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来源:飞度权威医院    发布时间:2018年11月13日 14:56:41    编辑:admin         

The educated materials presented here这里展示的教学材料were developed by students and faculty由爱荷华州立大学of the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition食品科学及人类营养学系at Iowa State University.的学生和老师完成Funding for this project was provided by此项目由grants from the American Cancer Society美国癌症协会-Midwest and the Lance Armstrong Foundation.中西部和兰斯阿姆斯特朗基金会赞助持The materials are intended for educational use此材料仅作教学使用and are not meant to provide medical advice.而非医疗咨询We welcome your feedback about these materials.我们欢迎你对于这些材料给予反馈Please use the evaluation survey link on the homepage请通过主页上的评估调查链接to provide your comments and suggestions.提供你的评价和建议In this presentation we will outline basic information这堂课我们将介绍about the vitamins that are carried in foods with fat,与食物中的脂肪共存的维生素the so-called fat soluble vitamins.即脂溶性维生素There are four vitamins in this category:这类维生素有四种vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K and vitamin A.维生素D 维生素E 维生素K 维生素AAn easy way to remember them is一个记住它们的简单方法是by using the acronym DEKA用首字母缩略词DEKAMany of you may be asking:你们中的很多人也许会问what are fat soluble vitamins?什么是脂溶性维生素?Fat soluble vitamins include脂溶性维生素包括the vitamins A, K, E and D.维生素A K E DAnd the reason they are called fat soluble is它们之所以叫脂溶性维生素because they are associated with fats,是因为它们与脂肪有关that are carried with fats when absorbed into the body.它们被吸收进身体时和脂肪在一起In certain diseases such as Crones disease在某些疾病里,如?or cystic fibrosis dietary fat is not well absorbed或囊胞性纤维症,膳食脂肪不能很好的吸收which can cause the malabsorption of these vitamins.会导致这些维生素的吸收不良Fat soluble vitamins are only needed保持健康只需要in small amounts to sustain good health.很少量的脂溶性维生素Because our bodies store excess fat soluble vitamins由于在我们的身体里肝脏和脂肪细胞贮存着in the liver and in fat cells we don#39;t need过量的脂溶性维生素,我们不必to consume them everyday to avoid deficiencies.每天摄入来避免缺失However because they are retained in the body但因为它们被贮存在体内there are high risks of toxicity如果吸收太多某种脂溶性维生素if too much of a fat soluble vitamin is ingested.就有很高的中毒危险For this reason an upper tolerable limit为此每种脂溶性维生素has been defined for each fat soluble vitamin.都有其摄入的上限The upper tolerable limit is the amount该上限被认为是which is considered to be safe安全的摄入量and to be without any adverse side effects.并且不会产生有害的副作用From these pictures can you guess在这些图片里你能猜到what some important functions of vitamin A are?维生素A的一些重要功能吗?Vitamin A is important for eye function, skin health,维生素A对于视觉功能,皮肤健康很重要and may have a role in cancer prevention.也可能有助于预防癌症Vitamin A has many roles in the body.维生素A在身体内发挥着许多作用Vision was the first role identified for vitamin A.首先发现视觉与维生素A相关Vitamin A deficiency remains缺乏维生素A仍是the most common cause of blindness in the world today.当今世界上导致失明的最常见原因In the form of retinol it produces the pigments它以视黄醇的形式形成了in the retina of the eye that respond to light.眼睛视网膜的感光色素Early signs of vitamin A deficiency include早期维生素A缺乏的征兆包括night blindness because of the lack of adequate retinol.夜盲,这是因为缺少足够的视黄醇When treated night blindness is reversible经过治疗,夜盲症可以康复however if the vitamin A deficiency is not corrected但如果维生素A缺乏症没有得到治疗permanent loss of vision can occur.可能会造成永久性失明Vitamin A also has other roles in the body维生素A在身体内还发挥着其他作用including promoting teeth and bone development包括促进牙齿和骨骼生长and as a regulator of cell division and differentiation.以及调整细胞分裂分化 Article/201507/384150。

