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来源:飞度快问    发布时间:2018年11月20日 19:52:03    编辑:admin         

;In the years that followed the Prophet Muhammad#39;s death in 632, the caliphs were essentially the political and religious leaders of the Muslim community. All Arab Muslims in the first century of Islam, realised that this was a new state-that what went on before wasn#39;t really relevant. These caliphs were not the successors of the Byzantine emperors or of the Sassanian king of kings. They might look to these people for solutions to administrative problems-how you collect money, and indeed what sort of money you make-but they wouldn#39;t see themselves as performing the same sort of role. This was a new dispensation.;公元632年,穆罕默德去世之后,哈里发成为穆斯林最重要的政治及宗教领袖。在伊斯兰历的最初一百年内,所有的阿拉伯穆斯林都意识到他们处在一个全新的国度,之前的一切都不重要。哈里发不是拜占庭皇帝的继承人,也不是萨珊王朝万王之王的继承人。他们也许会借鉴这些帝王管理国家的经验,比如如何收税,收哪些税,但他们并不认为自己与前人扮演着同样的角色。这个制度是全新的。One of the administrative solutions that Abd al-Malik borrowed from the Byzantine emperors was how to manage the currency. Up until now, the new Islamic empire had used hand-me-down coins from the pre-conquest era, or imported, and especially Byzantine, gold coins, but Abd al-Malik quickly saw what every chancellor of the exchequer has seen since, namely that there#39;ll be economic instability if a ruler does not control the quantity and the quality of his own money supply. He understood that coins are literally the stamp of authority, asserting the dominant power in the society using them-and that power was now his.阿卜杜勒马利克向拜占庭皇帝借鉴的管理手法之一便是货币管理。在此之前,新伊斯兰帝国所使用的货币要么是占领区的前朝传下来的,要么是从伊斯坦布尔进口的金币。但阿卜杜勒马利克很快意识到,如果不去控制货币的数量与质量,就会出现经济动荡。他也了解到货币是权力的印章,是向它所流通的社会表明统治权的手段,而统治权如今在他手中。It#39;s worth remembering that in the pre-modern world, coinage was often the only mass-produced item in use, and it was therefore a hugely significant element in the visual culture of a society-money was a billboard for the boss. And so the boss, Abd al-Malik, was stamped on this first overtly Islamic coinage. The Leader of the Faithful had ousted and replaced the emperors of Byzantium.在前现代社会,货币几乎是唯一一种在日常生活中被大量制造并流通的物品,因而也是一个国家视觉文化中最重要的因素。因此,阿卜杜勒马利克本人的形象出现在了伊斯兰第一款公开行的货币上。拜占庭皇帝被信徒的领路人取而代之。 Article/201508/394433。

A logistical challenge, made possible by a single invention,有一项发明解决了一大后勤挑战The key to most of the achievements of mankind:这项发明也是人类最伟大成就之一Writing.那就是文字Imagine that you#39;re trying to organize想象一下你要组织20 to 30,000 men,二十到三万个人the only way to do that is to write stuff down.唯一的办法就是把相关事项写下来Developed 5,000 years ago in the Middle East,文字的出现始于五千年前的中东地区Writing is an extension of the human brain.是人类大脑的一种延伸We can speak to each other over distance and across time.我们彼此之间的沟通从此可以穿越时空Hemiunu#39;s vision brings together 海米昂的卓识远见把这股前所未有的劳动力a workforce never seen before.集结在一起You had to quarry move and place a block你必须每两到三分钟从采石场搬一块石头every two to three minutes to complete that structure将其放在指定位置 构筑成形in a 10-hour work day, it#39;s insane!每天工作十小时 这简直是疯了!It takes 20 years and two million blocks of stone,这项工程历时二十年 耗用两百万块石头Each weighing more than a pickup truck,每块都比一辆小卡车要重Lifted four hundred feet above the ground.还要把它搬到离地四百英尺高的地方Workers organized into competing gangs.工人们被分为一个个互相竞争的团队 Article/201508/395575。

