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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年01月27日 16:50:45
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In November 1997, Kim Young-sam began the final weeks of his presidency by seeking a massive bailout from the International Monetary Fund in an attempt to rescue South Korea’s crisis-hit economy.19971月,金泳Kim Young-sam)以争取国际货币基金组IMF)的大规模纾困作为其总统任期最后几周的开始,试图借此拯救受到危机冲击的韩国经济。“We cannot avoid the criticism that we’ve hesitated on bold reforms,he said in a grim televised address, after failing to find alternatives to the tough conditions that would accompany IMF assistance. “The economic management of the past has reached its limit.”他表情严肃地在电视讲话中表示:“我们不能回避那种认为我们没有决心实施大胆改革的批评。过去的经济管理方式已达到极限。”在此之前,他未能找到替代方案,来避免因接受IMF援助而必须满足的苛刻条件。The Asian financial crisis brought a traumatic finale to a four-decade political career that was one of the most important in South Korea’s tumultuous journey to democracy. Kim, who died yesterday aged 87, was a leading opposition figure during 32 years of military rule, finally becoming the civilian president who brought that period to an end.亚洲金融危机为金泳三的政治生涯画上了一个令人难过的句号。他四十年的从政生涯,在韩国颠簸曲折的民主进程中极为重要。金泳三于昨日逝世,享7岁。他在韩2年的军事统治时期曾是头号反对派人物,并最终成为结束这一时期的文职总统。Born on the southern island of Geoje on December 20 1927, Kim became the youngest MP in modern Korean history when he was elected in 1954 at the age of 26. But he truly rose to prominence in the years after the authoritarian leader Park Chung-hee pushed through a new constitution in 1972 that in effect granted him absolute power.金泳92720日出生在韩国南部的巨济岛(Geoje)954年,26岁的金泳三当选议员,成为现代韩国历史上最年轻的议员。不过,他真正在政坛崛起,还是在1972年独裁领导人朴正Park Chung-hee)推动通过新宪法后的几年里。那部新宪法实际上赋予了朴正熙绝对的权力。Elected leader of the opposition New Democratic party two years later, Kim took the fore in demands for political reform. 两年后,金泳三当选反对党新民New Democratic Party)领导人,带头要求韩国实施政治改革。A climactic point came in 1979, when Kim granted sanctuary in his party headquarters to about 170 dismissed female workers from a wig factory, who had been evicted and beaten by police. The building was stormed by a thousand policemen, who injured dozens of people and killed one of the workers. The incident drew international condemnation, emboldening Mr Kim to step up his criticism of the government, which in turn prompted Park to have him expelled from parliament.1979年,局面发展到高潮。那一年,金泳三在其新民党总部为大70名被一家假发厂开除的女工提供庇护,这些女工此前曾遭警方的驱赶和殴打000名警察冲进新民党总部大楼,导致数十人受伤,一名女工丧生。这一事件引起了国际社会的谴责,鼓舞了金泳三加大对政府的批评力度,这反过来又促使朴正熙将金泳三逐出韩国议会。Park’s assassination later that year resulted in the accession to power of the repressive general Chun Doo-hwan, who oversaw the killing of hundreds of people following protests in the city of Gwangju in 1980. Kim marked the third anniversary of the atrocity with a 26-day hunger strike that ended only when he was detained and force-fed.同年晚些时候,朴正熙遭到暗杀,这使实行高压政策的全斗Chun Doo-hwan)将军上位,他980年光Gwangju)的抗议活动之后下令武力镇压,导致数百人死亡。金泳三在那次暴行三周年时进行了长达23天的绝食抗议,在被拘留和强迫进食后才结束绝食。Opposition to military rule continued to grow, and Kim played a big role in organising the protests that persuaded the government to hold direct elections in 1987. But when Kim and his fellow campaigner Kim Dae-jung both ran, the split allowed Roh Tae-woo, Chun’s chosen successor, to win the contest.反对军事统治的力量持续增强,金泳三在组织抗议、最终说政府在1987年举行直选中发挥了重要作用。但当时金泳三和与他一起开展运动的金大Kim Dae-jung)都竞选了总统,这种分裂造成全斗焕选择的继任者卢泰愚(Roh Tae-woo)赢得了大选。Both Kims ran again five years later but this time Kim Young-sam emerged triumphant. A year into his term, North Korea refused to allow international inspectors into a plutonium reprocessing plant, sparking a stand-off between Pyongyang and Washington. In his memoirs, Kim wrote that he had persuaded President Bill Clinton not to launch air strikes against North Korea’s nuclear facilities, telling him it would have prompted attacks on South Korea.金泳三和金大中都年后再次参选——但这一次金泳三获得了胜利。金泳三当选总统一年后,朝鲜拒绝让国际核查人员进入一处钚再处理工厂,这引发了朝鲜和美国的对峙。在回忆录中,金泳三写道,他说美国前总统比尔克林Bill Clinton)不对朝鲜核设施发动空袭,因为那将使韩国遭到袭击。Kim’s domestic record was mixed. He oversaw a law forbidding bank accounts under false names, a favoured tool of corrupt businessmen and politicians. In 1996 his predecessors Chun and Roh were respectively sentenced to death and jailed for life for crimes committed in office; Kim pardoned both in the final days of his presidency.金泳三的内政记录毁誉参半。他推动一项禁止用假名开设账户的法律获得通过,这种做法曾是腐败商人和政客青睐的手段996年,他的前任全斗焕和卢泰愚分别因掌权时犯下的罪行而被判处死刑和无期徒刑,金泳三在总统任期的末期赦免了两人。But he faced controversy over economic policy notably a labour law that gave companies the right to shed workers and declared the country’s second biggest union illegitimate. After weeks of demonstrations the government scrapped the law. This climbdown, along with the bribery conviction of a son (one of five children who survive him along with his wife Son Myung-soon), left his authority depleted.但他的经济政策面临争议——尤其是一部允许企业裁员的劳动法,以及宣布韩国第二大工会为非法组织。在数周的游行示威后,政府撤回了这部劳动法。这一退让、以及他的一个儿子(金泳三的五个子女之一,他与金泳三的妻子孙命顺(Son Myung-soon)依然在世)因受贿被判罪,让他的权威消失殆尀?Yet perhaps more than for his time as president, Kim will be remembered for his defiant work in opposition as characterised by his most celebrated aphorism, delivered in the face of state intimidation in 1979: “Dawn will come even if you wring the rooster’s neck.”比起金泳三任总统时的作为,人们可能更多地会因他在野时的反抗活动而铭记他——这些反抗可以用他在1979年面对政府恐吓时发表的最著名的一句格言来概括:“黎明总会到来——即使你拧断了公鸡的脖子。”来 /201511/412216