Learning new words is easy for Christopher.学习新语言对克里斯托弗来说很容易And today he#39;s meeting Gerardo今天他要和杰拉多碰面who#39;s going to teach him words in Nahuatl,杰拉多将要教他纳瓦特尔语a language that#39;s been spoken in central Mexico一种自公元七世纪以来在墨西哥中部since the seventh century.使用的语言Y que necesito escribir?我需要写吗[译注: 他俩西语交流]Si, escribo.是的 写吧 Este es una palabra nahuatl que se usan纳瓦特尔语;papalotl;en espanol de mexico y es papalotl.用西班牙语怎么说Mariposa. Mm-hmm.蝴蝶 对Christopher, when he hears a new word or hears about克里斯托弗一听到自己不认识的a new language he doesn#39;t know, he really gets excited.单词或语言 就变得兴奋起来It#39;s what switches him on,那是他的兴趣所在so, I think for Christopher,所以 我认为对于他来说languages are like collecting rare butterflies.语言学习如同收集各种珍稀蝴蝶He likes to collect different languages,他喜欢收集不同的语言different words in different languages.和不同语言的表达方式Chris, you know these words that you learnt?克里斯 认识这些刚学的单词了吗 Yes.认识了Just tell, just tell them to me again really quickly.那快速地给我讲一遍What was that one? Papalotl.这是什么 PapalotlHow do you say it in, in, in English?用英语怎么说Butterfly.蝴蝶 Article/201412/348162。

My New Pet我的怪奇新宠物Well then, I suppose it all starts three years ago. It was the 15th of August, 2011. I received my A-level exam results and failed to get into the university of my choice. It#39;s fair to say I was feeling pretty sorry for myself. I was pretty darn low. So the irrational part of my brain decided that the only way to solve this problem would be to buy a pet. Not a normal pet, though. No, it needed to be something different, something exciting.好吧,我想这一切都从三年前开始。那是 2011 年 8 月 15 日。我收到我的 A-level 测验成绩,且没能进入我理想中的大学。可以说我替自己感到满遗憾的。我心情该死的低落。所以我大脑不理性的那部分决定,要解决这问题只能买只宠物了。然而,可不是一只普通的宠物。不,牠必须要是个与众不同的家伙、一个令人兴奋的家伙。So I went online and did a bit of research and came across this: a bearded dragon. It was perfect. I paid a visit to my local pet shop, located the reptile section, and found exactly what I was looking for. I exchanged the money—25 pounds and 50 pence, 25 for the dragon and the 50 pee for a leftover bag of wood chips. Buckled the box into the passenger seat, not daring to look inside, and returned home.于是我上网并做了点研究,然后遇见这个: 一只髭颊蜥。它太完美了。我拜访我家附近的宠物店,瞄准爬虫动物区,然后恰恰找到我正在找的东西。我付了钱--二十五镑五十便士,二十五镑买蜥蜴,五十便士买剩下的一袋木屑。把盒子用安全带扣在副驾驶座上,不敢往里面瞥一眼,然后回家。I always remember that moment placing the box on my desk and opening it up. It was glorious. He was perfect. I called him Sid. Over the next two years, a beautiful relationship blossomed between me and Sid. We did everything together. We went everywhere together. We were like two peas in a pod.我永远记得将盒子摆在我的书桌上然后打开它的那一刻。那真是太棒了。他很完美。我叫他“喜德”。接下来的两年,我和喜德之间发展出一段美好的关系。我们什么事都一起做。我们到哪都在一块。我们形影不离地像豆荚里的两颗豆子。However, inevitably, the day came back around when I had to resit my exams for university. By the grace of god, this time I passed, meaning that I would be off to university, and Sid... Well, Sid would have to go. He was given away to a loving family, whom I#39;m sure provided him the level of love and affection that we had shared over the past two years. But still, it was a sad day.