛研究。在洞穴中,存在有两种明显的艺术风格,可以追溯到更新世时期,即距今258万年年至11700年前。Hands in Pettakere Cave派塔克洞穴中的手形图案The first consists of human hand stencils made by spraying wet pigment around human hands that were pressed against the surfaces. Pleistocene humans likely placed pigment in their mouths in order to create such a spray. The less common style of cave art found at Maros-Pangkep is characterized by larger, naturalistic profile paintings of wild land mammals that were native to the island during the Pleistocene period.最初的人类手形图案通过将手掌压在绘图面上,围绕手掌喷洒染料液进行制作。更新世时期的人类可能将染料液含在口中制造喷洒效果。马洛斯-庞格普地区的洞穴艺术品中较为少见的风格是绘制较大的野生哺乳动物的自然轮廓画,这些动物在更新世时期生活在该岛上。Both motifs, primarily red in coloration, have typically been found on high roofs and elevated parts of rock walls that are difficult to access. They are often found close to site entrances, but archaeologists have also discovered specimens within deep, dark chambers. The subjects and placements found here often resemble those of European cave art of roughly similar age.两种风格的作品基本上都采用了红色,通常发现于较难接触到的洞顶和岩壁的高处,一般都接近洞口。但考古学家在黑暗的洞穴深处也发现了一些样本。发现的样本和布置方式都与同时期欧洲洞穴艺术较为相似。Archaeologists used uranium-series dating techniques to analyze coralloids associated with 12 human hand stencils and two figurative animal depictions from seven cave sites in the Maros-Pangkep caves. Coralloids are small nodes of calcite that form on the surfaces of limestone caves, including on top of and beneath the rock art found in考古学家利用铀系列放射标定技术分析了从马洛斯-庞格普地区7个洞穴中12处手掌图案和2处动物图形的珊瑚点。珊瑚点是在石灰岩洞表面上形成的方解石小斑点,包括在岩石艺术品的顶部和底下发现的珊瑚点。In cases where coralloid formed on top of paintings, uranium dates provide a minimum age for the underlying rock art. In some cases, however, painters created their art over the tops of coralloids that then continued to grow. Technicians were therefore able to provide both minimum and maximum ages for such motifs.有些情况下,在图案的上面形成珊瑚点,铀判定能够给出下部母岩上图案的最低年份。然而,很多情况下,绘制者创作的图案覆盖到上面的珊瑚点,此后珊瑚点会继续生长。因此技术人员能够得出这些作品的最低和最高年份。The earliest dated image at Maros-Pangkep is a hand stencil with a minimum age of 39,900 years ago, making it the oldest known hand stencil in the world. A nearby painting of a “pig-deer” was also dated to 35,400 years ago and is now among the oldest known figurative depictions in the world.马洛斯-庞格普地区最早的图案是一幅手形图,最低年份在39900年前,这也成为目前世界上最古老的手形图。该图案附近的一幅“猪鹿”图也要追溯于35400年前,属于世界上已知的最古老的形象画之一。This dating of rock art in Sulawesi has implications for our understanding of symbolic traditions in the wider region. Similar art styles have previously been discovered in Borneo and other locations in Southeast Asia, and rock art in northern Australia also features hand stencils and paintings of animals. Many of the excavated deposits associated with these motifs have been dated to as far back as 50,000 years ago, and evidence of ochre processing and hematite crayons have also been found in these areas.标定苏拉威苏地区岩石艺术对于我们理解更广泛地区的象形传统具有较高意义。此前,在婆罗洲和东南亚其他地区也发现过相似风格的艺术作品。澳洲北部的岩石艺术也以手形图和动物绘画而见长。已发掘的很多与这些艺术品相关的沉积物能够追溯远到5万年前,在这些地区也发现了赤石和褐石作为染料的痕迹。