Kim Heung-Kwang saw his computing students picked off by the government图,金恒光参观政府招募的计算机学生Thousands of military hackers in North Korea could launch cyber attacks that could ;kill people and destroy cities;, a defector has warned.一名脱北者(特指朝鲜的叛逃者,译者注)警告说朝鲜数千计的黑客部队可以发动网络攻击并能;杀人并摧毁城市;。Professor Kim Heung-Kwang saw his brightest computing students picked for Bureau 121 to become ;cyber warriors; for Kim Jong-un before he fled the country in 2004.金恒光教授(2004年脱北的一名计算机教授,译者注)在004年离开这个国家之前看着他最聪明的计算机学生21局招募并成为金正恩;网络战士;;The size of the cyber-attack agency has increased significantly, and now has approximately 6,000 people,; he told B Click.他告诉B说:;网络攻击机构明显的增加了规模,现在大约有6000人;Kim Heung-Kwang taught students who were picked for Kim Jong-uns cyber warfare unit金恒光曾教过的学生被金正恩网络部队招;The reason North Korea has been harassing other countries is to demonstrate that North Korea has cyber war capacity.;朝鲜曾扰乱其他国家的理由是为了展示他已经具有网络战争的能;;Their cyber-attacks could have similar impacts as military attacks, killing people and destroying cities.;;他们的网络攻击和军事攻击具有相似的影响,(如)杀人和摧毁城市;Professor Kim, who taught at Hamheung Computer Technology University, believes hackers are building malware based on the ;Stuxnet; attack on Iranian nuclear centrifuges, which was attributed to the US and Israel.金恒光教授,授课于首尔计算机科技大学,相信黑客们正基于由美国和以色列开发攻击伊朗核设施;震网;制作恶意软件。Although the threat is theoretical, up to 20 per cent of North Koreas military budget is believed to go into online operations.虽然仅仅是理论,但普遍认为朝鲜军费预算中0%被用在了互联网行动。The government dismissed accusations that it was behind last years Sony Pictures hack as ;groundless slander; but praised the attack as a ;righteous deed;.去年发生的索尼影视被黑事件的控告被政府(应该指朝鲜,译者注)无视,称控告是;毫无根据的诬;,但赞扬这个事件;正义的行;。It delayed the release of The Interview, offering a comedy take on the fictional assassination of Kim.一部内容为刺杀金正恩的喜剧被推迟上映。Known attacks have targeted South Korean infrastructure and Seoul blames its northern neighbour for a hack on a hydro and nuclear power plant earlier this year.据称攻击目标为韩国基础设施,而且今年首尔谴责朝鲜黑进水电站及核电站。Barack Obama warned North Korea it would face retaliation over a cyber attack on Sony Pictures巴拉克·奥巴马警告朝鲜会因为黑索尼影视而遭到报复The warning came as an American research institute said satellite imagery showed significant new construction at North Koreas main rocket launch site for a possible space programme.一个美国研究所称,根据卫星图像显示在朝鲜一个主要的航天发射场发现明显的新建筑,可能是为了空间项目。这被当做是随之(韩国谴责朝鲜网络攻击,译者注)而来的警告。The secretive state has been banned from launching rockets or technology that could launch ballistic missiles by the UN Security Council but Kim declared this month that its space programme ;can never be abandoned;.这个神秘的国家被安理会禁止发射火箭或获得可以发射弹道导弹的技术。但金正恩本月宣布空间项;永远不能放弃;。Pyongyang claims work at the Sohae launch site, which blasted its first rocket into space in December 2012, is peaceful.平壤宣称,在西海发射场(2012年曾发射过火箭)的作业是和平的。In Seoul on Wednesday, nuclear envoys from South Korea, the US and Japan urged Pyongyang to engage in serious negotiations on its nuclear weapons.周三在首尔,韩国、美国及日本的核特使(应该指的是六方会谈特使,译者注)催促平壤参加有关其核武器的谈判。来 /201506/378243

General Prayuth Chan-ocha tightened his junta’s grip on Thailand on Thursday, as the country’s puppet parliament named him prime minister, three months after the May 22 coup.周四,巴#8226;占奥差将General Prayuth Chan-ocha)强化了其军政府对泰国的控制。在52日政个月之后,泰国的傀儡议会提名他为泰国总理。In a surreal session in Bangkok’s once disputatious legislature, MPs handpicked by the military, including many serving officers, stood up one by one to confirm the putsch leader as their choice without debate or dissent.泰国一度吵吵嚷嚷的立法机构召开了一次离奇的会议。在会议上,包括许多现任官员在内,受到军方压制的国会议员一个个站起来,确认这位暴动领袖成为他们的选择,在此过程中没有辩论,也无人表示异议。While Gen Prayuth has not been formally appointed and was not even present at the vote, it is widely expected he will take on the post as part of the junta’s widening efforts to reshape Thailand’s turbulent politics and stuttering economy.尽管巴育将军尚未获得正式任命,他甚至没有出现在投票现场,但外界普遍预计,他将担任总理职位——这是军政府以更大力度重塑泰国的动荡政治和乏力经济的努力的一部分。The unanimous parliamentary approval for the general was widely flagged and comes after the legislature this week rubber-stamped a draft budget proposed by the military that promises big spending increases for defence, education and transport.巴育将军在国会获得的无异议持,引起了广泛关注。此前,泰国国会例行公事地批准了一份由军方提议的预算草案——该预算案承诺加大对国防、教育和交通领域的投入。来 /201408/323025

  

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  Argentina and China signed multibillion-dollar infrastructure-financing and currency-swap deals on Friday during a visit by Chinese President Xi Jinping, another sign of the Asian countrys growing influence in Latin America.在中国国家主席习近平访问阿根廷期间,阿根廷与中国签署了价值数十亿美元的基建融资和货币互换协议。这是中国在拉美扩大影响力的又一个迹象。The two governments approved 20 agreements, including a 70 billion yuan currency swap between central banks, equivalent to about billion.两国共签订了20项协议,其中包括两国央行签署的人民币700亿元(相当于10亿美元)货币互换协议。The deals are a rare source of positive news for President Cristina Kirchners administration, which is struggling with a recession, high inflation, and a possible debt default at the end of the month. But analysts are skeptical the agreements will provide much relief to Argentinas depleted foreign-currency reserves, which the country uses to pay its creditors and defend the Argentine peso.这些协议对阿根廷总统克里斯蒂#8226;基什内尔(Cristina Kirchner)领导的政府来说是鲜有的好消息。眼下阿根廷政府正在艰难应对经济衰退和高通胀局面,月底还面临债务违约风险。但对于这些协议将在多大程度上缓解阿根廷外汇储备的枯竭问题,分析师们持怀疑态度。目前该国政府正动用外汇储备来偿付债务、捍卫阿根廷比索。The swap doesnt resolve the underlying economic problems that are draining reserves nor can the yuan be converted into other currencies, says Alberto Ramos, senior Latin America economist for Goldman Sachs.高盛(Goldman Sachs)拉美高级经济学家拉莫Alberto Ramos)说,货币互换协议无法解决那些正在抽走外汇储备的深层次经济问题,再说,人民币也无法直接兑换成其他货币If your house is on fire its not like buying more insurance will solve the problem. You need to address the main causes of the fire, Mr. Ramos said.拉莫斯说,如果你家房子着火了,买再多保险也无法解决问题,当务之急是解决着火的原因。Reserves now stand at almost billion, their lowest since November 2006.阿根廷目前的外汇储备规模为近300亿美元,0061月以来最低水平。By most measures, Argentinas reserves are very low compared with other major Latin American countries, said Claudio Loser, an Argentine economist and former Western Hemisphere director at the International Monetary Fund.阿根廷经济学家、前国际货币基金组织(International Monetary Fund, 简称IMF)西半球部Western Hemisphere)主管洛瑟(Claudio Loser)说,按大多数标准衡量,阿根廷外汇储备规模相比其他主要拉美国家已经显得非常低。China has also agreed to lend Argentina .1 billion to buy railroad equipment, and finance the construction of hydroelectric dams in southern Argentina to the tune of .7 billion, Argentinas Cabinet Chief Jorge Capitanich said.阿根廷内阁首席部长豪尔赫#8226;卡皮塔尼Jorge Capitanich)称,中国还同意借给阿根1亿美元用于采购铁路设备,同时将提7亿美元贷款帮助阿根廷在南部修建水电大坝。Bedeviled by foreign-currency shortages at home and unable to raise money by selling bonds abroad, Argentina has struggled to find funding alternatives for capital-intensive projects.