不过,无可避免地,我必须重新参加我的大学考试的那天回来了。蒙上帝恩惠,这次我考过了,代表我将会离开去上大学,而喜德... 嗯,喜德得离开。他被送给一个慈爱的家庭,我相信他们会给予他我们过去两年来共享那种程度的爱和感情。但尽管如此,那还是个悲伤的日子。I think about him sometimes. I wonder whether he thinks about me, longing for the days that we used to spend together. And then the realization hits me that he is just a dragon, and he#39;s probably far happier living a life of dragon luxury with a fancy cage, a warm heat lamp, and all the carrots and cucumber he can eat.我有时会想他。我想知道他是否想我,想望着过去我们混在一起的那些日子。然后我领悟到他只是只蜥蜴,而且过着蜥蜴的奢华生活他搞不好更开心,有一个高级的笼子、温暖的聚热灯,还有所有随他吃的胡萝卜和小黄瓜。After that, things were never the same. I felt empty inside. A relationship between a man and a reptile was something that can#39;t be matched. And I guess I needed to fill the void. So off I went again on my travels across the Internet, searching, scouring the web for a new soul mate. I was looking for something mean, exciting, impressive, thrilling, a life-long companion, and then, suddenly, I found the perfect match.在那之后,一切再也不一样了。我感到内心空虚。一段一个男人和一只爬虫类动物的关系是一件无可比拟的事。我猜我需要填补那空虚的感觉。于是我又再次踏上漫游网路的旅程,查询、在网上四处寻找新的灵魂伴侣。我在找某个出色、令人激动、令人印象深刻、令人兴奋的,一个一辈子的伙伴,然后,刹那间,我找到完美的配对。So without further ado, I#39;d like to introduce you to Herbert. Herbert is a tortoise at a ripe old age of one and he is a badass. Did you know that a tortoise has the same lifespan as a human, and in some cases, can live up to 150 years? That means that Herbert#39;s dad lived through two World Wars. He didn#39;t do anything, but he was there nonetheless.废话不多说,容我介绍你“赫伯特”。赫伯特是只已届“一岁”高龄的乌龟,而他可是个超杀的家伙。你知道一只乌龟拥有和人类相同的寿命吗?而且有时候,可以活长达 150 年?那代表赫伯特的老爸经历过两次世界大战。他啥也没做,但无论如何他就是在那。Little Herbert is just a baby, but in time, he#39;s gonna get bigger. At adult size, he#39;ll be around 280 millimeters in length, weighing around 2.5 kilos. And he#39;s a herbivore, so he likes grass, ferns, flowers, tree leaves, and fruit. But his favorite thing ever is a dandelion. Herbert loves dandelions. We keep this for a special treat.小赫伯特只是只宝宝,但迟早,他会长得更大。在成年的尺寸,他的身长约会是 280 毫米,重量约 2.5 公斤。他是只草食性动物,所以他喜欢草、蕨类、花、树叶,还有水果。但他最喜欢的东西是蒲公英。赫伯特爱死蒲公英了。我们把蒲公英留作特别奖赏。But as is the same with any human, dandelions would never do. Dandelions can#39;t hold your hand and kiss you good night and listen to your problems. Dandelions can#39;t make your knees go weak and set your heart to flutter. So I figured that I don#39;t need to be fair to get Herbert a Herbert, so here#39;s Doris.但就像任何人类一样,蒲公英永远满足不了。蒲公英不能握着你的手、不能吻你道晚安、不能倾听你的烦恼。蒲公英不能让你激动到脚软,还有让你的心小鹿乱撞。于是我想我帮赫伯特找“一只赫伯特”是天经地义的事,所以“桃乐丝”就来啦。Herbert and Doris are in love, very, very much in love. I#39;d like to think that one day they might have babies. But until then, it#39;s just me and them. I#39;m excited for the future has in store for us, me and these two tiny tortoises. No one can ever beat Sid and I don#39;t know if these two tiny prehistoric animals will ever be able to fill his jogging shoes. But I guess we have 100 years to find out.赫伯特与桃乐丝相爱,非常、非常相爱。我很乐意想像有一天他们可能会有群宝宝。但到那时之前,就只是我和他们。我对未来等待着我们的事感到兴奋,我和这两只小小的乌龟。没有人能够打败喜德,而且我不知道这两只小小的史前动物有没有可能取代他的地位(注一)。但我猜我们有一百年去找到。注一:fill someone’s shoes 为“取代某人地位”;影片为求幽默,所以故意说成 fill his ;jogging; shoes。 Article/201509/398278。