These new findings also provide us with new information regarding the origins of Paleolithic rock art, which has previously been dominated by a Eurocentric focus. Archaeologists have generally fallen into two camps regarding the origins of prehistoric cave art. Some argue that rock art originated in Europe and developed over thousands of years, resulting in the more sophisticated representations of animals at Lasceaux and Altamira 20,000 years ago.这些新发现还为我们研究更新世岩石艺术提供了新的信息,而之前一直被欧洲的考古发现所主导。对于更新世洞穴艺术的起源问题,基本上考古学家们分化成两种阵营。有些人认为岩石艺术发源于欧洲,并且发展了数千年,形成了2万年前拉斯西奥斯和阿塔米亚洞穴中更加复杂的动物图案。Others, including the authors of the Nature article, suggest that cave art developed more broadly, and some even go so far as to suggest that cave painting may have been widely practiced by the first wave of Homo sapiens who left Africa tens of thousands of years earlier.另外一些人包括《自然》杂志上文章的作者在内,都认为洞穴艺术的发展更具广泛性,有些人甚至进一步认为或许数万年前离开非洲的第一波赫姆智人便已经普遍创作过洞穴图案。One limitation of examining rock art is the survivability and deterioration of the motifs over time. The Nature article authors explain in their paper that, even in prehistoric times, rock art was aly in an advanced state of deterioration. Local custodians have further reported that the loss of the art has accelerated in recent decades. Many pieces of rock art have undoubtedly disappeared over the millennia, leaving only remnants for archaeologists to analyze.研究岩石艺术的限制之一便是经历时间洗礼这些作品的可延续性和受到的风化。作者在《自然》杂志的文章中解释到,即使在史前时代,岩石艺术品已经遭受较严重的风化。当地的保护者进一步报告称近几十年这些艺术品的损失越来越严重。几千年来,很多岩石艺术样本无疑已经消失了,只留下残迹令考古学家分析。However, we do have evidence of the use of pigments as early as 400,000 years ago, which were also used in the practice of body painting. In 1999, archaeologists discovered more than 300 pieces of pigment in the Twin Rivers Cave in Zambia. The stratigraphic layer in which the pigments were found also contained Middle Stone Age artifacts and sediment dating to between 400,000 and 200,000 years ago. The pigments were found in a range of colors including brown, red, yellow, purple, blue, and pink that all derived from locally available minerals.然而,我们确实掌握了早在40万年前人类利用染料的据,也被用于人体绘。1999年,考古学家在赞比亚的双子河流域洞穴中发现300多个染料样本。发现染料的地层中还包含有中石器时代器物和沉积物,起始于40万至20万年间。发现的染料包含有棕色、红色、黄色、紫色、蓝色以及粉色,全部来自于当地的矿物质。In an interview with National Geographic, Alistair Pike, one of the archaeologists who authored the Nature article, speculated on why prehistoric humans around the world started creating cave art. He explained that in the past one argument ;was that when modern humans migrated to Europe, they competed with Neanderthals for caves, which led to a cultural change.;《自然》杂志上文章的作者之一,派克接受国家地理频道采访时,围绕着世界各地的史前人类开始创作洞穴艺术,思索他们为何会这样做。他解释道过去的一种观点认为“这源于现代人类移居到欧洲时,他们需要与当地穴居人竞争洞穴,因此导致了文化的变迁。”;What#39;s clear now is that the phenomenon happened elsewhere,; he continued. ;Once modern people left Africa, they might have faced a different environment and social situation [and] different puzzles. They may have had to live in larger groups to survive, which leads to a need for stronger socialization. One way to display rituals and symbols is with cave art.;“目前我们清楚了解了其他地区出现的现象,”他继续说道。“一旦现代人类离开非洲,他们或许要面对一个不同的环境和社会状态,要处理不同的难题。他们或许不得不为了生存而组成更大的居住群体,导致他们需要更高的社会化。办法之一便是通过洞穴艺术来举行仪式,展示象征符号。”