由于缺少外汇储备,加上外债发行困难,阿根廷一直难以为资本密集型项目找到替代融资办法。Mr. Xi arrived in Buenos Aires on Friday following a summit in Brazil of Latin American and the Brics nations, whose members are Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. China and Brazil announced a flurry of deals Thursday, ranging from passenger-jet sales to power-grid investments.在参加完巴西举行的拉美国家领导人会晤和金砖国家(巴西、俄罗斯、印度、中国和南非)峰会后,习近平上周五抵达了布宜诺斯艾利斯。中国和巴西上周四宣布了从客机采购到电网投资等一系列协议。In the last decade, Chinas demand for Argentine farm products such as soyoil and soymeal has cemented its place as Argentinas No. 2 trading partner after neighboring Brazil. Bilateral trade rose to .3 billion last year, although heavily in favor of China. Argentinas trade deficit with the Asian country widened 9% from the previous year to .4 billion in 2013.过去十年,对阿根廷豆油和豆粕等农产品的需求巩固了中国作为阿根廷第二大贸易伙伴国的地位(阿根廷最大的贸易伙伴是巴西)。去年中阿双边贸易额升至173亿美元,尽管中国对阿根廷存在巨大顺差。去年阿根廷对中国的贸易逆差较上一年扩%4亿美元。Sino-Argentine ties run deeper than the soy that fattens Chinese hogs. Chinese firms have made significant investments in Argentine banking, mining, oil and agriculture in recent years. Argentina is also home to a thriving Chinese immigrant community, which now accounts for a significant share of supermarket sales in Buenos Aires.中国从阿根廷进口用于猪饲料的大豆,但这远非中阿关系的全部内容。在阿根廷的、矿业、石油和农业等领域,中国企业近年来都进行了相当可观的投资。阿根廷的中国移民也越来越多,布宜诺斯艾利斯超市销售额中有很大一部份是中国移民贡献的。Mr. Xis visit is shaping up to be far more beneficial for the Kirchner administration than Russian President Vladimir Putins brief stop in Buenos Aires on July 12. Mr. Putins visit yielded agreements in the areas of nuclear energy, communications and judicial cooperation, but little in the way of actual money.相比72日俄罗斯总统普京(Vladimir Putin)的短暂访问,看起来习近平此次访问给基什内尔政府带来的好处要大得多。普京在访问期间与阿根廷在和能源、通讯以及司法合作领域达成了一系列协议,但在提供实际资金方面成果寥寥。Argentina needs all the help it can get in the months ahead. Even a recession hasnt been enough to tame galloping consumer prices. Mrs. Kirchners reliance on the printing of money to finance spending has spawned one of the highest inflation rates in the world, which some private-sector forecasts put as high as 40%.未来几个月,阿根廷将竭尽所能筹措资金。即便是经济衰退也不足以缓和阿根廷国内的物价飙升。基什内尔政府依靠印钞为财政开提供资金的做法催生了高通胀,使阿根廷成为全球通胀率最高的国家之一。一些私营部门经济学家预计未来阿根廷的通胀率将高达40%。Dollar shortages and inflation have taken a toll on the economy. The Kirchner administration is expected to report that gross domestic product shrank 0.7% this year, according to the latest survey of analysts by FocusEconomics.美元供应短缺和高通胀严重损害了阿根廷经济。FocusEconomics最新调查显示,分析师们预计基什内尔政府将公布今年阿根廷国内生产总GDP)萎缩0.7%。Mrs. Kirchner also has less than two weeks to resolve a high-stakes dispute over unpaid debts or risk seeing her country default for a second time in 13 years.基什内尔还必须在两周不到的时间里解决一场围绕未偿债务的高风险纠纷,否则,阿根廷将面临13年来第二次债务违约。A U.S. judge has barred Argentina from paying its current bonds unless it also pays hedge funds that have sued to collect on debt affected by the countrys 2001 default. Argentina has until July 30 to get some 9 million in interest payments to investors or will likely be declared in default.一名美国法官裁定,禁止阿根廷偿付现有国债,除非它付一批对冲基金欠款。这批对冲基金此前起诉阿根廷政府,要求其赔偿2001年债务违约给它们带来的投资损失。阿根廷需要在70日之前向投资者付约5.39亿美元的债务利息,否则,政府可能被宣布违约。A default would make the recession worse, but nothing like the 2001 crisis, which ranked as Argentinas worst recession since the 1930s, Mr. Loser said.洛瑟说,债务违约将加深阿根廷的经济衰退,但不会001年危机时那样严重,当时阿根廷经济陷入了上世纪30年代以来最严重的衰退。来 /201407/313954

  

  In the last month, terror attacks that left 130 dead in Paris and 43 dead in Beirut and took down a Russian airliner with 224 people aboard have made the entire world horribly aware that the Islamic State not only seeks to establish a caliphate in Syria and Iraq, but also is beginning to export its monstrous savagery abroad. Although the Islamic State has been in the headlines for only two years, and its metastasis has been alarmingly swift, the seeds of the group in its many incarnations were planted many years ago, as Joby Warrick’s gripping new book, “Black Flags,makes clear.上个月,巴黎30人在恐怖袭击中丧生,贝鲁特亦有43人因恐怖袭击丧生,俄罗斯一架航班因恐怖袭击坠落,机上224人无人生还,整个世界惊恐地意识到,伊斯兰Islamic State)不仅谋求在叙利亚与伊拉克建立哈里发的国土,也开始向海外输出惨无人道的暴行。尽管伊斯兰国广受媒体关注只有两年的时间,它的扩散极为迅速,令人担忧,乔比·瓦里克(Joby Warrick)引人入胜的新书《黑旗Black Flags)中阐明,这个组织的种子以多种多样的形式,早在多年之前便已播下。Mr. Warrick, a reporter for The Washington Post and the author of the 2011 best seller “The Triple Agent,has a gift for constructing narratives with a novelistic energy and detail, and in this volume, he creates the most revealing portrait yet laid out in a book of Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi, the founding father of the organization that would become the Islamic State (also known as ISIS or ISIL).瓦里克是《华盛顿邮报The Washington Post)的记者,亦是2011年最佳畅销书《三重特工The Triple Agent)的作者,他擅长以小说式的活力和细节组织叙事,在这本书里,他为伊斯兰国(亦称ISIS或ISIL)的前身组织的创始人阿布·穆萨布·扎卡维(Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi)做出了迄今最为发人深省的的描述。Although this book owes some debts to Jean-Charles Brisard’s 2005 book, “Zarqawi: The New Face of Al Qaeda,Mr. Warrick places that material in context with recent developments and uses his own copious sources within the ed States and Jordanian intelligence to flesh out Mr. Zarqawi’s story and the crucial role that American missteps and misjudgments would play in fueling his rise and the advance of the Islamic State.尽管这本书从查尔斯·布利萨Jean-Charles Brisard)2005年的著作《扎卡维:基地组织的新面孔Zarqawi: The New Face of Al Qaeda)中有所借鉴,瓦里克把这些素材与事态的最新发展结合起来,动用了自己在美国与约旦情报机关中的大量人脉,充实了扎卡维的故事,以及美国的错误行动与错误判断在他的崛起与伊斯兰国的发展之中,扮演了多么重要的作用。Perhaps emulating the approach Lawrence Wright took in “The Looming Tower,his masterly 2006 account of the road to Sept. 11, Mr. Warrick focuses parts of this book on the lives of several individuals with singular, inside takes on the overarching story. They include a doctor named Basel al-Sabha, who treated Mr. Zarqawi in prison; Abu Haytham, who ran the counterterrorism unit of Jordan’s intelligence service and fought the Islamic State in its various guises for years; and Nada Bakos, a young C.I.A. officer who became the agency’s top expert on Mr. Zarqawi. This narrative approach lends the larger story of the Islamic State an up-close-and-personal immediacy and underscores the many what-ifs that occurred along the way.