What makes iron better than bronze铁跟青铜相比 其优势在于is it holds an edge better.能更好地稳固船边If you#39;re trying to work with wood,如果你是用木头工作the ability to keep a sharp edge meant如果想将船边牢固you could make thin planks,就要用很厚的木板you could shape beams, you could build better ships.如果能制造船梁 就能造成理想的大船Iron tools revolutionize shipbuilding铁具给造船业带来了新的春天And allow mankind to innovate as never before.也让人类发生了翻天覆地的变化A revolutionary invention:龙骨的诞生The keel.是一项具有划时代意义的发明Now ships can remain stable in the roughest waters,现在船可以在恶劣的海洋环境中航行The key to mankind#39;s future at sea.而主宰人类未来的关键正是航海Hanno has sailed from the Mediterranean汉诺从地中海出发Into uncharted waters: the Atlantic Ocean.驶向未知的大西洋海域With 30,000 colonists,同三万名殖民地开拓者一道He#39;s looking for new lands, new opportunities.他在找寻新的大陆 新的契机For some of these early explorers,这些开拓者中的一部分人all they#39;ve been told他们知道的只是is that the world drops off.陆地被分成很多部分It#39;s a step into the unknown, it#39;s huge.这就像踏上了未知的旅途 意义重大 Article/201509/401042。

You would hold your manhood in question倘若不能像神王一样冲锋陷阵if you could not step up like your god king.你会质疑自己的男子气概Egyptian scribes record the turning point.古埃及抄写员记下了这转折点The enemy.敌军Fled headlong to megiddo in fear.仓皇逃至米吉多He was able to wipe out他能够彻底摧毁an incredibly powerful coalition of forces异常强大的联合军and he was able to do it through wit and bravery and balls正是靠他的智慧 勇气和胆量An egyptian poet records the fate of the common soldier:一位埃及诗人这样描写一名普通士兵的命运:Young men called up for war,青年男子应征出战A child snatched from his mother#39;s bosom.孩子从小得抢奶吃When he reaches manhood: his bones, shattered.待到终成男子汉 粉身碎骨全不顾 Article/201509/396939。

England and Scotland,two realms divided until now.英格兰和苏格兰 两个分裂的王国开始走向联合In 1603, they had come together in one person,James VI of Scotland,and First of England.1603年 它们归于同一个王者统治 在苏格兰叫詹姆斯六世 在英格兰叫詹姆斯一世He wanted to be known as the king of Great Britain.他欲以;大不列颠之王;之名流芳百世But what was this new thing in the world, this Great Britain?但大不列颠是什么 闻所未闻 In the first years of the 17th century,only the map makers could tell you.在十七世纪初期 只有地图绘制者才能解答这个问题One of them, a busy ex-tailor called John Speed,其中一位 忙碌的前裁缝约翰·斯皮德published his atlas of 67 maps called ;The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain;,出版了一部含有67张图的地图册 名为《大不列颠王国全览》and covering every inch of Scotland, Wales Ireland and England.其中囊括苏格兰 威尔士 爱尔兰和英格兰的每一寸土地What lay behind Speed#39;s atlas was an optimistic vision斯皮斯地图集背后隐藏着乐观愿景of happy, harmonious Britannia coming together under a king整个大不列颠共戴一君who was determined to bring unity after centuries of war and hatred.结束几个世纪的战争和敌对 走向王国的联合And in the Vale of the Red Horse in Warwickshire,在沃里克郡的红马峡谷John Speed had a glimpse of what this British heaven on earth might look like.约翰·斯皮德惊鸿一瞥 仿佛看到了大不列颠的尘世仙境Meadowing pastures with the green mantle so embroidered with flowers群山遍绿 间有朵朵花开that from Edgehill we might behold another Eden.边山仿佛另一个伊甸园 /201701/489625。

