原标题: 南平治不孕需要多少钱飞度【健康管家】
Just get a branch like this.就拿这样一个树枝Then into these gaps,I#39;m just gonna push a lot of these birch-bark shavings.然后在这缺口里 塞进一些桦树皮屑But I#39;m not gonna light this unless I really need to.但不到万不得已 我不会点燃它A least with this,I know I can instantly have a flaming torch in my hand.有了这个的话 我就能确保自己手上随时都有火炬了I just heard a noise out there.我听到点声响You know, I#39;m not gonna take any chance with this.I#39;m just gonna get this torch flaming.跟你说 我不会抱侥幸心理的 我要把这火炬点燃There you go. Hear that?就是这个 听见了吗I was once shown by a woodsman how to get a response from wolves.一个樵夫曾经教过我 如何与狼产生共鸣And if I can at least hear a response,then at least I know what I#39;m dealing with.如果我能得到回应的话 我就知道我要对付的是什么了Okay. Hear that?That,that sounds a very long way away, there.听见了吗 这声音是从很远处传来的There you go. Hear that?Gonna try and get some sleep.又来了 听见了吗 我得试着睡会儿觉Try and slow the heart rate back down again.让砰砰乱跳的心平静一会The morning light signals the end to what has been a long, restless night.晨曦预示着 这个不安宁的长夜的结束The shelter worked well, that fire.大本营的作用发挥得不错 那火也是To be honest, though,the weak link last night was in my mind.但是说实话 昨晚那微弱的共鸣一直在我脑海徘徊You know, I really found it hard just to get back to sleep after hearing those noises.在听到那种声响以后 我真的很难入睡The fire gave me a sense of security,and I#39;ve spotted something that means I can start another one at a moment#39;s notice.Tinder fungus!火给了我安全的感觉 我偶然一瞥 发现了让我能够再次生火的宝贝 火焰菌 Article/201704/506844Part 4 Basic Information第4部分:基本信息I.Useful ExpressionI.实用表达1)Where can I change some money?1)我可以去哪换点钱?2)You can go to the Bank of China(BOC)/2)你可以去中国.You can go to the Agricultural Bank of China(A)/你可以去中国农业.You can go to the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China(IC)/你可以去中国工商.You can go to the Construction Bank of China(C).你可以去中国建设.3)Excuse me.Where could I get a haircut?3)请问在哪里可以理发?4)Could you tell me a good palace to get my hair done?4)你能告诉我一家好的理发店吗?5)How are you feeling today?5)今天感觉怎么样?6)Do you feel better now?6)现在好点儿了吗?7)Do you need a doctor?7)要不要找个大夫看看?8)Do you need some medicine?8)需要药吗?9)Excuse me.Where could I send a postcard/a letter/ an email?9)请问在哪可以寄明信片/寄信/发电子邮件?10)What would you like to have?10)想吃点什么?11)Beijing duck is the most famous food in Beijing.11)北京烤鸭是北京最有名的菜.12)Do you like seafood hot food or something else?12)吃海鲜,辣菜还是什么别的?13)Would you like something to drink?13)你想喝点什么?II.DialoguesII.对话1)A:I would like to change some money.Where should I go?A:我想换点钱,到哪换呢?B:You can go to the BOC/IC/A/C.B:可以去中行/工商行/农行/建行.2)A:I want to have a haircut./I want to get my hair done.2)A:我想理理发./我想做做头发.B:I know a very good barbershop,I will take you there.B:我知道一家理发店很好,我带你去吧.3)A:You are not looking well today.3)A:今天你气色不大好.B:Oh,I have a very bad headache.B:唉,头痛得厉害.A:Sorry to hear that.Do you need a doctor.A:真糟糕,要不要看大夫?B:No,thanks.I have taken some medicine.B:谢谢,不用了.我已经吃过药了.4)A:Excuse me.How can I send some postcards back home?4)A:请问我怎么给家里寄几张明信片?B:There#39;s a post office south of the Bank of China.B:中国南边有个邮局A:And where can I make an international long-distance call?A:在哪能打国际长途电话B:The post office provides that service too.B:邮局里也提供这项务A:How about sending an e-mail?A:那要发电子邮件呢?B:There#39;s a lot of internet bars and computer rooms on the street.B:街上有很多网吧和电脑房.5)A:What do you fancy for lunch?5)A:午饭你想吃什么?B:Chinese food,I guess.B:还是中餐吧.A:Do you like seafood,hot food or something else?A:吃海鲜,辣菜还是什么别的?B:Just take some food like what we have at home.B:来点家常菜吧.A:They have dumplings,noodles,and rice here Which do you like?A:这儿有饺子,面条和米饭,你要哪个?B:Dumplings,please.B:饺子吧.A:Something to drink?A:喝点什么?B:Tea will be fine.B:茶就行了 /200606/7730

Six-year-old Iris, who has autism, finds comfort with her feline best friend, two-year-old Thula. The cat stays by her side all the time—during playtime, ing books, and painting. Iris is an incredible artist who expresses herself through her artwork.六岁的 Iris,一位有自闭症的小女孩,因为猫咪好友的陪伴找到慰藉,它是两岁大的 Thula。这只猫咪一直陪在她身旁——玩耍、看书和绘画时。Iris 是个透过作品表达自我的出色艺术家。Iris#39;s mom, Arabella, says that her daughter#39;s severity of autism caused difficulty in everyday tasks. She often dislikes many textures, including water, which made bathing difficult. After Thula joined the family, she began speaking and even joined Iris in the tub.Iris 的妈妈 Arabella 表示,女儿自闭症的严重程度让每天要做的事都有困难。她常不喜欢很多东西的触感,包括水在内,那让洗澡变得麻烦。Thula 加入家庭后,Iris 开始说话,而 Thula 甚至和 Iris 一起进浴缸洗澡。Iris has become famous for her artwork, which has even been purchased by Angelina Jolie. Iris#39;s mom has penned a book about her daughter#39;s relationship with Thula. This little girl#39;s life has been transformed thanks to the cat, and together their relationship will continue to flourish.Iris 因为她的画作变得有名,她的画甚至被安洁莉娜裘莉买下。Iris 的妈妈写了一本关于女儿和 Thula 间关系的书。多亏这只猫咪,小女孩的人生被改变了,在一起,他们的友谊将持续茁壮。Be sure to watch Inside Edition.务必收看《Inside Edition》。 Article/201606/449586

【新闻精讲】As sugar shifted from being a “precious product” in the 11th century to a cheap staple in the 19th century, the food industry proceeded to binge on it, with unheeded consequences. The biggest consumers today are Chilean (see chart). The Dutch, Hungarians, Belgians and Israelis are not far behind. Saudi Arabians also have a sweet tooth. In only ten countries do people eat fewer than 25 grams of sugar a day.Sugar lurks in peanut butter, sauces, ketchup, salad dressings, bs and more. Breakfast cereal, originally a wholegrain health food, evolved into “breakfast candy”—sugar-coated flakes and puffs hawked to children by cartoon pitchmen like Tony the Tiger and Sugar Bear. A 340ml (12-ounce) fizzy drink contains about ten teaspoons of sugar. Even cigarettes are laced with it. Bathing tobacco leaves in a sugar solution produces less irritating smoke; it is easier and more pleasant to inhale.【精讲文本】As sugar shifted from being a “precious product” in the 11th century to a cheap staple in the 19th century, the food industry proceeded to binge on it, with unheeded consequences. The biggest consumers today are Chilean (see chart). The Dutch, Hungarians, Belgians and Israelis are not far behind. Saudi Arabians also have a sweet tooth. In only ten countries do people eat fewer than 25 grams of sugar a day.糖在11世纪是“珍贵的产物”,到19世纪则转变为廉价的基本原料。随着这一变化的发生,食品工业开始不计后果地大肆用糖。今天,摄入糖分最多的是智利人(见图),荷兰人、匈牙利人、比利时人和以色列人紧随其后,沙特阿拉伯人也很嗜甜。只有十个国家的人均日摄糖量低于25克。shift v.转变precious adj.珍贵的staple n.原材料 (raw material)proceed v.开始进行binge v.放纵 (do too much in a short period of time)- go on a binge- We should educate the kids about the dangers of bingeing.unheeded adj.被疏忽的- heed v.留意consequence n.后果- The lightest error can have serious consequences.sweet tooth 对甜食的喜爱gram n.克Sugar lurks in peanut butter, sauces, ketchup, salad dressings, bs and more. Breakfast cereal, originally a wholegrain health food, evolved into “breakfast candy”—sugar-coated flakes and puffs hawked to children by cartoon pitchmen like Tony the Tiger and Sugar Bear.糖还潜藏在花生酱、调味汁、番茄酱、沙拉酱、面包等食品中。早餐谷物原本是一种健康的全麦食品,如今却演变成“早餐糖果”(包了糖衣的麦片和酥球),由托尼虎和糖糖熊之类的卡通“推销员”兜售给孩子们。lurk v.潜伏- She could tell there was someone out there lurking in the shadows.peanut butter 花生酱sauce 调味汁ketchup 番茄酱salad dressing 沙拉酱cereal 谷物wholgrain adj.全麦的flake n.片puff n.酥求hawk v.兜售 (sell)- hawking newspaperspitchmen n.代言人 (someone persuades people to buy)- A former star now works as a pitchman on TV.A 340ml (12-ounce) fizzy drink contains about ten teaspoons of sugar. Even cigarettes are laced with it. Bathing tobacco leaves in a sugar solution produces less irritating smoke; it is easier and more pleasant to inhale.一瓶340毫升(12盎司)的碳酸饮料中约含有十茶匙的糖。就连香烟里都掺了糖。在糖液中浸泡烟叶可令其减少刺激性烟气,让烟更易吸入且吸入时更舒。fizzy adj.泡腾的- fizz v.- Soda pop is fizzing in the glass.lace v.掺着 (add something to...)- a sauce laced with garlic.bath v.浸泡solution n.溶液irritating adj.刺激性的- irritate v.刺激- The product irritates the skin.inhale v.吸入 (breathe in)- She inhaled the fresh country air. Article/201704/504123When you have 21 minutes to speak two million years seems like a really long time与21分钟的演讲相比200万年看起来很长But evolutionarily, two million years is nothing但在进化长河中 200万年也不算什么And yet in two years the human brain has nearly tripled in mass.但是在两百万年里人类的大脑的重量已经增加了近三倍going from the one-and-a-quarter pound brain of our ancestor here,从我们远祖的能人1.25磅重的大脑Habilis to the almost three-pound meatloaf that everybody here has between their ears.