或许是模仿劳伦斯·赖特(Lawrence Wright)006年出版的揭示911事件成因的杰作《末日巨塔The Looming Tower),瓦利斯的书中也有几部部分是关注整个故事中几个具有特殊内部视点的人物,其中包括在狱中给扎卡维看病的巴塞尔·阿里-萨布Basel al-Sabha)医生;约旦情报机构反恐部门的领导人阿布·海萨姆(Abu Haytham),多年来他与伊斯兰国的各种伪装形式进行斗争;年轻的中央情报局官员纳达·巴克Nada Bakos),他成了中情局研究扎卡维的顶级专家。这样的叙事方式为更大范围的伊斯兰国的故事带来一种贴近而且个人化的直接性,强调出它发展过程中的各种可能性。In “Black Flags,Mr. Zarqawi comes across as a kind of Bond villain, who repeatedly foils attempts to neutralize him. He was a hard-drinking, heavily tattooed Jordanian street thug (well versed in pimping, drug dealing and assault), and when he found religion, he fell for it hard, having a relative slice off his offending tattoos with a razor blade.在《黑旗》中,扎卡维有点07故事中的反派,他一再努力令自己中立化,却总是失败。他曾经是个酗酒、满身刺青的约旦街头流氓(精通拉皮条、贩毒和打人),后来他找到了信仰,深深沉浸其中,让一个亲戚用剃刀把他身上带有不敬内容的文身割去了。He traveled to Afghanistan in 1989 to wage jihad; during a stint in a Jordanian prison, he emerged as a leader known and feared for his ruthlessness as an enforcer among Islamist inmates. He began thinking of himself as a man with a destiny, and in the aftermath of the American invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, he set up a small training camp in Iraq’s northeastern mountains, near the Iranian border.1989年,他去往阿富汗发动圣战;在约旦监狱刑期间,他成了一名领袖,以对同一监狱中的伊斯兰教徒冷血无情著称,并且深受畏惧。他开始认为自己负有使命,后来001年美国入侵阿富汗时,他在伊拉克东北部靠近伊朗边界的山脉中开设了一个小型训练营。At this point, Mr. Zarqawi was just a small-time jihadist. But then, Mr. Warrick writes, “in the most improbable of events, America intervened,declaring in an effort to make the case for ousting Saddam Hussein that “this obscure Jordanian was the link between Iraq’s dictatorship and the plotters behind the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.As C.I.A. analysts well knew, this assertion was false; in retrospect, it would also have the perverse effect of turning Mr. Zarqawi into “an international celebrity and the toast of the Islamist movement.Weeks later, when ed States troops invaded Iraq, this newly famous terrorist “gained a battleground and a cause and soon thousands of followers.”当时,扎卡维还只是一个三流圣战者。但在那个时候,沃里克写道,“美国介入了最荒谬的事件,”为了推翻萨达姆·侯赛Saddam Hussein),美国宣布,“这个鲜为人知的约旦人与伊拉克的独裁政权有联系,00111恐怖袭击事件背后的策划者。”正如中央情报局的分析员所知,这个断言是错误的;事后看来,它也产生了错误的效应,令扎卡维成了“国际名人,以及伊斯兰运动中备受赞誉的人士。”几个星期后,美国军队入侵了伊拉克,这个声誉鹊起的恐怖分子“得到了战场,以及一个理由,很快就得到了成千上万的拥趸。”Accused by the Bush administration of being in league with Saddam Hussein, Mr. Zarqawi would use the Americanstoppling of the dictator to empower himself. He was a diabolical strategist, and he quickly capitalized on two disastrous decisions made by the Americans (dissolving the Iraqi Army and banning Baath Party members from positions of authority), which intensified the country’s security woes and left tens of thousands of Iraqis out of work and on the street. Soon, former members of Mr. Hussein’s military were enlisting in Mr. Zarqawi’s army; others offered safe houses, intelligence, cash and weapons.小布什政府指责扎卡维同萨达姆·侯赛因联盟,于是扎卡维就利用美国推翻这个独裁者的机会增加自己的权力。他是个恶魔般的战略家,很快就利用了美国的两个灾难性的决定(其一是解散了伊拉克陆军,其二是解除了伊拉克复兴党员们的公职),这两个决定令国家的安全问题进一步恶化,令数万伊拉克人失业,流落街头。很快,侯赛因的前军队就集结在扎卡维麾下;其他人则为他们提供安全屋、情报、现金和武器。While the Bush White House was debating whether there even was an insurgency in Iraq, Mr. Zarqawi was helping to direct the worsening violence there, orchestrating car and suicide bombings and shocking beheadings. He also used terrorism to change the battlefield, fomenting sectarian hatred between the Shiites and the disenfranchised and increasingly bitter Sunnis, guaranteeing more chaos and discrediting the electoral process.当小布什政府还在讨论伊拉克境内是否有叛变之际,扎卡维已经开始在那里制造日益恶化的暴力事件,他精心安排车辆炸弹与自杀炸弹,以及骇人的斩首事件。他还利用恐怖主义改变战场,在什叶派与丧失选举权,日益布满的逊尼派之间煽动宗派仇恨,在选举过程中不断制造混乱与怀疑。Mr. Zarqawi’s penchant for ultraviolence had won him his favorite moniker, “the sheikh of the slaughterers,but by mid-2005, his bloodthirstiness and killing of Shiite innocents worried Al Qaeda’s leadership, which warned him that “the mujahed movement must avoid any action that the masses do not understand or approve.”扎卡维对大型暴力的热爱为他赢得了一个绰号,他自己也非常喜欢——“屠夫酋长”,但到2005年年中,他的嗜血与杀害什叶派无辜者的行为令基地组织的领导人也为之担忧,他们警告他,“圣战运动应当避免任何民众不能理解或不赞同的行为。”After many narrow escapes, Mr. Zarqawi was finally killed by a ed States airstrike in June 2006, and over the next few years, the ed States managed to decimate much of his organization. Still, dangerous embers remained, and they would burst into flames under the group’s new leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, who shared Mr. Zarqawi’s taste for gruesome violence, and who had built up a valuable network of supporters while serving time in Camp Bucca, a ed States-controlled prison known as a “jihadi universityfor its role in radicalizing inmates. The sectarianism of the Iraqi prime minister Nuri Kamal al-Maliki drove increasingly marginalized Sunnis into the embrace of the Islamic State a dynamic hastened by the withdrawal of American troops in 2011. Meanwhile, in Syria, the chaos of civil war created perfect conditions for the Islamic State’s explosive growth and a home base for its self-proclaimed caliphate.经历了多次死里逃生,扎卡维终于006月死于美国空袭之中,在接下来的数年里,美国消灭了他的大部分组织。但是危险的星星之火仍然存在,终于在组织的新领袖阿布·贝克尔·巴格达Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi)领导下成为燎原之势,他和扎卡维一样热衷残酷暴力,布卡营地(Camp Bucca)刑期间,更是建立起了持者的宝贵网络,这座监狱由美国控制,刑者在这里往往变得更加激进,因此素有“圣战者的大学”之称。伊拉克总理努里·卡迈勒·马利基(Nuri Kamal al-Maliki)的宗派主义令日益边缘化的逊尼派教徒开始接受伊斯兰国——这个势头随着2011年美国撤军而加快。与此同时,在叙利亚,内战的混乱为伊斯兰国的迅速崛起创造了完美的条件,也为它所自称的哈里发提供了家园。The final chapters of this volume have a somewhat hurried feel. In fact, more detailed examinations of the rise of Mr. Baghdadi, the Islamic State’s sophisticated use of social media, and its efforts to displace Al Qaeda as the leader of global jihad can be found in two illuminating recent books: “ISIS: Inside the Army of Terror,by Michael Weiss and Hassan Hassan, and “ISIS: The State of Terror,by Jessica Stern and J. M. Berger. But for ers interested in the roots of the Islamic State and the evil genius of its godfather, Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi, there is no better book to begin with than “Black Flags.”本书的最后一章有点像赶出来的。事实上,关于巴格达迪的崛起、伊斯兰国对社交媒体精心设计的运用,以及它谋求取代基地组织,成为全球圣战领袖的努力可以在另外两本颇具启发性的新书中找到:迈克尔·韦Michael Weiss)和哈桑·哈Hassan Hassan)的《ISIS: 走进恐怖军团ISIS: Inside the Army of Terror),以及杰西卡·斯特Jessica Stern)与J·M·伯格的《ISIS: 恐怖之囀?ISIS: The State of Terror)。但是对伊斯兰国的起源,以及它的邪恶教父阿布·穆萨布·扎卡维感兴趣的读者们来说,《黑旗》是个最好的开始。来 /201512/415515