Local media reports suggest more than 200 people have died as a result of a magnitude 7.5 earthquake, which has rocked Afghanistan and Pakistan.阿富汗和巴基斯坦发生7.5级强震,当地媒体报道称已造成200多人死亡。In Afghanistan’s Takhar province, a frenzied evacuation at a girls’school ended in tragedy for at least twelve students, who were reportedly trampled under the feet of others trying to escape the building.在阿富汗塔哈尔省,一所女子学校发生了悲剧,据称在慌乱的撤离中至少有十二人被其他逃离房屋的人踩踏。The quake struck near the mountainous Hindu Kush region of northern Afghanistan, shortly after 2pm local time.地震发生在阿富汗北部兴都库什山脉山区,当地时间下午2点后。Communications were brought down in some regions, meaning the death toll is likely to continue rising.一些地区通讯被中断,这意味着死亡人数可能会继续上升。In Pakistan’s provincial capital Peshawar, at least a hundred people were taken to hospital.在巴基斯坦省会白沙瓦,至少有一百人被送往医院。The country’s army chief ordered troops to the areas affected by the quake, which reportedly had the biggest impact in the north, but could be felt across the nation.国家军队总司令下令部队前往地震灾区,据称北部地区影响最大,但整个国家都有震感。In the capital Islamabad buildings shook and people poured into the streets in a panic.首都伊斯兰堡的建筑发生摇晃,人们恐慌的涌上街头。Noor Mohammad’s granddaughter was injured.努尔穆罕默德的孙女受了伤。I was saying my afternoon prayers when the earthquake happened and the roof and walls of the house collapsed, he says. Two children from my family were wounded.地震发生时我在做下午祷告,屋顶和墙壁倒塌了,他说道,我家的2个孩子受伤了。Shockwaves were felt as far away as northern India and Tajikistan, officials say, although there are no reported fatalities.官员表示,远在印度北部和塔吉克斯坦都有震感,尽管没有伤亡报告。India’s prime minister has ordered an urgent assessment of any damage.印度总理已下令对任何损害进行紧急评估。译文属。 /201510/406016。

Edging 立刃 What you might be finding,at state one should completing it turn,你可能会发现,在这个阶段,你应该完成转弯,you might feel like you are actuality sliding down on the snowed,你可能会感到是你事实上是在搓雪并感觉自己慢慢减速,as it supposed to cutting in and feeling yourself slowing down.而本应该是把雪板边刃切入雪中,That#39;s all DVD edges.这就是本集DVD的内容。Now if you can see me stand here, I can roll my knees and ankles into the snowed ,现在你可以看到我站在这,我可以向山上弯曲我的膝盖和踝关节,if I gently roll them out, I#39;m gonna stop to slid down,give it a go,如果我轻微的把膝盖和踝关节向山下弯,我就会向下滑。just down the ice and slight move like this,试一下,站在冰面上像这样慢慢的滑下,roll the knees in gently and let the skate stop to slide down.并弯曲膝盖让雪板停止滑动。so one should master that,I remember this like lessens move, try both ways,you can stop putting into a traverse.所以必须掌握这些,在滑行时尝试这两种方法so come cross the snowed ,and do exactly the same thing,从雪上通过时,做一样的事,flatten the skate gently and roll the edges on,thinking about going around corner on the bicycle,慢慢地放平滑雪板,立刃,you done that just leaving the bike over and quick going round corner ,and then come back up,想象你在是骑着自行车在转弯,倾倒然后回正,you gonna gently impressively roll those skate flat and gently back on the edge,你要体会把慢慢地板放平,慢慢地立刃,and trying get used to feeling the difference.体会两者的不同。some gonna stop by traversing cross,flatten the skate , and feel the edges,flatten the skate ,and feel the edges.放平雪板,感受刃,再放平雪板,再感受刃,Down to traversing cross,so I can feel my edges,and I#39;m gonna flatten and then roll the skate on the edges again.交替几次我可以感受到我的刃,我放平雪板和再次立刃。Once you go that out, you feel quite happy about those movements,一旦你学会这些,你会为掌握这些动作开心,and now we can introduce a proper term, it#39;s exactly same movement.现在我们完整的讲一下整个转弯,是一样的动作。You gonna stop the term,come around the corner,gently and impressively rolling those knees and ankles slowly into the hill,你可以慢慢地向山上弯曲膝盖和踝关节来结束一个弯,这可以猛地弯曲膝盖和踝关节,it#39;s not a sharp movement and you#39;ll be amazed ,你会惊讶,动作并不是很生硬just a couple of more degree,only enough to feel more grape ,只是倾斜一些角度你会觉得滑的更稳it gonna make you feel more comfortable ,and stay to train.它会使你感到更舒,保持练习。I#39;m still slid into the term ,and gentle rolling on to the edges,我继续搓着滑入弯,慢慢的立刃。it#39;s impressive movement, as you roll on the edges,and flatten the skate and to stop by next term,这是个让人印象深刻的动作,当你立刃然后又放平雪板,with an gradually build up the edges again,and turn up the hill to control the speed.持续的立刃可以滑向山上并停下来,达到控制速度的目的。注:本文翻译由en88字幕组完成。 Article/201504/371375。