到现在的 在座各位都拥有的近3磅重的大脑What is it about a big brain that nature was so eager for every one of us to have one?较重的大脑究竟有什么作用 以致于大自然很迫切地要赋予我们这样的特质呢Well, it turns out when brains triple in size,是 当人类大脑变大了三倍的时候they don#39;t just get three times bigger; they gain new structures它们在体积上增大三倍的同时 也获得了新的组织结构And one of the main reasons our brain got so big is because it got a new part, called the ;frontal lobe;.我们大脑变得如此之大的最主要的原因之一是它有一个叫“额叶”的新结构Particularly, a part called the ;prefrontal cortex;.尤其是“前额叶皮层”这部分What does a prefrontal cortex do for you that should justify the entire architectural overhaul of the human skull in the blink of evolutionary time?前额叶皮层有什么样的作用才能明在进化过程中的短时间内对人类头骨的整个架构大修是必要的呢While it turns out the pre-frontal cortex does lots of things,结果表明前额叶皮层有许多功能but one of the most important things it does It#39;s an experience simulator但它最重要的功能之一是一个体验模拟器You know…Pilots practice in flight simulators so that they don#39;t make real mistakes in planes.飞行员会在模拟飞行器上练习以便他们实际操控飞机时不会出事Human beings have this marvellous adaptation that they can actually have experiences in their heads before they try them out in real life.我们人类就具有这种非凡的适应性在实际尝试之前 我们可以在脑海里对它们有些体验This is a trick that none of our ancestors could do,这是我们的祖先做不到的and that no other animal can do quite like we can.并且其它的动物也做不到It#39;s a marvelous adaptation.这是一次神奇的进化It#39;s up there with opposable thumbs and standing upright如今我们有对生拇指 能背脊挺直and language as one of the things that got our species out of trees and into the shopping mall. Now还有作为重要特征之一的语言 它让我们人类这个物种走出森林进入了大商场All of you have done this.你们都经历过I mean…you know…Ben and Jerry#39;s doesn#39;t have liver-and-onion ice cream,Ben and Jerry#39;s美国冰淇淋品牌也没有洋葱搭肝脏口味的冰淇淋and it#39;s not because they whipped some up, tried it and went, ;Yuck.;这并不是因为他们做了一些这种口味的冰淇淋 尝试过后才感觉恶心It#39;s because, without leaving your armchair,那是因为 你根本不用离开你的座椅you can simulate that flavor and say ;yuck; before you make it.在你做之前就可以想像出那恶心的味道Let#39;s see how your experience simulators are working.我们来看看经验模拟器如何运作的Let#39;s just run a quick diagnostic before I proceed with the rest of the talk.在我说出其余的话之前让我们做一个快速诊断Here#39;s two different futures that I invite you to contemplate.这里有两个截然不同的未来请你来仔细考虑一下You can try to simulate them and tell me which one you think you might prefer.你可以试图模拟 并且告诉我你认为你会更喜欢哪个One of them is winning the lottery. This is about 314 million dollars.其中一个是中了乐透票 大概3.14亿美元And the other is becoming paraplegic.另外一个是变成瘫痪Just give it a moment of thought.只用一会儿时间来考虑一下You probably don#39;t feel like you need a moment of thought.你可能觉着都不需要任何思考的时间Interestingly, there are data on these two groups of people, data on how happy they are.有意思的是 这里有关于两个群体的一些数据这些数据是关于他们有多快乐的And this is exactly what you expected, isn#39;t it?这正是你预料到的 不是吗?But these aren#39;t the data. I made these up! These are the data.但这不是那些数据 是我编造的这些才是真正的数据You failed the pop quiz in your hardly five minutes into the lecture.你的课刚开始不到五分钟你就挂掉了突击测验Because the fact is that a year after losing the use of their legs,因为事实上 在瘫痪一年后and a year after winning the lotto, lottery winners and paraplegics are equally happy with their lives.和在中票一年后 的人和瘫痪的人对他们生活的快乐程度是相同的Don#39;t feel too bad about failing the first pop quiz,别因为第一次突击测验没过而感到沮丧because everybody fails all of the pop quizzes all of the time.因为每个人都会挂掉所有的突击测验The research that my laboratory has been doing,我的实验室一直在做的研究that economists and psychologists around the country have been doing,是国内的经济学家和心理学家一直在做的has revealed something really quite startling to us, something we call the ;impact bias,;它揭示了一些真正令我们感到惊讶的事我们称之为“不公平影响”which is the tendency for the simulator to work badly.这就是模拟器有工作不正常的倾向性For the simulator to make you believe that different outcomes are more different than in fact they really are.因为模拟器会让你相信不同的结果比实际存在的不同更不一样From field studies to laboratory studies,从实地研究到实验研究we see that winning or losing an election, gaining or losing a romantic partner,我们可以看到赢得一次选举或者落选 得到和失去一个爱情伴侣getting or not getting a promotion, passing or not passing a college test,on and on,一次晋级机会的得失 一次大学考试通过与不通过等等have far less impact, less intensity and much less duration than people expect them to have.这些事情对我们造成的影响远远比我们所期待的那样要小 而且这种影响的持续时间要短In fact, a recent study, this almost floors me其实 最近有个研究研究的结果几乎让我惊呆了a recent study showing how major life traumas affect people最近的一项关于严重的生活创伤如何影响人们的研究suggests that if it happened over three months ago, with only a few exceptions,表明 如果该事件发生了3个月之后除了少数例外情况it has no impact whatsoever on your happiness. Why?它对你的快乐感并没有任何影响 为什么呢Because happiness can be synthesized.因为快乐可以被人为制造出来Sir Thomas Browne wrote in 1642, ;I am the happiest man alive.托马斯 布朗爵士在1642年写下 “我是人世间最快乐的人I have that in me that can convert poverty to riches, adversity to prosperity.我拥有化腐朽为神奇的能力I am more invulnerable than Achilles; fortune hath not one place to hit me.;我无懈可击 比阿基里斯更无敌”What kind of remarkable machinery does this guy have in his head?他的大脑里得拥有何等卓越的机制呀Well, it turns out it#39;s precisely the same remarkable machinery that all of us have.但结果表明我们每个人都是一样的 都拥有这样的机制Human beings have something that we might think of as a ;psychological immune system.;人类具有某种我们可以把它视为“心理免疫系统”的东西A system of cognitive processes, largely non-conscious cognitive processes,一个认知过程的系统 主要是无意识认知过程that help them change their views of the world,这种认知过程可以帮助人们改变对世界的看法so that they can feel better about the worlds in which they find themselves.以致于人们对这个他们能找到自我的世界感觉更好Like Sir Thomas, you have this machine.如同托马斯爵士一样 你也拥有这种能力Unlike Sir Thomas, you seem not to know it.不同之处在于 你好像没有认识到这点We synthesize happiness, but we think happiness is a thing to be found.我们创造快乐 但却认为快乐是需要苦苦追寻的Now, you don#39;t need me to give you too many examples of people synthesizing happiness, I suspect.现在 我估计你不需要我再给你更多关于创造快乐的人们的例子Though I#39;m going to show you some experimental evidence, you don#39;t have to look very far for evidence.不过我还是要给你看一些实验据你就不用费力寻求据了I as challenge to myself, since I say this once in a while in lectures,我 作为对自己的挑战 因为我会时不时地在我的课堂上讲这件事I took a copy of the New York Times我拿了一份纽约时报and tried to find some instances of people synthesizing happiness.并且试图找一些人们自己制造快乐的例子Here are three guys synthesizing happiness.这里有3个人的例子;I#39;m so much better off physically, financially,emotionally, mentally and almost every other way.我现在在心理上 经济上 感情上和精神上都比以前各方面好多了;I don#39;t have one minute#39;s regret. It was a glorious experience.;我一点都不后悔 那是一个辉煌的经历”;I believe it turned out for the best.;我相信它当时是最好的结果了”Who are these characters who are so damn happy?这都是些什么人物?谁特么会这么快乐?Well, the first one is Jim Wright.第一位是吉姆 莱特Some of you are old enough to remember:你们之中一些年纪大的人会记得he was the chairman of the House of Representatives and he resigned in disgrace他曾是众议院主席并且他在耻辱中辞了职when this young Republican named Newt Gingrich found out about a shady book deal he had done.就在这位名叫 Newt Gingrich的青年共和党人发现了他进行的一桩黑幕交易事件之后He lost everything.他失去了一切The most powerful Democrat in the country lost everything.这位当时最有权势的民主党成员失去了一切He lost his money, he lost his power.他失去了他的金钱和权力What does he have to say all these years later about it?过了这么多年之后 他说了什么呢;I am so much better off physically, financially, mentally and in almost every other way.;我现在在心理上 经济上 感情上以及其他一切方面都比以前好多了”What other way would there be to be better off?其他方面还能有什么能更好呢?Vegetably? Minerally? Animally?植物上 矿物上 动物上He#39;s pretty much covered them there.他基本上都已经包括了Moreese Bickham is somebody you#39;ve never heard of.莫里斯·比可汉是位你从来没听说过的人Moreese Bickham uttered these words upon being released.他在出狱后说了这样的话He was 78 years old.他那时七十八岁了He#39;d spent 37 years in a Louisiana State Penitentiary for a crime he didn#39;t commit.他因为一次误判在路易斯安那监狱度过了37年He was ultimately exonerated at the age of 78 through DNA evidence.通过DNA鉴定他最终被认定无罪and what did he have to say about his experience?关于这段经历 他说了些什么呢;I don#39;t have one minute#39;s regret. It was a glorious experience.; Glorious!;我一分钟的后悔都没有过 那是段荣耀的经历;This guy is not saying, ;Well, there were some nice guys. They had a gym.这并不是说“监狱里的人都挺好的 那还有一个健身房”Glorious, a word we usually reserve for something like a religious experience.荣耀一词 我们通常用来形容与宗教相关的经历Harry S. Langerman uttered these words, and he#39;s somebody you might have known哈里·朗格曼吐露了这些话 他本应是你可能知道的人but didn#39;t, because in 1949 he a little article in the paper但你并不知道 因为在1949年他在报纸上看到了一篇about a hamburger stand owned by two brothers named McDonalds.