  Despite China’s faltering growth, Costa Rica is looking to Beijing to help it plug a growing hole in its public accounts, as it starts talks on the sale of a bn bond.尽管中国经济增长乏力,但哥斯达黎加还是希望中国帮助填补其不断扩大的财政赤字。目前,哥斯达黎加正就发0亿美元债券事宜与中方展开商谈。Commodities producers in Latin America have long seen China as a deep-pocketed ally, and Costa Rica will be hoping it can emulate Venezuela and Ecuador, which have both secured Chinese funding this year as they battle the oil price crash.长期以来,拉美大宗商品生产国一直把中国视为资金雄厚的盟友,哥斯达黎加希望自己可以效仿委内瑞拉和厄瓜多尔,后两个国家都在今年应对油价暴跌之时获得了中方的资金。“We’re in the initial stages of negotiations,Costa Rican president Luis Guillermo Solís told the Financial Times in New York. He acknowledged, however, it was “not the best time for China“我们正处于谈判的初始阶段,”哥斯达黎加总统路易斯吉列尔莫∠利斯(Luis Guillermo Solis)在纽约告诉英囀?金融时报》。不过,他承认,现在“对中国而言并非最佳时机”。Costa Rica’s ties with China have deepened since 2007, when the Latin American nation severed ties with Taiwan and established relations with Beijing. Beijing rewarded that decision by buying 0m in bonds at a preferential 2 per cent interest rate. Costa Ricas sovereign debt was cut to junk status last year, and the new bond would again have a favourable rate.2007年以来,哥斯达黎加与中国的关系一直在加深。那一年,这个拉美国家切断了与台湾的关系,并与北京方面建立了外交关系。作为对这一决定的回报,北京方面%的优惠利率购买了3亿美元哥斯达黎加国债。去年,哥斯达黎加主权债券评级被下调至垃圾级,此次新发行的债券将再次提供优惠利率。Mr Pacheco, speaking by telephone from San José, said a proposal had been submitted to the Chinese and he hoped for a reply within six weeks as 016 is just around the corner and we’d like to have the funds to start the year哥斯达黎加代理财政部长何塞弗朗西斯科帕切Jose Francisco Pacheco)在圣何塞接受电话采访时表示,哥斯达黎加已向中国提交一项方案,他希望中方在六周内作出答复,因为016年即将到来,我们希望能在年初时获得资金”。Mr Solís, who was seeking to drum up investment, referred to China “a strategic partner Beijing is building a key highway linking the capital with a bn container port at Puerto Moín to double capacity for the world’s top pineapple exporter. Mr Solís visited Beijing this year and the two nations agreed to set up a special economic area in Costa Rica for Chinese investment and to “promote a growing Chinese presence in the region索利斯正竭力招揽投资,他把中国称作哥斯达黎加的“战略合作伙伴”。中国正在哥斯达黎加修建一条重要的高速公路,将把该国首都圣何塞与莫因Puerto Moín)价0亿美元的集装箱港口连接起来,令这个全球最大菠萝出口国的出口能力提高一倍。索利斯今年曾访问中国,两国同意在哥斯达黎加设立一个面向中方投资的特别经济区,并“推动中国增强在该地区的影响力”。来 /201510/402153。

  

  David Cameron, Britain’s prime minister, is putting in place plans to hold on to power and deliver his promised referendum on EU membership even if he fails to win an outright majority in a knife-edge general election on Thursday.英国首相戴维#8226;卡梅David Cameron)正制定计划以谋求继续掌权,并打算即使不能在大选中赢得压倒性多数席位,也要按照此前承诺,就英国是否脱离欧盟(EU)举行公投。英国大选将于周四举行,结果仍十分难以预测。But opposition Labour party leader Ed Miliband is making similar plans to form a minority government and could become prime minister even if he finishes second, thanks to the expected support of the separatist Scottish National party, which is forecast to win by a landslide north of the border.不过,反对党工党(Labour)的领袖埃#8226;米利班德(Ed Miliband)也在制定类似计划,寻求组建一个少数党政府。他的选票即使落后于卡梅伦,仍有可能成为英国首相,因为奉行分离主义的苏格兰国家Scottish National Party)预计会持米利班德,而该党预计会在英国北部取得压倒性胜利。Opinion polls put the Conservatives and Labour neck-and-neck on about 34 points each, promising one of the most uncertain outcomes for decades in a British election, which until 2010 usually delivered a clear parliamentary majority to one of the two main parties.民调显示,保守党(Conservatives)和工Labour)的持率旗鼓相当,均4%左右。这一局面令此次大选很可能成为数十年来英国大选中结果最难确定的一次。在2010年以前,英国两大主要政党中的一家通常会在大选中赢得明确的议会多数席位。The Tories insist they detect some last-minute momentum in their favour. Allies of the Conservative leader say Mr Cameron would “move quicklyto begin talks with his current coalition partners, the pro-European Liberal Democrats, if he emerges with the most seats on May 7.保守党人士坚称,大选前最后一刻的选情中有一些利于他们的迹象。卡梅伦的盟友表示,如果卡梅日赢得最多席位,他会“尽快采取行动”,与现有联盟伙伴、亲欧洲的自由民主党Libreal Democrats)展开磋商。The prime minister made clear yesterday that his plan to hold an “in-outreferendum by 2017 on Britain’s EU membership was a red line, saying: “I would not lead a government that doesn’t have that referendum in law and carried out.”周日,卡梅伦明确表示,017年以前就英国是否脱离欧盟开展公投,是他的最后底线。他说:“我不会领导一个法律上不认可也不实施这一公投的政府。”Lib Dem leader Nick Clegg signalled he could give Mr Cameron his referendum in exchange for his own party’s red lines, including more spending on schools, healthcare and a “fairerdeficit reduction plan.自由民主党领导人尼克#8226;克雷Nick Clegg)则表示,他可能会持卡梅伦的公投计划,以换取推行自己所在党派的政治主张底线——包括加大对学校、医疗保健的开,以及提高减赤方案“公平程度”。The FT’s election calculator gives Mr Cameron 274 seats and Mr Miliband 270 both well short of the 325 target for a House of Commons majority leaving both dependent on the backing of other parties.按照英国《金融时报》大选计算器的估计,卡梅伦预计会获得274个席位,米利班德预计会获70个席位,都将大大低于获得议会下院多数席位所需25个席位。这一局面意味着双方都需要得到其他政党的持。If Mr Cameron emerges as the leader of the biggest party he is expected to begin talks with the Lib Dems and also the Democratic Ulster Unionist party, which is demanding more public spending in Northern Ireland.如果卡梅伦成为议会最大政党的领导人,预计他会启动与自由民主党及民主统一DUP)的磋商。民主统一党的主张是要求加大对北爱尔兰的公共开。Some Conservatives expect him to make his move on Friday, the day after polling day, to establish momentum, but even Lib Dem and DUP support may not take him over the finishing line.部分保守党人预计,卡梅伦会在投票日之后的周五开始行动造势。然而,即使他得到自由民主党和民主统一党的持,可能也无法确保取得最终胜利。The SNP, which is opposed to austerity and wants to scrap Britain’s nuclear deterrent, has said it would help Mr Miliband into power in a hung parliament and “lock David Cameron out of Downing Street苏格兰国家党已经表示,如果出现“无多数议会hung parliament)局面,该党会帮助米利班德掌权,“将戴维#8226;卡梅伦锁在唐宁街(Downing Street)之外”。苏格兰国家党反对英国实施紧缩政策,并希望英国放弃核威慑。It has built on the momentum of last year’s independence referendum which it lost by 45 to 55 per cent and polls suggest it could win most of the 59 Scottish seats at Westminster.去年的苏格兰公投令苏格兰国家党声势大振——尽管那次公投以45%5%的结果没有取得成功。民调显示,该党可能会赢得苏格兰在英国议9个席位中的大多数。来 /201505/373433