The study found that all 7 berry types successfully研究发现as compared to the control group与控制组相比之下reduced the number of esophageal tumors7种莓类都能成功地as compared to the control group减小食道肿瘤but there was no significant difference但没有显著据表明between the amount of tumor reduction seen in the varying berry groups.食用不同莓类的老鼠肿瘤个数会发生变化The chart on the slide compares each berry type屏幕上的表格对比了控制组的食物和各种莓类to the control diet. As you can see the tumor大家可以看见,肿瘤and disease were all reduced by at least 20% and up to 35%.和疾病率都减少了至少20%至35%Multiplicity of the tumors was also significantly肿瘤的多样性reduced for every berry type from 2.15对每个莓类实验组而言减少了in the control diet.与控制组的2.15相比的话All the berries were found to have similar antioxidant capacities as well.发现所有莓类都有相似的抗氧化性Since much more research is needed因为我们还需要做进一步的研究on the subject on acai and cancer prevention,以了解巴西莓和防癌之间的关系there is no single recommendation.所以没有十足准确的建议The following are some suggestions concerning the topic.以下只是和这个话题相关的几个建议Ignore online scams and claims about不要理会网上那些关于减肥weight reduction, increased energy增加体能and colon cleaning ability.清洁结肠的骗人伎俩The majority of the supplements available市场上可见的大部分补品on the market are only out there to make money.都只是为了赚钱盈利而已Remember that acai is a fruit so like other fruits,巴西莓和其他普通的水果一样it’s probably healthy and provides some benefits.它也许比较健康,有一些好处The key to incorporating acai into your diet可以将巴西莓列入你的日常饮食if you choose to do so is not to expect miracles.但关键是不要期待出现奇迹Don’t consume it in excess and choose the sugar free别大量食用巴西莓,选择那些无糖的巴西莓浆acai pulp or juice that is lower in sugar to avoid或含糖量较低的果汁excess calories from added sugar.以避免从糖分中摄入过多的热量In dealing with some foods such as soy and acai像大豆,巴西莓这类食物which a solid consensus is yet to be determined,人们还未达成共识you often have to decide for yourself whether or not你应该自己决定it is a good idea to incorporate these foods into your own diet.是否应该将这些食物列入你的日常饮食The key is to make an educated decision instead of关键是,做出一个明智的决定one based on false advertisements而不是听信虚假广告and outrageous claims.或过于夸张的说法When doing research on your own, be sure自己做研究时to use credible websites, journal articles要使用权威可信的网站,阅读期刊文章and don’t be afraid to ask a professional.勤于请教专业人士Understand both sides of the issue about researching要了解关于这项研究正反两方面的观点not only the good news about the product不仅要知晓关于这个产品的优点but also the bad.也要了解其害处A good rule of thumb whenever your are unsure一旦你不确定时,有一条经验法则is to eat all the foods in moderation.那就是适量食用这些食物When researching scientifically controversial topics研究特别有争议性的话题时it is also important to recognize any source of error很重要的一点是,要识别出任何观点中存在的错误or bias that may be present.或者可能存在的偏见In Google searches be cautious of sites用谷歌搜索的时候,要谨慎that anyone can create and ones that strongly不要轻信那些个人就可随意创建的网站encourage or discourage any food或者那些强烈建议或排斥某一种食物or supplement consumption.或补品的网站Remember in many cases such as with acai,请记住,很多情况下,就拿巴西莓来说more research often needs to be done还需要做进一步的研究to determine the final decision.以做出最后的定论Product websites can be bias because of the goal一些食品网站可能存在偏见,因为它的目标在于of the website to introduce consumers to a product向消费者介绍某一种产品and ultimately persuade them to buy it.并劝消费者购买这种产品The focus will always be on the benefits侧重点总是在产品的优点上and little information will be provided很少会提及about the side effects or bad news.