关于一家汉堡摊的拥有者麦当劳兄弟的文章And he thought, ;That#39;s a really neat idea!;然后他想 这真是个好主意So he went to find them. They said,所以他就去找了麦当劳兄弟 他们说;We can give you a franchise on this for 3,000 bucks.;“我们可以以3000美元的价格把连锁经营权卖给你”Harry went back to New York, asked his brother, an investment banker,他返回纽约向他做投资的兄弟借3000美元to loan him the ,000, and his brother#39;s immortal words were,但他的兄弟的神回复是;You idiot, nobody eats hamburgers.;“你个白痴 没人吃汉堡”He wouldn#39;t lend him the money,他的兄弟没有借给他钱and of course, six months later Ray Kroc had exactly the same idea.当然 六个月后 瑞·克罗克也有了同样的想法It turns out people do eat hamburgers,结果是人们喜欢吃汉堡and Ray Kroc, for a while, became the richest man in America.而且 克罗克就成为当时的美国的首富Oh, and then, finally, you know, the best of all past of the world some of you recognize this young photo of Pete Best,最后 你们中的一些人能认出这是 Pete Best的年轻时的照片who was the original drummer for the Beatles,他是甲壳虫乐队最开始的鼓手until they, you know, sent him out on an errand and snuck away and picked up Ringo on a tour.然后你知道的 他们开贝斯特 自己溜走并且在一次巡演时选了林格加入Well, in 1994, when Pete Best was interviewed yes, he#39;s still a drummer; yes, he#39;s a studio musician他仍然是一名鼓手 还是一名做录音的音乐人he had this to say, ;I#39;m happier than I would have been with the Beatles.;关于这事 他说 如果留在甲壳虫乐队 我不会这么快乐Okay. There#39;s something important to be learned from these people,and it is the secret of happiness.好 我们要从这些人身上学到的重要的东西是快乐的秘密Here it is, finally to be revealed.在这 这个秘密终于要被揭开了First: accrue wealth, power, and prestige, then lose it.首先 积累财富 权力和声望 然后全都失去它们Second: spend as much of your life in prison as you possibly can.其次 尽可能地在监狱里度过你的人生Third: make somebody else really, really rich.第三 让别人成为巨富And finally: never ever join the Beatles. Okay, now最后 永远别加入甲壳虫乐队 好的,现在I, like Z. Frank can predict your next thought which is ;Yeah, right.;我像Z Frank一样能预料到你接下来的想法那就是“是的 太对了;Because when people synthesize happiness,因为当人们制造快乐的时候as these gentlemen seem to have done,就像这几位先生们做的一样we all smile at them, but we kind of roll our eyes and say,我们都会冲他们微笑着 但又翻楞着眼睛说;Yeah right, you never really wanted the job.;;嗯! 对! 你本来也没真心想要那份工作”;Oh yeah, right. You really didn#39;t have that much in common with her,“噢 对呀!你本来就和她没什么共同点and you figured that out just about the time;当你刚刚明白这事的时候;she threw the engagement ring in your face.;;她就把婚戒扔在你脸上了;We smirk because we believe that synthetic happiness我们冷笑是因为我们认为人工制造的快乐is not of the same quality as what we might call ;natural happiness.;比不上自然的快乐What are these terms?这两者的概念是什么Natural happiness is what we get when we get what we wanted,自然的快乐是当我们得到我们想要的东西的时候所获得的快乐and synthetic happiness is what we make when we don#39;t get what we wanted.刻意制造的快乐的情况正好与之相反And in our society, we have a strong belief that synthetic happiness is of an inferior kind.在我们的社会中我们都坚信刻意制造的快乐更加劣质Why do we have that belief?为什么我们会这样认为呢Well, it#39;s very simple.很简单What kind of economic engine would keep churning if we believed that not getting what we want could make us just as happy as getting it?虽然得不到自己想要的东西 但我们仍然可以让自己就像得到了它那样快乐如果我们相信这点要怎样的经济引擎才会持续运转呢With all apologies to my friend Matthieu Ricard,先向我的朋友马修 李卡德 抱歉A shopping mall full of Zen monks一个挤满了和尚的购物商场is not going to be particularly profitable,是赚不了多少钱的because they don#39;t want stuff enough.因为和尚想要的东西不多I want to suggest to you that synthetic happiness我想向你表明的是 人为制造的快乐是is every bit as real and enduring真实和持久as the kind of happiness you stumble upon就像自然碰到的快乐一样when you get exactly what you were aiming for.和你达到你想要的目的时产生的快乐一样I#39;m a scientist, so I#39;m going to do this not with rhetoric,我是个科学家 所以我不会用华而不实的言辞去说你but by marinating you in a little bit of data.只是让你浸泡在一小点数据里腌一腌而已Let me first show you an experimental paradigm that is used首先让我来告诉你一个实验范例 它是用来to demonstrate the synthesis of happiness among regular old folks.展示 在普通老年人中的人为制造的快乐And this isn#39;t mine.这不是关于我的It#39;s a 50-year-old paradigm called the ;free choice paradigm.;是一位50岁老人的例子 叫做“自由选择范例”It#39;s very simple.非常简单You bring in, say, six objects,你带来六样东西and you ask a subject to rank them from the most to the least liked.然后你要求一个来参加试验的人 从最喜欢到最不喜欢排列它们In this case, because this experiment will tell you about uses them,在这种情况下 因为这个实验会告诉你它们的使用these are Monet prints.这些印刷品是莫奈的画So, everybody can rank these Monet prints每个人都可以对这些作品进行排序from the one they like the most, to the one they like the least.从最喜欢的 到最不喜欢的Now we give you a choice:现在 我们给你一个选择;We happen to have some extra prints in the closet.我们刚好还有有六幅在柜子里We#39;re going to give you one as your prize to take home.我们会送给你一张带回家作为奖励We happen to have number three and number four,; we tell the subject.我们刚好有第三幅和第四幅” 我们告诉被实验者This is a bit of a difficult choice,这是一个有点难的选择because neither one is preferred strongly to the other,因为哪个都没有比另外的好多少but naturally, people tend to pick number three但很自然地 人们都会去选第三幅because they liked it a little better than number four.因为他们认为三号要比四号好一点Sometime later -- it could be 15 minutes; it could be 15 days --过了一会儿 也许是15分钟 也许是15天之后the same stimuli are put before the subject,同样的实验刺激品即莫奈的印刷品摆在被试验者面前and the subject is asked to rerank the stimuli.被试验者需要重新排列喜恶顺序;Tell us how much you like them now.;“告诉我们你现在有多喜欢它们”What happens?发生什么了呢?Watch as happiness is synthesized.看看人为制造快乐是怎样的This is the result that has been replicated over and over again.这就是一遍遍被复制出的结果You#39;re watching happiness be synthesized.你正在看的就是制造出来的快乐Would you like to see it again?你还想再看一次吗Happiness!这就是快乐;The one I got is really better than I thought“我得到的比我想的好多了That other one I didn#39;t get sucks!;我没选的那幅差远了”That#39;s the synthesis of happiness.这就是人为制造的快乐Now, what#39;s the right response to that? ;Yeah, right!;那么现在 什么是对此正确的回应呢?“是啊 太对了!;Now, here#39;s the experiment we did, and I hope this is going to convince you that ;Yeah, right!; was not the right response.现在我们做一个实验 我希望它能让你相信 “是呀 太对了”这样的反应是错误的We did this experiment with a group of patients who had anterograde amnesia.我们这次的实验对象是一群患有顺序性遗忘症的病人These are hospitalised patients这些都住院Most of them have Korsakoff#39;s syndrome,他们大多数患有严重记忆障碍的酒精导致的遗忘综合症a polyneuritic psychosis that they drank way too much, and they can#39;t make new memories.一个多发性神经炎症的精神病 他们因长时间饮酒过量 所以不能留下新的记忆OK? They remember their childhood, but if you walk in and introduce yourself, and then leave the room,他们记得他们的童年 但如果你走房间介绍你自己然后离开when you come back, they don#39;t know who you are.当你回来的时候 他们就不知道你是谁了We took our Monet prints to the hospital.我们带着莫奈的印刷品到医院And we asked these patients to rank them from the one they liked the most to the one they liked the least.然后我们让这些病人按照从喜欢到不喜欢跟它们排序We then gave them the choice between number three and number four.然后我们让他们从第三幅和第四幅画中选择一幅Like everybody else, they said, ;Gee, thanks Doc! That#39;s great! I could use a new print. I#39;ll take number three.;和其他人一样,他们说 “多谢了 医生 那太棒了 我正想要一副新画 我选三号”We explained we would have number three mailed to them.我们解释说会把第三号寄给他们We gathered up our materials and we went out of the room, and counted to a half hour.就收拾起东西离开了房间 在屋外等了半个小时后Back into the room, we say, ;Hi, we#39;re back.;回到房间里 说 “你们好 我们回来了”The patients, bless them, say, ;Ah, Doc, I#39;m sorry,上帝保佑这些病人 一位病人说 “哦 医生 对不起I#39;ve got a memory problem; that#39;s why I#39;m here.我的记忆不好 这是为什么我在这治疗If I#39;ve met you before, I don#39;t remember.;我是不是以前见过你 我记不起来了”;Really, you don#39;t remember? I was just here with the Monet prints?;“真的吗?你不记得我了?我刚刚在这里带着莫奈的画?;;Sorry, Doc, I just don#39;t have a clue.;;对不起 医生 我真没有印象了”;No problem, Jim. All I want you to do is rank these for me from the one you like the most to the one you like the least.;“没关系 吉米 我要你做的就是将这些作品按照你的喜爱程度从好到坏排个序”What do they do?他们做什么呢Well, let#39;s first check and make sure they#39;re really amnesiac.让我们检查一下确认他们是不是真的有遗忘症We ask these amnesiac patients to tell us which one they own,我们让这些遗忘症患者告诉我们他们选完的那张是哪一张which one they chose last time, which one is theirs.哪一张是他们刚刚选的 哪张是他们的And what we find is amnesiac patients just guess.我们发现遗忘症患者只是去猜测These are normal controls, where if I did this with you,这些是正常的控制 如果给你们做这个实验all of you would know which print you chose.你们所有人都会知道你们选过那一张But if I do this with amnesiac patients, they don#39;t have a clue.但如果是遗忘症患者 他们就完全不知道了They can#39;t pick their print out of a lineup.他们从列出的画中挑不出自己选过的Here#39;s what normal controls do: they synthesize happiness.这是正常控制所做的 他们制造快乐Right? This is the change in liking score,对吗? 这是喜好得分的变化the change from the first time they ranked to the second time they ranked.