His interview also hints at just how similar prehistoric humans were to us today. ;Certainly making hand stencils seems a universal human practice. Children love to make handprints, even today. We see them in cave art in different times and places everywhere,; Pike stated. ;It could just be that the urge to make cave art is universal.;采访中他还暗示史前人类与我们今天的做法会如此相似。“制作手形图案似乎肯定是人类的一种普遍行为。即使今天,儿童们也喜欢制作手形印记。在不同的时期不同地点的洞穴艺术中我都发现了这一点,”派克说道。“可能就是源于这种冲动使洞穴艺术成为普遍现象。”He further states that similarities between cave art in Europe and Asia undoubtedly go much deeper. This ;is why we need to find more cave paintings,; he explained. In addition, we must obtain the resources and financial ability to perform similar tests on rock art motifs that we aly know about. While we know of approximately 90 motifs on Sulawesi, there are, without a doubt, thousands or even tens of thousands around the world, both discovered and undiscovered, waiting to tell us more about our ancestors.他进一步陈述到欧洲和亚洲洞穴艺术的相似性无疑会进一步加深。这是“为何我们需要发掘更多洞穴绘画的原因,”他解释到。此外,我们必须得到对已知的岩石艺作品开展类似研究的资源和资金。虽然我们研究了苏拉威苏的大约90块艺术作品,但毋庸置疑的是全世界仍存在数千乃至数万件岩石艺术作品,无论是已发掘出的还是为被发现的,都在等着我们去探求祖先留下的信息。 /201411/344086

We all know that Britain and the US are two countries connected by a common language. But in fact, the differences are more fun to observe, as B did in a recent story called 8 Situations When Britons Behave Differently From Americans. Below Teens has picked out four for you. Take a look。众所周知,英国与美国因为使用同一种语言而有诸多相似之处。但事实上,探寻英美文化间的差异更加有趣。近日,B就刊登了一篇文章,题为“四种情境:英美人的不同表现”。下面我们就来看看其中的四种情况:1. When someone knocks into you被撞后什么反应?If someone bumps into an American, the victim will most likely look the accidental aggressor in the face and expect an apology. If, however, the victim happens to be British, chances are that the victim will say “sorry” before the other can make his or her own apology。如果被撞的是美国人,他们大都会直视冒失者,希望对方道歉。而相反,如果被撞的碰巧是英国人,他们则很可能会在撞人者开口道歉之前先说“对不起”。2. When you get dressed for dinner晚宴穿什么?Britons don’t all change into evening dress for supper like what you may have seen in popular TV shows like Downton Abbey. But they do tend to make an effort when going out for dinner somewhere nice. Americans, however, will probably wear a casual shirt to a fancy eatery。享用晚餐时,英国人虽然不会像热门英剧《唐顿庄园》中那样人人身着晚礼,但在去高级餐厅就餐时也会在穿着上颇下一番功夫。而美国人则可能穿一件休闲衬衫就出入高级餐馆。3. When you don’t finish your food饭菜没吃完时怎么办?Britons wouldn’t think to take the leftovers home when dining out at a restaurant. They think the food is somehow “tainted” once they’ve poked at it with a knife and fork. In the US, wrapping it up to take home is a standard practice。外出就餐时,英国人不会将剩饭剩菜打包带走,因为在他们看来食物一旦被刀叉“染指”后便被“玷污”了。然而对美国人而言,打包剩菜则是一种惯例。4. When you get into a taxi乘出租车时什么表现?Britons will give the cab driver an address, then assume that’s it for the interaction until it’s time to pay. Even if they’re being taken in a roundabout way, they’re very unlikely to say anything. In the US, however, most passengers think nothing of telling the driver what route to take after telling him or her the destination。英国人在告诉司机目的地之后就会秉承全程“零交流”的原则,直至下车付钱才开口。甚至在看见司机绕路时,他们也会一言不发。而美国人则恰恰相反,大多数乘客都会在告诉司机目的地后,自己指挥行车路线;并且觉得这并无不妥。 /201507/385618

;The key to office politics is to let others share credit for your work...especially when you fail.;办公室政治的关键在于让别人分享你工作的成绩,尤其是当你失败的时候。 /201506/383066

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