  We live in strange times. Companies are increasingly running applications on computers owned and operated by another company. Employees tend to look upon their colleagues in information technology as more of a nuisance than an asset.我们生活在一个奇怪的时代。越来越多的企业在其他公司拥有和运营的电脑上运行他们的应用程序。很多员工都很讨厌搞IT的同事,而不是把他们视为一笔资产。Satya Nadella thinks his company can help make sense of it all.萨塔亚o纳德拉认为,他的公司可以帮助人们理解这些问题。On Monday, at Microsoft’s Ignite conference in Chicago, the chief executive will directly address those tech professionals who make sure email gets where it needs to go and that corporate databases keep chugging along. To them Nadella will issue a reminder that even though many dollars budgeted for technology are now flowing to marketing or other corporate departments, that doesn’t mean IT spending is down overall or that the need for tech specialists has evaporated. Quite the contrary.本月初,在微软Ignite芝加哥峰会上,这位首席执行官将对这些确保邮件顺利抵达目的地,公司数据库保持正常运转的技术人员发表演讲。纳德拉还将提醒他们,尽管许多技术预算正在流向营销或其他业务部门,但这并不意味着IT出正呈现总体下降趋势,也不意味着技术人员对企业的重要性正在降低。事实截然相反。Last week Nadella spoke with Fortune about Microsoft’s challenge in addressing this group about the company’s strategy and how he feels about its cloud computing competition. It’s the latest stop in a two-month itinerary that has placed Nadella in front of his company’s largest constituencies, from users of Microsoft business applications (at Convergence in March) to software developers (at Build last week).上周接受《财富》专访时,纳德拉谈到了微软的战略以及云计算领域的竞争。这次峰会也是纳德拉为期2个月的巡回演讲行程的最近一站,他希望通过此次巡回演讲拉拢微软最大的“票仓”,即微软企业应用用户(3月的Convergence峰会)和软件开发人员(上周的Build峰会)。For those ers wondering, Fortune did ask Nadella about reports that Microsoft may be the company behind a recent takeover offer for Salesforce , a company that has proven to be a rival and sometimes partner to the Redmond, Wash. company. He refused to comment.为了解开部分读者心中的疑问,《财富》也向纳德拉求了微软将收购Salesforce公司的传闻。Salesforce长期以来一直与微软保持着亦敌亦友的关系。不过纳德拉拒绝这个问题。The conversation has been edited and condensed for clarity.以下是此次采访的摘要,有删减。Fortune:Microsoft’s theme of aligning IT with businesses is something you’ve talked about for years. So what’s new in the cloud era?《财富》:“让IT与企业结盟”这个主题,微软已经说了好几年了。在云计算时代,这个主题有何新意?Nadella: It is all about empowering IT. And in some sense I look at it and say, you know, of course IT stands for information technology, but none of those other transformations for business users can really be achieved, especially in the context of the enterprise, if IT professionals don’t also think of themselves as key drivers of innovation and transformation. And that’s kind of the play with words that I’ve been thinking about a lot. IT really stands for innovation and transformation.纳德拉:我们要赋予IT更大的力量。当然IT的意思是信息科技,但如果IT人士不把自己看作创新和转型的关键推动者,那么商业用户的其它转型是无法真正实现的,尤其是在企业环境中。最近我思考了很多这方面的事。IT的真正含义应该是创新(Innovation)与转型(Transformation)。Many employees view IT as naysayers and gatekeepers. I don’t see that changing. Isn’t that what drove the bring-your-own-device [BYOD] stuff in the first place?许多员工认为IT部门就是“找茬的”或是“看大门的”,而且我认为这种情况还没有转变。是否正是这种看法催生了所谓的“自带设备上班”(BYOD)潮流?That’s right. And I think that is the challenge. One of the things that I’ve been really focused on, long before even becoming CEO, has been Enterprise Mobility Suite[Microsoft’s software to manage corporate devices]. The thing about bring your own device or bring your own service is, what happens to the information assurance of a company? Okay, so you move to another company. What happens to all the access you had as a person with credentials? Who is taking care of restricting all of that?是的,我认为这是一个挑战。早在我成为CEO以前很长时间,我就非常关注微软的“企业移动套件”(Enterprise Mobility Suite,用来管理企业移动设备的软件)。“自带设备上班”或“自带务上班”的关键问题是,它对企业的信息安全有何影响?对涉密人员的进入权限有何影响?谁来负责约束这些行为?So I feel that there has to be the freedom for end users to be able to choose devices and choose services and yet the ability for IT to govern but not control. I think that transformation—from control to govern, from provision to enable—is what IT must go through. And quite frankly it’s not just about them not wanting to change. It’s also incumbent on us, especially as a massive provider to IT, to give them the right kind of solutions.我认为,终端用户必须有选择设备和务的自由,同时IT部门也要具备管理而非控制的能力。我认为这种从控制到管理、从提供到赋予的转型,是企业的IT部门必须经历的一步。老实说,不想做出改变的并非仅仅是IT部门,还包括像我们这样的守成者,尤其是作为一家大型的IT供应商,也需要为他们提供正确的解决方案。One of the things we’re talking about right now is Windows 10. We are making it possible for businesses to stay current with Windows as a service [as easily as consumers have been able to]. There are lots of technology elements to this—for example, there are things that we’re doing in Windows Update to still give IT a lot of governance around how patches are applied but solve some of the things that get in the way of IT being able to satisfy their customers.Windows 10是我们最近谈得比较多的。我们使企业能够继续轻松享受Windows这项务(就像普通消费者一样)。这个版本有很多技术元素——比如在Windows的系统更新上,我们仍然围绕着升级补丁等方面给予了IT部门很多管理权,同时也解决了很多妨碍IT部门满足客户要求的问题。So yes, you’re absolutely right. IT has to go from saying “noto saying “yes,but saying “yeswith assurance. And that I think is both a technology problem for us to solve and what we must talk a lot about and evangelize.所以,你说的很对。IT部门必须要从说“No”向说“Yes”转型,但是要有把握地说“Yes”。这既是一个有待我们解决的技术问题,也是一个我们必须多多宣传普及的问题。Many companies think that if they put more business applications in the cloud, they don’t need as many IT people. Maybe you don’t need a SharePoint expert or an Exchange expert. Is the net number of IT professionals shrinking at large companies?很多公司认为,如果他们把更多的企业应用置于云端,那么他们就不再需要那么多IT人员了。你可能不需要一个SharePoint或Exchange方面的专家。那么,大型企业的IT部门人数现在是否在缩减?There are always going to be people who are experts in security, or end-user devices, or collaboration, or databases. That’s not going to go away. But what’s the reason all of these professions come together? To help the business transform itself.总会有一些人是网络安全、终端用户设备、协作或数据库方面的专家,这些人是不会失业的。但企业为什么要提供这些职位?就是要帮助企业转型。