是从第一次喜好的排序 到第二次排序的变化Normal controls show -- that was the magic I showed you;正常控制显示 我给你展示的是个魔术now I#39;m showing it to you in graphical form --现在我要以图示的方式给你看;The one I own is better than I thought.“我拥有的这幅比我想过的要好多了The one I didn#39;t own, the one I left behind, is not as good as I thought.;那个没有得到的 没拿走的并不是我以为的那么好”Amnesiacs do exactly the same thing. Think about this result.健忘症患者会做一摸一样的选择 想想这个实验结果These people like better the one they own, but they don#39;t know they own it.这些人更喜欢它们所拥有的那幅但他们却不知道他们已经拥有它了;Yeah, right; is not the right response!“是啊 太对了”并不是正确的回应What these people did when they synthesized happiness is they really, truly changed their affective, hedonic, aesthetic reactions to that poster.当这些人制造快乐的时候 他们所做的就是他们真正地改变了对那幅画的情感 享受以及审美上的反应They#39;re not just saying it because they own it, because they don#39;t know they own it.他们不是因为拥有了才那么说毕竟他们不知道他们拥有它When psychologists show you bars, you know that they are showing you averages of lots of people.当心理学家向你展示统计图表时你知道他们展示给你的是大多数人通常的行为And yet, all of us have this psychological immune system, this capacity to synthesize happiness,但我们所有人都有这样的神经免疫系统这种制造快乐的能力but some of us do this trick better than others.只不过我们中的有些人更擅长做这种把戏And some situations allow anybody to do it more effectively than other situations do.而且在某些情况下会比在其他情况下让任何人做得更有效It turns out that freedom, the ability to make up your mind and change your mind,is the friend of natural happiness,事实表明 这种自由也就是打定主意和改变主意的能力because it allows you to choose among all those delicious futures它是自然快乐的朋友 因为它允许你在所有那些具有诱惑力的未来中去选择and find the one that you would most enjoy.并且找到你最享受的那一个But freedom to choose, to change and make up your mind, is the enemy of synthetic happiness.但自由选择去改变或打定主意却是人制造快乐的敌人And I#39;m going to show you why.接下来我要告诉你为什么Dilbert aly knows, of course.Dilbert 当然已经知道了you#39;re ing the cartoons as I#39;m talking我在说话的时候你在看这本卡通;Dogbert#39;s tech support. How may I abuse you?;;您好 这里是道格伯特技术持 您需要怎样的虐待;My printer prints a blank page after every document.;;我的打印机每次打完文件都会出一张白纸”;Why would you complain about getting free paper?;;免费得到的纸你有什么好抱怨的?;;Free? Aren#39;t you just giving me my own paper?;;免费的? 你刚刚给我的不就是我自己的纸吗?;;Look at the quality of the free paper compared to your lousy regular paper!;看看这免费纸的质量 和你糟糕的普通纸比比Only a fool or a liar would say that they look the same!;只有傻子或骗子才会说他们看上去一样;;Now that you mention it, it does seem a little silkier!;“听你现在这么一说 它的确看上去更丝滑;;What are you doing?;“你现在在做什么?;;I#39;m helping people accept the things they cannot change.; Indeed.;我正在帮助人们去接受他们不能改变的事情” 的确如此The psychological immune system works best when we are totally stuck, when we are trapped.当我们完全陷入困境的时侯 就是心理免疫系统的作用发挥得最好的时候This is the difference between dating and marriage, right?这就是约会与婚姻的不同之处 对吗?I mean, you go out on a date with a guy, and he picks his nose; you don#39;t go out on another date.我是说 比如你和一个家伙出去约会他用手指挖鼻子 你不会再去和他约会了You#39;re married to a guy and he picks his nose?那如果你嫁给了一个挖鼻孔的家伙呢?You know, he has a heart of gold. Don#39;t touch the fruitcake! Right?你知道 他有颗金子般的心 只是别碰那块他做的水果蛋糕哈! 是这样吗?You find a way to be happy with what#39;s happened.虽然事情发生了 你会找到一种方式让自己开心Now, what I wanna show you is that people don#39;t know this about themselves,现在 我想要告诉你的是人们不知道他们自己这一点and not knowing this can work to our supreme disadvantage.而不知道这点却能解决我们最大的缺点Here#39;s an experiment we did at Harvard.这是一项我们在哈佛大学做的实验We created a black-and-white photography course,我们开设了一门黑白照片摄影课and we allowed students to come in and learn how to use a darkroom.并且我们允许学生们进入到暗室学习怎样使用它So we gave them cameras; they went around campus;我们发给他们相机 他们在校园里到处拍照they took 12 pictures of their favorite professors他们给他们最喜爱的教授拍了12张照片and their dorm room and their dog,还拍了他们的宿舍 他们的and all the other things they wanted to have Harvard memories of.还有其他所有他们认为应留在他们哈佛记忆中的东西They bring us the camera; we make up a contact sheet;他们把相机拿回来 我们做一个联系方式表格they figure out which are the two best pictures;他们选出两张最好的照片and we now spend six hours teaching them about darkrooms.之后我们花六个小时的时间给他们讲关于暗室的知识And they blow two of them up,然后他们选出两张and they have two gorgeous eight-by-10 glossies of meaningful things to them, and we say,他们有了两张8寸x10寸表面处理为光面的照片拍的是对他们来说很有意义的东西 然后我们说;Which one would you like to give up?;;你愿意放弃哪一张呢?;;I have to give one up?;;我必须要放弃一张吗?;;Oh, yes, we need one as evidence of the class project.;是的 当然 我们需要一张作为班级项目的据So you have to give me one. You have to make a choice.你得给我一张 你就不得不做出个选择You get to keep one, and I get to keep one.;你保留一张 我保留一张Now, there are two conditions in this experiment.这时 在这项试验里有两个条件In one case, the students are told,在一种情况下 学生们被告知;But you know, if you want to change your mind,;你知道 如果你改变主意I#39;ll always have the other one here,我这里会一直保留另外一张 直到and in the next four days, before I actually mail it to headquarters;四天以后 我就要把它寄到总部了”I#39;d be glad to...Yeah, ;headquarters;我会很高兴地.....是的 “总部”;I#39;ll be glad to swap it out with you.“我会很高兴地帮你把它换过来In fact, I#39;ll come to your dorm room to give, just give me an email.其实我也可以把它送到你的宿舍门口 给我你的邮箱地址就行了Better yet, I#39;ll check with you.最好是 我到时会再向你确认一下You ever want to change your mind, it#39;s totally returnable.;看你是不是想改主意 它完全是可以退还的;The other half of the students are told exactly the opposite:但另外一半的学生被告知的内容却是完全相反;Make your choice, and by the way, the mail is going out, gosh, in two minutes, to England.“做出你的选择 顺便说一下邮件两分钟后就发去英格兰了Your picture will be winging its way over the Atlantic.你拍的照片会飞越大西洋You will never see it again.;你就永远都见不到它了;Now, half of the students in each of these conditions are asked to make predictions about现在 每一组条件下的一半学生被要求作出预测how much they#39;re going to come to like the picture that they keep and the picture they leave behind.预测他们会多喜欢保留的照片和挑剩下的照片Other students are just sent back to their little dorm rooms其他学生只是被送回他们的小宿舍and they are measured over the next three to six days on their liking, satisfaction with the pictures.他们根据自己的喜好在接下来的3-6天內衡量对照片的喜欢及满意的成度And look at what we find.看看我们发现了什么First of all, here#39;s what students think is going to happen.首先 学生们认为要发生的事情是They think they#39;re gonna maybe come to like the picture they chose a little more than the one they left behind,他们觉得自己可能会喜欢他们已选择的照片比他们挑剩的那张更多些but these are not statistically significant differences但在统计方面没有什么显著的区别It#39;s really a very small increase, and it doesn#39;t much matter真的只是一个非常小的增加whether they were in the reversible or irreversible condition.无论他们处于可逆转或不可逆转状态 这都并不重要Wrong-o. Bad simulators. Because here#39;s what#39;s really happening.选错了也好 糟糕的模拟器也好 这才是真正发生的事情Both right before the swap and five days later,可交换时和五天后people who are stuck with that picture,那些只能选择那张照片who have no choice,没有其他选择who can never change their mind, like it a lot!也不会改变主意的人十分喜欢那张照片And people who are deliberating -- ;Should I return it?那些正在仔细考虑;我是不是应该用它把另一张换回来”Have I gotten the right one? Maybe this isn#39;t the good one?“我选出的对不对?; ;可能这张并不好”Maybe I left the good one?; -- have killed themselves.;我可能没拿好的那张”的那些人为考虑这些问题把自己折磨死了They don#39;t like their picture,他们不喜欢自己挑出的照片and in fact even after the opportunity to swap has expired,而且实际上甚至是过了可交换的最后期限之后they still don#39;t like their picture.他们还是不喜欢他们的照片Why? Because the irreversible condition is not conducive to the synthesis of happiness.为什么呢 因为不可逆转的条件是不利于人为制造快乐的So here#39;s the final piece of this experiment.那么这就是这试验的最后一部分We bring in a whole new group of naive Harvard students我们带来了全新的一组没经验的哈佛学生and we say, ;You know, we#39;re doing a photography course,我们说 “你知道 我们正在开一门摄影课and we can do it one of two ways.我们可以两种方式选其一We could do it so that when you take the two pictures,我们可以这样做 那就是当你拍摄这两张照片时you#39;d have four days to change your mind,你会有四天的时间去考虑是否改变主意or we#39;re doing another course where you take the two pictures或者我们开另外一个课程 你可以在拍那两张照片时and you make up your mind right away and you can never change it.就做决定 而且你不能改变这个决定Which course would you like to be in?; Duh!你会选择上哪一门课呢?; 还用说吗!prefer to be in the course where they have the opportunity to change their mind.喜欢选择有机会改变主意的课程Hello? 66 percent of the students choose to be in the course也就是66%的学生会选择in which they will ultimately be deeply dissatisfied with the picture.最终会让你有那张非常不满意的照片的课程Because they do not know the conditions under which synthetic happiness grows.