产品的副作用或者坏处News stories are typically credible sources新闻报道是非常可信的信息来源of information, but be sure to the whole article但一定要通读全文and not just the headline.而不是只读个标题Be aware of anything that sounds too good to be true.面对那些好的难以置信的产品要谨慎Do your own research about the subject matter多做一些关于这些产品的调查and uncover all the facts before making your decision.在作出决定前了解产品的所有相关信息Although acai has been called a new super food尽管巴西莓被称为一种新型超级食物for the benefits of its high antioxidant content,因为它富含抗氧化物more research must still be done但我们还是需要做进一步的研究before a solid scientific claim can be made.然后才可以得出一个比较科学可信的结论Consuming a balanced diet rich in fruits饮食要平衡,水果and vegetable, whole grains and low fat dairy products蔬菜,全麦食品,低脂肪的奶制品等都要包括while treating yourself to a few treats in moderation大享美食时也要记得有个度is still the best way to eat.这才是最好的饮食方法 Article/201502/358971。

This job is about giving somebody independence.这工作是关于给人带来独立自主的生活。Hmm-hmm... Hmm-hmm...嗯哼...嗯哼...Twenty-four seven, no holidays.一天二十四小时,一星期七天,全年无休。Oh... Uhmmm...噢...嗯...How do you feel about making life or death decisions?对于做出生死交关的决定,你觉得怎么样?I think I#39;m pretty good.我想这我很擅长。Training is 10 years.员工训练要十年。Okay...好...Because you can#39;t interact with anyone, and you can only walk in the straight line.因为你不能跟任何人互动,而且你只能走在直线上。Straight line?直线?What do you mean?你的意思是?Okay...好...Are you frightened easily?你很容易受到惊吓吗?No... Except in horror movies. Heh...不会...除非在看恐怖片。哈...Good.很好。Bang!砰!Hmm...嗯...Hmm...嗯...Have a biscuit.吃块饼干吧。You can#39;t do that. This job is about resisting temptation.你不能那样子。这工作是关于抗拒诱惑的。Okay...好吧...Hmm... What#39;s the pay?嗯...薪水如何?Love. Just love!爱。只有爱!Car? How about a car?车子呢?那一辆车子呢?You get love!你得到关爱!Hmm...嗯...What about presents and gifts?那礼物和赠品呢?Hmm... No...嗯...沒有...Oh...噢... Article/201411/339714。

Finally, in 2004, he got his wish,他终于在2004年如愿以偿a criminal trial with Michael Jackson as the defendant.迈克尔·杰克逊的刑事诉讼开庭To see this DA, with this wicked smile and grin,看着这名地方检察官的邪恶笑容like, he#39;s gonna become a national hero一副他是人民英雄的嘴脸for catching Michael Jackson doing something that he never did为了一件迈克尔·杰克逊没做的罪逮捕他made me wanna just throw up on the television.我差点没吐在电视上Jackson himsellf, ll bellieve, has said that this was all done杰克逊本人好像是说to try to ruin his new CD that Was coming out or whatever it is he#39;s doing,这一切都是为了破坏他即将要发行的唱片之类的like the sheriff and l really are into that kind of music. But...好像警官们与我会听那种音乐 但是...There was a real, sort of, leaning in the press corps媒体也开始倾向他那边that, #39;look, if this is happening again, then he must be guilty. #39;想着 又来了那一定是真的We really didn#39;t know what they had.我们不知道他们手上握有什么据We just... Because it was all sealed and nobody knew what it was.我们...因为一切资料都封锁了 没有人知道l personally believe this Janet Arvizo was provoked by someone.我个人认为是珍娜·阿维佐 受人怂恿Janet Arvizo is a sick woman.珍娜·阿维佐是个病态的女人she has a track history of shaking people down.她以前就有欺诈纪录The more l looked at the history of welfare fraud,我愈看她之前的社会福利欺诈the more l looked at their hustling celebrities to try and get money,还有他们试图欺诈名人the more l put this package together, I have to say, I was quite surprised将这些都凑在一起后 我得说我很惊讶that the prosecutors pinned their hopes on these people.警方竟然押注在他们身上 Article/201510/406659。