You talk about shrinking budgets. So here is a fascinating phenomenon. Ask any company—it could be in manufacturing, packaged goods, energy, retail, what have you—what in their total digital technology spend is going up as a percentage of revenue. Then ask what is coming down. It’s what was considered past IT—maybe a bunch of fans, or servers. Even if you are predominantly an on-premise customer, you’re using the cloud quite a bit for development and testing new applications. You may be building a mobile or web back end in the cloud, but you’re not yet moving your ERP [“enterprise resource planning”] system to the cloud.你刚刚谈到了预算缩水的问题。一个有趣的现象是:你可以问问任何一家公司——不管它从事制造、能源、零售还是什么行业——其IT出的哪一部分正在上涨,哪一部分正在下降。后者就是所谓“过时的IT”——它可能是很多风扇或务器什么的。即便你是一个以本地应用为主的用户,你在研发或测试新应用时也会用到大量云技术。你可能会在云端上构建移动或网页后端,但你还没有把ERP(企业资源规划)系统放到云端上。So in a sense they want more out of the same dollar for what they did yesterday. And then they want to spend more dollars for things that they’re doing that are new.所以在某种程度上可以说,他们希望用和昨天一样的投资获得更多的回报。然后他们想花更多的投资去做他们正在做的新东西。IT spend is not limited just to the IT department. It’s sp across marketing and human resources. One of the fascinating things I see is the amount of analytics spend. Power BI [a Microsoft “business intelligenceservice], which we launched as SaaS [“software-as-a-service,the industry term for a cloud-based application], I initially thought would be used by developers and maybe marketers. It turns out that HR departments all use Power BI because “people analyticsis a big deal. So in places where I traditionally would not have expected big IT spending, they are becoming big spenders of IT, because IT is everywhere.并不是只有IT部门的IT出很有限,这个现象在营销和人力资源领域也很普遍。一个有意思的现象是企业的分析出。Power BI(微软的“商业情报”分析务)是我们以SaaS模式(Saas又称“软件即务”,是一个用来描述云应用的行业术语)发布的,我起初以为它的用户主要是开发者或营销人员。后来我发现人力资源部门也在使用Power BI,这是因为“人力分析”的重要性。因此,有些领域我原本没有预料到会出现较大的IT出,但它们却成了IT的开大户,因为现在IT已经无所不在。Let’s talk about data, making really complex data sets, and making the ability to parse them available to mere mortals.让我们谈谈数据吧,如何制作非常复杂的数据集,以及如何分何这些复杂数据,令普通人也能看得懂。If you look at what has happened with our database business, at the core, with SQL Server…I mean, it’s just pretty hilarious for me to think about people who think of Amazon Web Services as a leader in data and not have an understanding of the democratization of data that we have done with our regular old database business—an billion business that’s everywhere, in the core of the enterprise.如果你看看我们的数据库业务特别是SQL务器业务……我觉得非常搞笑的是,很多人认为亚马逊网页务(Amazon Web Services)是数据领域的领军者,却没有意识到我们通过“古老的”数据库业务早已实现了数据的平民化——这项业务已经发展到80亿美元的市值,无处不在,居于企业的核心地位。We just bought a company called Revolution Analytics. We are going to completely change what it means to do advanced analytics with our data solutions. We have machine-learning stuff that is about really bringing advanced analytics and statistical machine learning into data-science departments everywhere. We absolutely have this strength in Excel, but Power BI is a SaaS service that allows you to do these rich visualizations and dashboards and collaborate and share.我们最近刚刚收购了一家名叫Revolution Analytics的公司。凭借我们的数据解决方案,我们将彻底改变所谓的“高级分析”的面貌。我们的机器学习技术将把高级分析和统计学机器学习技术带到全球各地的数据科学部门。我们的Excel绝对拥有这种优势。作为一项SaaS务,Power BI可以使你通过云端进行丰富的可视化和仪表盘操作,并进行协作与分享。I’ve been very, very focused on usage. I look at what’s happening in Office 365 by tenant, by service. All of that is dashboarded. So if one of the engineers on Office 365, say Exchange Online, has a dashboard I can go discover that usage. So it’s become, in fact, the lingua franca of how we make sense of big data inside the company and how we collaborate on it.我非常关注这些技术的使用。我仔细研究了Office 365的租借和务使用情况。所有这些数据都是用仪表盘工具(Dashboard)分析的。如果一位利用Office 365的工程师——比如说他正在利用其Exchange Online功能——有一个仪表盘,我就可以发现他的使用情况。所以,它其实已经成为我们理解公司内部的大数据及其协作方式的通用工具。And it’s not just reports or dashboards. It’s live data. That means I can ask a natural-language question, get a response, do a rich visualization, and then share back. That, I think, is what I referenced before as data culture. Just because you have big data doesn’t mean you have insights or a better ability to pass judgment. So you’ve got to have this data culture. What does that mean? You are only going to have a data culture if you have the right kinds of tools. That’s what Power BI is about.而且它不仅仅是报告或仪表盘这样简单,它是实时的数据。这意味着我可以问一个自然语言的问题,并且可以获得回答,做丰富的可视化操作,然后分享回去。这就是我以前提到过的“数据文化”。仅仅拥有大数据,并不意味着你就拥有了正确的见解,或拥有了更好的决判能力,所以你必须要有数据文化。什么意思呢?如果你有了正确的工具,你只需要拥有数据文化就可以了。这正是Power BI的目标。Most people see Amazon as the leader in core infrastructure. Over time it added higher level services and talked more to big companies like General Electric. What’s your take on the competitive landscape for big customers when it comes to cloud computing? Is Google a contender?大多数人认为亚马逊才是核心架构领域的领军者。随着时间的推移,它添加了更高级的务,与通用电气等大公司的合作也越来越多。你怎么看云计算市场上针对大客户的竞争?谷歌是否也是一个竞争者?The enterprise market is never winner-take-all. If you look at the previous client-server era, we had a lot of success. So did Oracle, EMC, Cisco. And now, when you look at the current cloud era, you would say there is us, there’s Amazon, and there’s Google who have that hyperscale cloud. But really it’s Amazon, us, and maybe VMware who will translate the position that they had in the previous era to one in this new era.企业市场从来不是一个“赢者通吃”的市场。如果你看看之前的主从式务器时代,我们有很多成功的例子,甲骨文、EMC和思科也一样。在云时代,你可能会说,我们和亚马逊、谷歌都有超大规模的云业务。但我认为只有亚马逊和我们,或许还有VMware能在这个新时代继续保持上一代的领先地位。I really am not focused on competing against Amazon in IaaS [“infrastructure-as-a-service”]. That’s not what it’s about. Take Azure Active Directory. It’s got 5 million entities—that means 5 million commercial organizations that have a relationship with Microsoft in the cloud and not on premise or with our licenses. None of that. They’re using Dynamics for CRM [“customer relationship management”] or ERP [“enterprise resource management”], Office 365, Azure, Enterprise Mobility Suite. That is representing 450 million individual identities within that 5 million organizational footprint.我其实并不关注在IaaS(“基础设施即务”)领域与亚马逊的竞争,那不重要。我们的Azure Active Directory“微软云”务已经有00万个实体用户,这意味着00万个商业实体在云端上与微软有联系,而且他们既没有用本地务,也没有我们的许可。他们使用微软Dynamics进行客户关系管理或企业资源管理,还使用微软的Office 365、Azure和企业移动套件。而这500万个商业实体中,还有4.5亿个个人。