因为他们不知道制造快乐形成的条件The Bard said everything best, of course, and he#39;s making my point here莎翁说的一切当然都是最好的 他在这句话里也说出了我的观点but he#39;s making it hyperbolically:但他的观点是有些夸张的;#39;Tis nothing good or bad / But thinking makes it so.;;世上之事本无好坏之分 只是想法决定了其好坏而已;It#39;s nice poetry, but that can#39;t exactly be right.这是首好诗 但却不是绝对正确的Is there really nothing good or bad?世上的事物真的没有好坏之分吗?Is it really the case that gallbladder surgery and a trip to Paris are just the same thing?胆囊炎手术和一次去巴黎的旅行真的是一回事吗?That seems like a one-question IQ test.这似乎是个只有一题的智商测试They can#39;t be exactly the same.它们不可能一样In more turgid prose, but closer to the truth, was the father of modern capitalism, Adam Smith, and he said this.在更多的散文作品里 更接近事实的是现代资本主义理论之父 亚当·史密斯 说过This is worth contemplating:值得好好考虑他的话:;The great source of both the misery and disorders of human life seems to arise from overrating the difference between one permanent situation and another人生痛苦的最大根源似乎都来源于我们过分夸大了一种长久的情形和另外一种的差距Some of these situations may, no doubt, deserve to be preferred to others,这些情况中的一些 毫无疑问 可能被部分人所喜好but none of them can deserve to be pursued但没有任何情况值得with that passionate ardor which drives us to violate the rules我们被与狂热驱使而违反规则地去追求either of prudence or of justice,无论是谨慎的还是正义的or to corrupt the future tranquility of our minds,又或是对我们思想的未来安宁的破坏either by shame from the remembrance of our own folly,无论是因为我们自己愚昧的记忆而感到耻辱or by remorse for the horror of our own injustice.;还是因为我们自己不公正的恐惧而产生的悔恨In other words: yes, some things are better than others.换句话说 是的 有些事情比其他的事情更好We should have preferences that lead us into one future over another.我们应该要有那些 能够把我们带入到一个超越了另一个未来的偏好But when those preferences drive us too hard and too fast但因为我们过分高估了两个未来之间的不同because we have overrated the difference between these futures, we are at risk.而让这些偏好极力地过快地驱驶我们 我们就会有风险When our ambition is bounded, it leads us to work joyfully.当我们的野心被限定的时候 它会使我们愉快地工作When our ambition is unbounded,it leads us to lie, to cheat, to steal, to hurt others,to sacrifice things of real value.当我们的野心无限膨胀的时候 它会诱使我们去撒谎 欺骗 盗窃 和伤害他人 甚至会使我们失去那些真正有价值的东西When our fears are bounded, we#39;re prudent, we#39;re cautious, we#39;re thoughtful.当我们的恐惧是有限的的时候我们是审慎的 小心的我们是考虑周到的When our fears are unbounded and overblown, we#39;re reckless, and we#39;re cowardly.当我们的恐惧是无底限而且过分夸大的我们是鲁莽的 懦弱的The lesson I want to leave you with,我想留给你思考的课题就是from these data, is that our longings and our worries are both to some degree overblown,从这些数据我们可以看出 我们的期望和担心都在某种程度上被夸大了because we have within us the capacity to manufacture the very commodity因为我们自身有制造这种有价值的事物的能力we#39;re constantly chasing when we choose experience. Thank you.这是在我们选择经验时不断追寻的 谢谢大家! Article/201706/513859So they told me that you know the Gettysburg Address. Yeah.他们说你知道葛底斯堡演说。是的。Could you do it for me? You could?你能说几句吗?可以吗?Let#39;s come to the front.到前面来。Let#39;s stay right here. Let#39;s stand in the middle. And now I want you to do the Gettysburg Address.站在这里,站在中间。现在开始你的葛底斯堡演说。Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation八十七年前,我们的父辈在这块大陆上创建了一个新的国家,conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.这个新的国家在自由中育,信奉人人生而平等的主张。Now we are engaged in a great civil war,现在我们正在从事伟大的国内战争,testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived, so dedicated can long endure.来考验这个国家,或任何在自由中育,信奉人人生而平等的主张的国家,能否长久存在下去。Come here. Show your love for Lucy!过来,为露西而鼓掌!I got a surprise for you.我为你准备了个惊喜。Who would you really like to take a selfie with other than me?除了我以外,你还希望和谁照自拍照?How about that over there?那个怎么样?Let#39;s go. You gonna take a selfie.我们过去。来照个自拍。Turn around right here right quick. We gonna take a selfie with one hand with this camera that your grandmama had.快转过去。一只手拿着你祖母的相机。All right, you y? Taking a selfie.准备好了吗?照个自拍。Now, can you take a picture? Now this is what I want you to do.你能照个相吗?这是我想你干的事情。When I say go, hit that button right there by the green light. Okay. Okay.当我说“照”的时候,你按下绿灯旁边的按钮。好吗,好的。But look up here, though. You looking real close? Watch this.但你要看这里。你看清楚了吗?看这个。Come here, boy. Ooh. Come here.瞧这个,哦。过来。This is Abraham Lincoln.这是林肯。And guess what. He has a surprise for you.你知道吗,他还为你准备了个惊喜。These are Little Big Shot airline tickets. We#39;re gonna send you and your family to see the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. You#39;re going.这是节目组为你准备的飞机票。你将和你的家人前往华盛顿林肯纪念堂。你可以去了。Show your love for Lucy!请大家为露西鼓掌! Article/201706/512805

Man, look at the teeth on that thing.They#39;re almost human.瞧它的牙齿 几乎和人类的一样大But the reason they#39;re so big and strong is this guy feeds on coral,它的牙齿之所以如此发达 是因为它以贝类为食just uses those teeth to munch through it.它用牙齿嚼碎贝类的外壳And then this bit on the top, the trigger.还有背上这块像扳机一样的鱼鳍If it#39;s threatened, that will go up,当遇到危险时 鱼鳍就会高高耸起and it acts as like a barb to stop any bigger fish trying to swallow it.起到了鱼钩的作用 用来吓退所有想吃它的大鱼But, actually, if you haven#39;t got a lot of drinking water,事实上 如果你没有足够的饮用水one of the best things you can eat from a fish,一条鱼身上最该吃的部位is the eyeball. It#39;s got masses of fluid in it.是它的眼珠 里面富含水分Well, there you go. See that? It looks pretty horrible,看到没 看起来非常恶心but really nutritious and lots of good fluids in it.不过营养丰富 而且含有很多水分Difficult to chew on it.It slides from one side of your mouth to the other.嚼起来很费劲 滑溜溜的 在嘴里滚来滚去Like a salty chewy marble.Let#39;s get him gutted.I#39;m saving the meat for later.口感就像是一个难嚼的 咸味弹珠 我要去掉它的内脏 这些鱼肉要留着备用I#39;ll need fire tonight, and this is gonna be a substantial meal.等今晚生起篝火 再把它当做晚餐To survive here, you can#39;t afford to rest for a minute.想要在此生存 你必须珍惜每一分钟The hunt for resources never ends.My water traps are working.寻找食物的路永无止境 我的集水器效果不错Time to grab a drink, then continue the search.现在喝口水 然后继续寻觅之路吧Just north of my beach, the land rises sharply.就在沙滩北边 地势变得异常陡峭 Article/201606/451332There are more than 100 entrepreneurship classes here at Stanford University.斯坦福大学开设了100多门创业相关课程。But in the Hacking for Defense class, students learn how to solve problems facing troops and defense agencies throughout the nation.但是在“黑客防御”课程中,学生们可以学习如何解决美国各部队和国防部门正面临的问题。;They want to work on some of the toughest real world problems they are ever gonna see.“他们想要处理一些他们将会遇到的最棘手的现实世界的问题。With all due respect to Google and Dropbox and Facebook and Twitter,恕我直言,拿谷歌、碉堡箱、脸书以及推特这些知名的硅谷公司来说,which they all have opportunities here in the valley to go work for as graduates here,学生们毕业后都有机会去那里工作,these are some problems that make those look trivial by comparison.;相比那些真正难处理的问题,这些公司的问题显得就微不足道了。”Like these fellow teachers, they launched the 10-week course last year to bring a model for creating start-ups to military defense problems.这些老师去年推出了为期十周的课程,为创办解决军事防务问题的企业树立了榜样。Now the course is offered at 8 other universities.现在,另有8所大学也提供这一课程。Student projects include helping soldiers in the field deal with mapping technology,学生接手的项目包括帮助战地的士兵运用地图绘制技术,creating sensors to help soldiers with injuries and grappling with cyber security.制作传感器帮助受伤士兵,以及应对网络安全问题。;So I#39;m working for USTRANSCOM,“所以我正在为美国运输司令部工作,which manages transportation in the ed States to better improve cyber security and the country#39;s sea ports.;其职能是管理美国全领域的运输,以更好地提高网络安全,为国家海港提供交通持。”Benji Nguyen is a graduate student of public policy, a native of Austin, Texas, Nguyen#39;s parents are from Vietnam.Benji Nguyen是一名公共政策专业的研究生,来自德克萨斯州奥斯汀。Nguyen的父母来自越南。;Yeah, that#39;s my growth actually, I have no impressions there.“是的,这就是我的成长背景。我对那里没有印象。When I#39;m here, you know, start ing textbook and doing as promised.我来到这里的时候,你知道,开始阅读教科书,并遵从自己之前的承诺做一些事情。When I told them I was working with the military to help solve a problem, they were really excited about it actually.;当我告诉他们,我正在和军方合作解决一个问题,他们真的很兴奋。”For U.S. students, the Hacking for Defense class gives them a unique chance to serve their country.对于美国学生来说,“黑客防御”课程给他们提供了独特的机会,来为国家务。They are expected to get out of the classroom and enter the field,他们需要走出教室进行实地体验,learning the day-to-day situations for soldiers or others in national defense.了解士兵或其他国防部门人员的日常情况。But the class#39;s also attracted a surprising number of foreign-born students.但这一课程也吸引了大批外籍学生。;We take the military intelligence problems and we scrub them down, so anybody could work on them.“我们会接手有关军事情报的问题,然后将问题进行彻底分析,所以任何人都可以进行研究并寻找解决方案。But I was surprised by the number of foreign students from Singapore and China, from India但是,让我惊讶的是,许多来自新加坡、中国以及印度的外国学生,who were just interested in learning that same methodology and could take it home from wherever they are.;他们也对学习同样的方法很感兴趣,并且非常希望能将这种方法带回自己的祖国。”