To me what matters is having the right mix of SaaS value. I don’t think of my server business as somehow “old schoolor “legacy.I actually think of the server as the edge of my cloud.在我看来,真正重要的,是拥有正确的SaaS的价值组合。我不认为我们的务器业务是“过时的”,或是所谓的“遗产”。我认为务器业务对我们的云业务来说是一种优势。We now have the ability to tie together the cloud and the server. That is a very unique capability that we have. So who am I competing with? Amazon has no capability to compete there. They don’t have a server. Nor does Google. Oracle doesn’t have the equivalent capability. So those are the places where we want to really excel.我们现在有能力将云业务和务器业务捆绑到一块,这是我们的一个独特的能力。所以我们究竟在与谁竞争?亚马逊在这方面是没有竞争能力的,他们没有务器,谷歌也没有。甲骨文也没有等同的能力。所以这些都是我们想要领先的领域。I’m not claiming that we are the only guys who are going to succeed in the cloud. Others can succeed as well, just like in the previous generation. But the people who are on the right side of history, so to speak, when it comes to technology promise? You identified them right. There is Google, Amazon, and us. But who has the credentials with the enterprise? Who has the tenacity to stay constant with it? It’s not a fashionable thing to say you’re in the enterprise business for a few days and then move onto the next project.我并不是说,我们是唯一一家能够在云务方面取得成功的公司。就像上一个时代一样,其他公司也能取得成功。但在技术前景方面,我们是符合历史潮流的。你提到的几个名字都很对,有谷歌、亚马逊,还有我们。但是谁受到了企业界的信任?谁拥有一直专注企业界的韧性?有些公司说自己是做企业业务的,喊了几天口号,就转到下一个项目了。I want to build our own public cloud at scale. We have over a million machines. I want to take the same software and—well, this is how we got to SQL [Server] 2016. It’s aly running; it’s called Azure DB. We will now take that and reverse-integrate it into a server product. That’s the kind of capability that I feel will serve us well in the long run.我想要大规模地构建我们自己的公共云。我们有超过100万台机器。我想要采用同样的软件——这时我们就要说说SQL(务器016了。目前它已经开始运行了,它的名字叫Azure D8。我们将把它反向集成到一款务器产品中。我认为这种能力在长期内都会给我们带来好处。I don’t think we’ve actually mentioned Windows or Office once. Is Microsoft still a Windows company?我们似乎还没有提到Windows或Office。微软是否依然是一家做Windows的公司?Windows is used by a billion and a half users. We see, on a monthly basis, 850 million machines that touch Windows Update. This is not even counting the machines behind corporate firewalls that don’t directly talk to Windows Update. So it’s a vibrant user base. And there are 300 million PCs, by the way, sold every year.Windows目前拥有15亿用户。每月都.5亿台机器进行Windows升级,这还没有算上那些因为被企业防火墙隔绝而没法直接进行Windows升级的机器。所以说我们拥有一个充满生机的用户群。另外每年还亿台PC被销售出去。So Windows 10 is huge to me. It’s the beginning of a new generation of Windows. It’s not just about PCs. It’s about tablets and phones. It’s also about holographic computers and Surface Hub. It’s about [simple, versatile computers like] Raspberry Pi. Windows has gone way beyond the PC. It’s one core, one store, one platform.所以Windows 10对我来说是一件大事。它是一个新时代的开始,不仅对于PC,对于平板电脑、智能手机、全息电脑、Surface Hub和Raspberry Pi(又称“树莓派”,一款小型卡片式电脑)也是一样。Windows已经远不止局限于PC。它是一个核心、一个仓库、一个平台。So to me Windows is very much part of the cloud. But one of the fundamental things I believe is, it’s not just about one device. When I say “mobile firstor “cloud first,to me it’s about the mobility of the app or the experience, not the mobility of the device. And if you believe that, then the control plane is really the cloud.所以对我来说,Windows也是云务的一个重要部分。但我认为,Windows的重要性不仅在于一款设备。当我说“移动第一”或“云第一”时,我指的是应用的移动性或体验,而不是设备的移动性。所以我们的控制平面其实是云技术。I actually talked quite a bit about Office 365 in this conversation. The fact that you didn’t think of it as Office is interesting. Office 365, that’s where Azure Active Directory gets all those organizational tenants from. It’s core to what we’re doing in Azure. It’s core to what we’re doing in Office. And guess what? When you log into Windows, you’re logged into both your Microsoft account and your Azure Active Directory. So the control plane is in the cloud. And those are the ways things come together.我在这次访谈中其实谈到了好几次Office 365,但有趣的是,你并没有把它当成Office。正是由于Office 365,Azure Active Directory才有了那么多商业客户。它是我们在整个Azure项目的核心,也是Office的核心。而且当你登录Windows的时候,你其实同时登录了你的微软账户和Azure Active Directory。所以我才说我们的控制平面是云务,这些都是整合的方法。If I’m a mobile developer, I can develop for Apple iOS, I can develop for Android, or I can develop for Windows. But there’s been strife with hardware makers and Microsoft. Why develop for you and not them?如果我是一个移动开发者,我可以为苹果的iOS开发应用,也可以为Android或Windows开发应用。但硬件厂商和微软之间也有一些擦。所以我为什么要选择为你们而不是为iOS和Android开发呢?I think they will choose to develop wherever they can make the most amount of money by reaching the most amount of users. At Build we said that we want them to write universal Windows apps [that work across devices]. There are many cases to be made for it. When you build a universal app, and you want a 10-foot experience, you can go to the Xbox. You want to innovate and build a holographic app, you can use the same application on a holographic computer like HoloLens. You can, of course, run it on our tablets like the Surface Pro 3.我认为,只要能接触到最多的用户,赚最多的钱,开发者就会去开发应用。我们在Build峰会上说,我们希望开发者开发通用的Windows应用(即在各种设备上都可以用)。这样做是很有道理的。如果你开发了一款通用应用,你想获0英尺的游戏体验,你就可以在Xbox上玩。如果你想创新地开发一款全息应用,你也可以在HoloLens这样的全息电脑上运行同一款应用。当然,你也可以选择在Surface Pro 3这样的平板电脑上运行。So you now have these “Windows Continuumfeatures where those universal applications can gracefully move between a tablet and a laptop. It’s relevant for consumers, but it’s also going to be relevant in many industrial scenarios. Those are the kinds of reasons why developers will want to look at us and build for us. But we made it clear at Build that developers can use our back end and still target Android or iOS devices. They can have our Enterprise Mobility Suite and, if they’re an IT person, manage security, identity, device management, and data-loss protection across Android, iOS, and Windows. That’s a unique capability of ours.这样你就拥有了“Windows一致性”特点,也就是这些通用应用可以平顺地在平板和笔记本电脑之间切换。这对消费者来说是件大事,对于很多行业来说也非常重要。正是因为这些原因,开发者才会看重我们,愿意为我们开发应用。不过我们在Build峰会上也明确表示,开发者也可以使用我们的后端,同时为Android和iOS设备开发应用。他们可以使用我们的企业移动套件,如果他们是IT人员的话,还可以在Android、iOS和Windows等各个平台使用我们的安全管理、身份识别、设备管理和数据损失保护工具。这也是我们的一个独特的能力 /201505/375618

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