Some students go on to create companies or go work for the agency they met in the class.有些学生继续创办公司,也有一些将供职于课程学习中接触过的机构。For some, Buvana Dayanandan they are looking for work that is meaningful.而对于另外一些人,例如Buvana Dayananda,他们想寻找一份有意义的工作。;We#39;re working on helping veterans that have experienced some polytrauma“我们正在帮助那些经历过某种多发性创伤的退伍军人,and figuring out how technology can increase the quality of life and independence for a longer period of time.;也在探索如何利用科技提高生活质量以及更长时间内的独立能力。”The students in this class learn they have to first understand a problem before coming up with the right solution.参加这一课程的学生们明白,他们必须首先真正理解一个问题,然后才能找到正确的解决方案。It is a set of skills they can use in whatever they do next.无论他们今后做什么事情,都可以应用这套技能。Michelle Quinn, VOA News, at Stanford University in California.VOA新闻,米歇尔·奎因于加州斯坦福大学为您播报。 Article/201706/514471In this American English pronunciation , you#39;re going to come with me to my home state of Florida and we#39;re going to do a Ben Franklin exercise where we study conversation.在这个美式英语发音视频里,你会跟我到我的家乡佛罗里达州,我们会做一个本·富兰克林练习,学习对话。Today#39;s topic: discussing plans.今天的话题:讨论计划。Not till two. Right, but we#39;re... And maybe somewhat after that. But we said we#39;d be there at 1:30.不到两点。 是的,但是我们...... 或许会是两点以后。 但我们说过我们会在一点半到那里。Right. I think they want to just chat, and, you know... Yeah. Stuff before. Sure.是的,我觉得他们只是闲聊,然后,你知道的...... 是的。 在那之前。 当然。Will it take, like 15 minutes to get there, or? Oh no. It#39;ll take... Ten? Five. Five.到那里要用15分钟还是? 哦,不。大概要用...... 十分钟? 五分钟。 五分钟。;Not till two.;不到两点。I notice my dad makes a Stop T here, ;not till, not till;, instead of ;not till;.我注意到我爸爸在这里发了一个顿音T,“not till, not till”,而不是“not till”。That makes the transition between these two words less obvious, it makes it a smoother link. ;Not till two.;这样会使两个单词之间的转换不那么明显,连接更加通顺。“Not till two.”;Not till two.; (loop two times) ;Right, but we#39;re...; ;And maybe somewhat after that.;不到两点。(循环两次)是的,但是我们...... 或许会是两点以后。Another Stop T here at the end of ;that; because it#39;s the end of a thought, the end of a sentence.在“that”结尾也有一个顿音T,这是因为它位于一个观点,一句话的结尾。Often we make those T#39;s Stop T#39;s in American English.在美式英语里我们通常会把这些T发成顿音T。;somewhat after that.; (loop three times) ;But we said we#39;d be there at 1:30.;两点以后。 (循环三次)但我们说过我们会在一点半到那里。;But we.; I actually dropped the T altogether here to make this even more connected and smooth. ;But we, but we.;“But we.”为了让它连接得更紧密更通顺,我把这里的T省略了。“But we, but we.”;But; is a function word, not too important, so it#39;s okay to reduce it.“But”是一个虚词,不是很重要,所以可以把它略读。;But we said we#39;d (loop three times) be there at 1:30.;“But we said we’d(循环三次)be there at 1:30.”Did you notice how I pronounced ;thirty;? I took this second T and made it a Flap T so it sounded like a D. ;Thirty, thirty, 1:30.;你注意到我是怎样读“thirty”的吗?我把这个T读成了浊音T,听起来像是D音。“Thirty, thirty, 1:30.”;But we said we#39;d be there at 1:30.; (loop three times)但我们说过我们会在一点半到那里。(循环三次)This was another Stop T. And, it was very quick, so it was hard to tell, but I think this was a schwa, ;at, at. At 1:30.; (loop two times)这里又有一个顿音T。它非常快,很难分辨,不过我觉得它是一个弱读音,“at, at. At 1:30.”(循环两次);Be there at 1:30.; (loop three times)我们会在一点半到那里。(循环三次)When you#39;re talking about the time of something, try pronouncing ;at; this way, very quickly.当你在谈论某事的时间时,试着这样读“at”,很快。;Right. I think they want to just...;是的,我觉得他们只是Another Stop T here. It#39;s the end of a sentence. ;Right.;这里在句子的结尾又有一个顿音T。“Right.”;Right. (loop three times) I think they want to just.;“Right. (循环三次) I think they want to just.”Did you notice how my Dad did not make a TH sound here, but rather just an H sound? And he connected it to ;I;. ;I think, I think, I think.;你注意到了吗?我爸爸在这里并没有发TH音,而是一个H音。他将它与“I”连读。“I think, I think, I think.”;I think they want to just.; (loop three times)是的,我觉得他们只是(循环三次)I#39;ve noticed some native speakers do this with the TH in ;think;. We use this phrase a lot. ;I think this, I think that.;我注意到了许多英语母语者都会这样发“think”里的TH音。我们经常用这个短语。“I think this, I think that.”And it#39;s not uncommon to hear the H sound instead of the TH. It#39;s a funny little reduction that we do of a content word. ;I think they.;把TH音发成H音并不罕见。这是我们对一个实词的很有意思的一个略读。“I think they.”;I think they want to just (loop three times) chat, and...; ;Yeah.;“I think they want to just (循环三次) chat, and...” “Yeah.”You probably noticed the ;wanna; reduction here.你可能注意到了这里的“wanna”略读。;I think they want to.; (loop three times)我觉得他们(循环三次)Very common in American English.这在美式英语里很常见。;I think they want to just chat, and...; ;Yeah.;我觉得他们只是闲聊,然后,你知道的...... 是的。Also, the word ;just;. We often reduce this so it sounds like there#39;s basically no vowel. ;Just (loop three times), want to just (loop two times).;还有单词“just”。我们通常会略读这个单词,所以它听起来基本上没有元音。“Just (循环三次), want to just (循环两次).”;I think they want to just (loop three times) chat, and...; ;Yeah.;“I think they want to just (循环三次) chat, and...” “Yeah.”;Chat.; Another Stop T at the end of this thought.“Chat.”在这个观点的最后又有一个顿音T。;I think they want to just chat, and...;我觉得他们只是闲聊,然后The word ;and; was very reduced, to just the schwa N sound, ;nn, nn.;单词“and”被略读为弱读音N,“nn, nn.”;Chat and.; ;Yeah.; (loop three times);You know, stuff.;闲聊,然后,(循环三次)“You know, stuff.”;You know.; Did you notice that this was the schwa and not the OO as in BOO vowel? ;You, you, you know.;“You know.”你注意到了吗?这里是个弱读音,而不是BOO里的OO元音。“You, you, you know.”We pronounce these two words together this way all the time. ;You know.; (loop three times)我们经常把这两个单词一起这样读。“You know.”(循环三次);Chat and.; ;Yeah.;;You know, stuff (loop three times) before.; ;Sure.;“Chat and.” “Yeah.”“You know, stuff (循环三次) before.” “Sure.”;Will it take, like, fifteen minutes to get there, or?;到那里要用15分钟还是?Let#39;s talk about the word ;fifteen; for a second.我们来讨论一下单词“fifteen”。Some people have a hard time hearing the difference between 15 and 50.有些人很难分辨15和50的区别。The sounds are a little different, but also, the stress is different.它们的发音有些不同,并且,重音也不同。;Fifteen.; Stress is on the second syllable there, ; teen, teen, fifteen.;“Fifteen.”重音是在第二个音节上,“ teen, teen, fifteen.”So it#39;s short long. For the word ;fifty;, it#39;s the opposite. It#39;s long short. ;Fifty, fifty.;所以它的音是短 长。而单词“fifty”则恰恰相反。它的音是长 短。“Fifty, fifty.”;Fifteen, fifteen.;;Will it take, like fifteen minutes (loop three times) to get there, or?;“Fifteen, fifteen.”“Will it take, like fifteen minutes (循环三次) to get there, or?”I reduced the vowel in ;to; to the schwa, like we almost always do. I did keep this as a True T though.我把“to”里面的元音略读为了弱读音,就像我们经常做的那样。不过我把这个T发成了清音T。The sound before was unvoiced, ;ts, ts, ts. Minutes to.; (loop two times)它前面的音是不发音的,“ts, ts, ts. Minutes to.”(循环两次);Fifteen minutes to get there, or?; (loop three times)15分钟还是?(循环三次)Did you notice this T? Stop T because the next sound was a consonant, the voiced TH.你注意到这个T了吗?它是一个顿音T,因为后面的音是辅音,发音的TH。;Get there, get there.;;Fifteen minutes to get there, or?; (loop three times)“Get there, get there.”“Fifteen minutes to get there, or?”(循环三次)How was this word pronounced? ;Or, or.; Just the schwa R sound, very quick. This is another function word, so I#39;ve reduced it.这个单词是怎么发音的呢?“Or, or.”只有弱读R音,很快。这也是一个虚词,所以我把它略读了。;To get there, or?; (loop three times) ;Oh no. It#39;ll take...;“To get there, or?” (循环三次) “Oh no. It’ll take...”Did you hear Dad? He reduced ;it will; to the contraction ;it#39;ll;. ;It#39;ll.; (loop three times)你听到我爸爸把“it will”略读为“it#39;ll”了吗?“It’ll.”(循环三次);Oh no. It#39;ll take...; (loop three times) ;Ten?; ;Five.; ;Five.;“Oh no. It’ll take....” (循环三次) “Ten?” “Five.” “Five.”What#39;s different about the pitch, the intonation of these two phrases?这两个句子的音调和语调有什么不同呢?;Ten?; ;Five.; ;Five.;十分钟? 五分钟。 五分钟。This one goes up in pitch, this one goes down.这一句语调上升,这一句下降。That#39;s because I#39;m asking the question here. I don#39;t know how long it will take.这是因为我在问问题,我不知道要用多久的时间。The statement, where my dad was sure, goes down in pitch.我爸爸的这句陈述句语调下降。If you#39;re not sure, your phrase goes up. If you#39;re sure, your phrase goes down.如果你不确定的话,语调上升,如果你确定的话,语调下降。;Ten?; ;Five.; ;Five.; (loop three times)十分钟? 五分钟。 五分钟。(循环三次)Not till two. Right, but we#39;re... And maybe somewhat after that. But we said we#39;d be there at 1:30.不到两点。 是的,但是我们...... 或许会是两点以后。 但我们说过我们会在一点半到那里。Right. I think they want to just chat, and, you know... Yeah. Stuff before. Sure.是的,我觉得他们只是闲聊,然后,你知道的...... 是的。 在那之前。 当然。Will it take, like 15 minutes to get there? Or? Oh no. It#39;ll take... Ten? Five. Five. Okay. So we can leave at, like, 1:25. Yeah.到那里要用15分钟还是? 哦,不。大概要用...... 十分钟? 五分钟。 五分钟。好的,那我们就可以1点25分出发了。 是的。We might as well head back anyway. Yeah. That way we can still... Yeah. Stop and look at the alligators if we want. 我们最好还是回去了。 是的,那样的话我们还可以...... 是的。 想看的话可以停下来看看短吻鳄。Right. We probably won#39;t see much more. I was hoping to see... No. sandhill cranes, but.是的。我们可能不会再见到了。我还想看看...... 不。 沙丘鹤,但是。Right. We would definitely see, we would definitely see more alligators, but we probably wouldn#39;t see anymore of anything different.是的。我们一定会去看的,我们肯定会再看短吻鳄,不过可能看不到什么不一样的了。Well, we#39;ve seen enough of those I think.嗯,我觉得我们已经看的够多了。That#39;s it, and thanks so much for using Rachel#39;s English.这次的学习就到这里,非常感谢使用Rachel#39;s English。 Article/201706/513896

All right Procrastination. Let#39;s talk about it. It#39;s a big topic. And by the way we all face it.拖延症是本次节目的话题是个很大的话题 而且我们每个人都会有这个毛病It is a ever present evergreen issue for a reason and even the people you see on magazine covers,它能够成为常谈常新的话题不是没有原因的 甚至你在杂志封面上看到的人物都会有这个问题most of them, there are a few mutants, but they all have things they put off.他们大多数都会将一些事情推迟去做 不过也存在几个特例 他们可能从不拖延And there are a few different tactics, approaches that I found very helpful这里有几个很有用的方法和策略that I#39;ve borrowed from, whether it#39;s guests on the Tim FerrissShow or people I interviewed for Tools of Titans my newest book, here we go. So down the list.我从Tim Ferriss的节目嘉宾那里以及我为新书《巨人的工具》所采访的人那里学到的下面开讲方法清单So one is break it down into the smallest action conceivable.第一就是化整为零And there are a few different types here.可细分为若干种情况So if you have a macro goal, which is double the number of podcast downloads per episode. All right.所以如果你有个宏伟的目标是想让你播客的下载量增加一倍 好I#39;m just giving that as an example.我只是举个例子而已Well, we need to modify that to make it really actionable.那么我们需要调整它 使它更真正切实可行The first is making it hyper, hyper specific so we need a timeline at the very least.首先要使它变得超级具体 因而我们至少需要一条时间线So let#39;s say within six months doubling, and this is a real example for me, doubling the number of podcast downloads.比如 在六个月内翻番 让播客的下载翻番 对我来说这是个真实的例子Well, downloads are ongoing so by what point in time?下载是永不停止的 在那个时间点计算下载量呢All right, I want to double the number of podcast downloads per episode by week six after publication and I want to accomplish that within six months. All right.好的 我想要视频上线后 到第六周每集客下载量的数字翻倍 我想要在6个月内达成这个目标 很好And then we can borrow from David Allen and just ask what are some of the prerequisites, the component pieces of doing that?于是乎我们可以借鉴David Allen 达成这个目标 需要什么先决条件?Let#39;s break it out into say content and organic.先让我们来说一下内容以及结构You could have it paid acquisition, you make a long list of these potential buckets of activities.你能办到 通过将一系列可能要进行的活动列一个长长列表From there you would look at next physical actions, and this is directly from getting things done.当你做完这些事情后 你可以很直接的知道你下一步 具体要做什么And you could apply that to any number of these, let#39;s just say it#39;s ten buckets你可以把这个方法运用到你任务清单中的任意数字 我们假设有十件事but you would ask yourself, this is a question I ask myself very often你可以问自己一个问题 这个问题在我因为when I#39;m procrastinating because there is indecision, and this is a particular breed of procrastination.犹豫不决而拖延的时候会经常问到我自己 当然犹豫不决也是拖延的一种In other words if I have ten things on my to do list or ten potential products I could pursue what to do in that situation?这个问题就是 如果我的代办清单上有十件事情 或者有十件我可以买的东西 那么我该做什么?And what I ask myself is which one of these if done will make the rest the relevant or easier?我会问我自己这些事情中哪些事情完成之后会使得其他的事情变得相关联或者做起来更加简单This is a key question I ask all the time, which one of these will make all the rest easier to do if done first,这个问题很重要 我一直在这样问自己 先做哪件事情会使得其他的事情变得更简单or all the rest irrelevant, don#39;t even need to do them.或者是让剩下的事情变得不相关 从而不用去做That is how I will hone in on one piece of the puzzle.这就是我面对这个难题时不断细化深入的方法And this can be applied all over the place.这个方法可以运用到所有的领域But let#39;s just say it#39;s the doubling podcast, it could be losing weight, you can see that#39;s very, very amorphous.我们刚刚说的是播客下载量翻倍 我们也可以讨论减肥这个是非常非常灵活的We need timelines. We need an amount to lose. And then you want to make it as small as possible.我们需要时间线 需要减掉的确切重量 然后尽可能地把它细化So I#39;ll give you a different example.现在我举一个不同的例子If you want to start flossing your teeth, who likes flossing their teeth? Pretty much nobody.如果你想开始洁牙 谁会喜欢洁牙 几乎没人喜欢吧So how do you start flossing your teeth?那么你要怎么开始洁牙呢?Well, you want to make it as easy as possible to develop as part of your routine,首先你要尽可能地让它成为日常生活中的一部分to make it as automatic as anything else that you do consistently.成为你的生活习惯And you could borrow from the say BJ Fogg who#39;s done a lot of research at Stanford你可以引用曾经在斯坦福大学和其他地方做过大量研究的BJ Fogg的一句话and elsewhere, make it as small as possible, meaning in the beginning do less than you#39;re capable of doing.”让它尽可能的小” 意思是刚开始你要做的比你能做的事情要少So this is another key when you think something is too big or onerous, so it#39;s too intimidating or it#39;s too much of a pain in the ass. All right.这就是关键 尤其当你认为一些任务太大或太艰巨所以太吓人或太痛苦的时候So for flossing you might say I#39;m only going to floss my front two teeth. That#39;s three gaps.所以对于洁牙,你可能会说我打算清洁我的两颗门牙 这里有三条缝That#39;s all you#39;re going to do. And you want to make it, again, as easy as possible.那是你需要去做的东西 你需要让它尽可能的简单So you might use a WaterPik or you might use those disposable flossing gadgets所以你可能需要用到洁碧或者一次性的洁牙小器具so you don#39;t have to do tourniquets on your fingers, which is also one of the side effects of flossing that deters people.这样你就不用拿着止血带 当然要用止血带也是阻止我们洁牙的一个副作用Make it as easy as possible. Now this applies to a lot more than flossing.尽可能地让它简单 这个可以运用到比洁牙更多的领域So I#39;ve talked to many of the people for say Tools of Titans,因此为了《巨人的工具》我跟很多人聊过people who are eight time New York Times best-selling authors or prolific musicians, prolific music producers这些人都是 纽约时报的畅销作家 或是着名音乐家 歌曲创作者like Rick Rubin who is legendary, and it all comes down to tiny homework assignments.比如传奇制作人里克鲁宾 所有这些都是千里之行始于足下So Rick if he has a stuck artist, for instance, he will say can you get me one word or one line像如果里克鲁宾有一个艺术家突然没灵感时 他会说你明天工作的时候能给我你正在创作的这首歌that you might like for this song that you#39;re working on by tomorrow, is that possible?你可能喜欢的一个词或是一段谱子吗 这可能吗?Many, many homework assignments.划分成很多的任务才是关键So with the creative project in the beginning that#39;s one所以在一开始就制定合适的计划是It#39;s related to a piece of advice that I got from Neil Strauss, eight times New York times我从尼尔·斯特劳斯那里得到的建议之一 尼尔·斯特劳斯是best selling author, he has written for The New York Times, he#39;s written for Rolling Stone纽约时报畅销作者 他曾为纽约时报和滚石杂志撰稿Magazine, and that is lower your standards.他给出的建议是 降低你的标准So he doesn#39;t believe in writer#39;s block.所以他从不相信作家说的日更万字之类的誓言He says your standards are just too high.他说你的标准太高了You#39;re creating performance anxiety for yourself.你为你自己带来了行动上的焦虑So the advice that I got from another writer, which matches with that, is two crappy pages per day.所以我从另一个作家那里得到的和他匹配的建议是 每天坚持写 两页书So a lot of people are like I#39;m going to kill it. I need an ambitious goal.所以大部分人都是 我一定完成它 我需要一个雄心勃勃的目标Let me do 1500 words, 2000 words per day for this book I#39;m working on.我要为我的书每天写1500字 2000字Well, there is a very high probability that you#39;re going to fall short of that好吧 这样很大的可能你会只进行了一小半你就感到泄气and then you will get demoralized, then you will get intimidated by the task and then you#39;ll start procrastinating.然后你会对任务感到害怕 随后 你会开始拖延So make the hurdle, make the success threshold really, really low.所以 将障碍和成功的门槛设置的低一些 再低一些That#39;s what I#39;ve done for my last three books is two crappy pages per day. That#39;s all I need.我最后的三本书就是通过每天写两页来完成的 这就是我需要做的一切If I don#39;t end up using them that#39;s fine I just need to get out two crappy pages. What ends up happening?如果我没有做到 那也没关系 我只需要放弃这两页 只是两页没写结果能有什么变化?With the flossing, with the writing, with say exercise,洁牙 写作 锻炼等都很适用if you#39;re going to exercise you#39;re making a New Year#39;s Resolution, don#39;t make it an hour a day four times a week, no,如果你新年的决心是准备开始锻炼 这时不要制定一天一小时啊一周四次啊的强度no, no, and if you don#39;t have an exercise habit five to ten minutes at the gym three times a week, plenty.且如果你没有锻炼的习惯 那每周去三次体育馆 每次坚持5到10分钟就足够了And in all those cases you will feel successful because you#39;ve checked your box for success在这些例子里你会感到非常成功因为你每次都成功的做到了预定的事情and then very often you will exceed that for extra credit.且经常会因为额外的信心而超额完成You#39;ll be like oh I#39;m aly at the gym I#39;ll go for an extra ten minutes.你可能会想我已经在体育馆了 我要再跑十分钟Well, I#39;m aly flossing my teeth I#39;ll do an extra four.好吧 我已经清理了我的牙齿 我想再清理几颗Well, I#39;ve aly hit my two pages but I#39;m feeling great and I#39;m in the flow, maybe I#39;ll do ten, maybe I#39;ll do 20.我已经完成两页书了 但是我感觉很棒 并且灵感也来了 可能我还能再完成十页 甚至二十页But it prevents you from feeling like a failure. This is very, very important.它不会让你感觉自己很失败 这非常 非常重要That is what derails a lot of people and it also makes the task list intimidating.就是因为这 才让许多人半途而废并且让任务清单困难的吓人So those are a few recommendations for avoiding procrastination. Some of them are time related.以上是抵制拖延的一些建议 有一些是与时间有关So if you are looking at a task, and we#39;ve aly talked about chunking it down,所以当你面对任务时 我们已经讨论过如何拆分它if it looks gigantic an onerous and you calculate in your mind如果这个任务巨大而又繁重well that#39;s probably going to take me a hundred hours or three weeks, however you look at it, you don#39;t take the first step甚至可能会消耗你几百个小时或者是三周时间 这时候你面对任务时 你不会想迈出第一步because it#39;s like taking a bite out of a whale or something like that.因为那任务难的就像从鲸鱼身上咬下来一块肉 或者类似的事So you can use the technique, for instance, like the pomodoro technique.举个例子 你可以用这个方法 番茄工作法And people have interpreted this in different ways but it effectively means sprints of say 20 to 25.人们对这种方法有不同的解释 但是意思都是专注做一件事情做二十分钟或者二十五分钟Some people do 23 minutes where you#39;re like all right I know I#39;m not going to get this时间可以随你喜好比如23分钟 哦我知道我不会做完这个任务but I#39;m going to sprint for 20 minutes, 25 minutes and then take a five-minute break.但是我可以专心致志的先做20分钟25分钟 然后休息5分钟And then I will sprint again for 20 to 25 minutes.然后我会继续专心20或25分钟And the magic of those time constraints, I#39;ve talked about this a lot has Parkinson#39;s Law,像这种时间约束的魔力 我在帕金森定律中已经谈过许多but the complexity of a task swelling to fill the time that it#39;s allotted.但是一个任务复杂的地方就是它会膨胀以至于沾满你的时间Once you have these positive constraints, which by the way for a creative person, very important to have positive constraints.一旦你有了这些积极的时间约束 顺便说一句对于有创造力的人来说有积极的时间约束非常重要Being able to do anything you want all the time is a recipe for disaster and paralysis and procrastination.总是随心所欲 是拖延症患者的典型特征And I#39;ll talk about one or more constraint that you can apply.接下来我会告诉你们更多的约束方法So you have something like the pomodoro technique.所以你会有更多的类似于番茄工作法的方法If it#39;s email related you can actually use a tool called Email Game.如果是和邮件相关 你可以用一个叫电子邮件游戏的工具I won#39;t go into a long description but emailga.me is the URL. You can check that out.在此不展开介绍 只要知道emailga.me是一个网址 你可以试用一下It avoids the inbox view and forces you to answer sequentially.它会让你看不到你的收件箱 然后再让你一封接一封的回复邮件So I#39;ll let people check that out.所以我希望人们都能试用一下That will probably cut down your email clearing time by 40 percent or so.它会大幅度的缩减你回复邮件的时间 甚至能减少40%左右The next way that you can apply positive constraint is by building in incentives and consequences.下一个比较好的约束方法是设立奖惩机制All this means is make yourself socially accountable.这主要是让你自己有更好的社会责任感And you can use a site like Stickk.com, you can use Coach.me,你可以用这些网站如 Stickk.com Coach.mehaving someone else to hold your feet to the fire and keep you accountable for whatever goal you#39;ve set for yourself.这样可以有其他人监督你防止你懒散堕落 并且能激励你重拾梦想完成目标That could be a check in via phone, it could be a bet, so a financial component, which is very effect.比如通过打卡记录 或是和别人的赌约这种涉及到金钱的方法非常有效I#39;ve seen high ranking folks at Google lose a hundred plus pounds我曾经在谷歌排行榜上看到一个人因为和别人的打赌然后失去了一百多英镑because they had a bet with a friend, this is what got them started, their gym bodies if someone didn#39;t show up他和朋友打赌如果谁没有晒出健身房的身材照they had to pay the other person a dollar.谁就给其他人每人一美元So it#39;s incredible what a small amount of money can do.这真难以相信是从这么小的数字开始的You could also put together a betting pool say five people each put in 0 and the person你也可以定个规则说 五个人每人出100美元who loses the most of body fat or improves their body fat percentage using say DEXA Scan by the end of the first-quarter gets the 0.然后在第一个季度末 谁的体重掉的最多或是体脂率最健康谁就可以得到这500美元That is hugely, hugely effective.这会有很大很大的效果And I think in part not because the money you will win but the money you will lose.而且我觉得你可能不怎么关心你能得到多少 但你肯定很关心你会失去多少钱People will work a lot harder to counteract loss eversion it turns out.人们为了减少损失会更努力的去工作 有时候还能因此得到意外惊喜So those are a few things that you could utilize.以上就是我们能用到的一些方法And I#39;ll give you one kind of wacky one that is from Mike Birbiglia who#39;s one of the most successful comedians on the planet,下面我再给你们介绍一个来自迈克·比尔比利亚 听起来有点古怪的方法 他是世界着名喜剧演员has done tons of TV, tons of movies and is fantastic at standup, lot with This American Life.他已经拍了很多电视剧和电影 在脱口秀上也颇有成就 而且多次参加《美国人生》And when he was procrastinating working on his screenplay, his latest screenplay,当他编他最新剧本的时候他也会犯拖延症we noticed that when he was accountable to someone else he had a meeting he was never late, he was always early.我们能发现当他要和别人开会的时候他从来不会迟到But when he had a commitment to himself to write he might put it off for hours.但是当他着手写自己的剧本的时候可能会拖延几个小时So he took a Post-it and he put it next to his bed, and this sounds ludicrous,这时候他会在他的床边上贴个便利贴 这听起来很滑稽but it said, Mike, and I think it was three exclamation points,但上面写着 迈克 三个感叹号you have a meeting with yourself at 7:00 a.m. at café whatever it was where he intended to work and that actually for whatever weird quirk of human psychology got him to stay on track for his meeting with himself to write his screenplay.无论这看起来 多么滑稽多么怪癖 但的确能把他带回正轨奋力写剧本的正轨So that#39;s another Jedi mind trick that you might try on yourself.这是另一个你可以试试的小把戏There are many tools in the toolkit but keep it small, keep it defined, rig it这里提供了很多方法 化整为零 定义明确 制定能够顺利完成的任务so you can win and when in doubt figure out a way to create a loss or shame还有当你想拖延时想出一个奖惩机制 让你能够为了减少损失而更努力的去工作if you don#39;t actually tackle your task and achieve some type of measurable goal by a specific point in time.以及通过特定的奇怪的方法来达成你的目标等等 Article/201706/513496Nobody will only live by themselves.没有人能够脱离他人而独活All of us live in a community.我们每个人都生活在集体当中It#39;s very important for us to communicate with each other in a proper way.学会正确与他人共处对我们来说是非常重要的The subject is taught from kindergarten to university,这门课从幼儿园到大学一直都有by members of the communist party who work in every school.由各所学校的共产党员进行教授I#39;m going to have breakfast/lunch.我要去吃早饭了,也可以说是午饭14-year-old Josh has been one of the most troublesome kids in the Chinese school.十四岁的乔什在中式学校可以说是最难管的学生之一Keep quiet! No.安静。不要During the second week, he brought in a kettle to make tea in protest against the long hours.在第二周的时候,他带了个电热水壶来泡茶以消磨漫长的学时This is not on.不许带这个进来No. You cannot take this to classroom. Totally not allowed.不,你们不能把这个带进教室。绝对不准I#39;m normally super hard working and Chinese school, it just hasn#39;t happened.我不是那种特别用功的学生,在中式学校里,就更不可能了It#39;s just, sort of, a complete personality change,他们试图完全改变我们的个性that you can... rebel against something and be different.这让我有逆反心理,我偏要与众不同We are talking about communication qualities.我们在说的是交流质量So, in Bohunt, in Social Education,在航特的社会教育课上you#39;re encouraged to form your own opinions, far more than in Chinese school.学生可以有自己独特的观点,这点和中式学校很不一样You#39;re dictated at all the time.你每时每刻都在受人摆布This is typical of a Chinese lesson.这就是典型的中国课堂You#39;re told these facts and they will be right你被告知这些事实是正确的because it#39;s come from more authoritative position因为它们来自权威人士so a teacher, then headmaster, then government.比如老师,校长,政府Do you think equality is very important?你们认为平等是非常重要的吗Well, communism was about equality and that worked out well.共产主义就是为了平等,效果还真不错呢I think the Chinese education system, it seems like sort of an industrial process to me.我感觉中式教育体制就好像是某种流水线作业You get batches of really intelligent kids who have the same work ethic.生产出很多非常聪明的学生,这些学生拥有一致的职业道德And I think it has its place,我认为它们自有适应其生长的土壤but I#39;m not sure whether its place is fully in England or not.但是我并不确定英格兰是不是这样的土壤I accept myself as who I am - a bit of a dick.我接受我本来的样子,有点混 Article/201605/446363栏目简介:《趣味青春英语视频》是外语网络电台的精品节目,通过大讲堂的网络课堂形式,能够帮助英语学习者积累一些英语背景知识,并通过互动的教学形式,帮助有效记忆英语知识。本栏目是学习趣味青春英语的好材料。 Article/201607/451744

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