Get a gloriously glossy, healthy mane at home with these tips.根据下面的建议,自己在家保养就可拥有光泽健康的秀发。You Will Need你需要Heat-activated shampoo and conditioner热激活洗发水和护发素1/2 c. apple cider vinegar半杯苹果醋Mask or hot oil treatment发膜或焗油Hot towel热毛巾Ionic blow-dryer离子吹风机Boar bristle brush猪鬃刷Silicone-based smoothing serum含有硅树脂的直发定型水Ceramic, ionic flat iron陶瓷,离子平板烫Healthy diet健康的饮食Steps步骤STEP 1 Don#39;t wash daily1.不要每天洗头Wash your hair every second or third day to avoid stripping away the natural oils. Use heat-activated shampoo and conditioner and finish with a cold water rinse to seal the cuticles and add shine.每隔一天或两天洗一次头,避免洗掉头发上天然的油脂。使用热激活洗发水和护发素,最后用冷水清洗,封锁秀发表皮,增添光泽。If you must wash your hair daily, avoid the roots when you apply conditioner. Without rinsing, shampoo the roots only. Then lather and rinse.如果必须每天洗头,使用护发素时避免发根处。不要清洗,只用洗发水洗一下发根处。然后揉搓至泡沫丰富,清洗。STEP 2 Use a vinegar rinse2.使用苹果醋清洗Use an apple cider vinegar rinse to remove residue and impart shine. Mix half a cup of cider vinegar with a quart of water and use it as a final rinse after your regular shampoo.使用苹果醋清洗头发可以清除洗发水残留,增添光泽。混合半杯苹果醋和一夸脱水,使用常规的洗发水洗头后,再用上述混合液清洗。STEP 3 Deep condition with heat3.深层护理Deep condition your hair monthly with a mask or hot oil treatment. After applying the product, wrap a hot towel around your head.每月一次用发膜或焗油深层护理头发。使用了这些护发产品后,在头部包一条热毛巾。STEP 4 Dry thoroughly4.彻底吹干Dry your hair thoroughly with an ionic blow dryer. Any excess moisture left in your hair can lead to frizz. After blow-drying, blast your hair with the dryer on the cool setting.用离子吹风机把头发彻底吹干。头发上任何多余的水分都会导致头发滋滋作响。吹干后,用温度较低的档位把头发吹得蓬松一点。Let your hair air dry a few days a week to reduce heat damage.每周几次让头发自然晾干,以防止热损伤。STEP 5 Use a boar bristle brush5.使用猪鬃刷Use a boar bristle brush, which is better at smoothing and reducing fly-aways than nylon.使用猪鬃刷,在让秀发顺滑,防止头发乱飞方面比尼龙梳子更好。STEP 6 Apply silicone products6.使用硅树脂产品Apply a silicone-based smoothing serum on your hair to protect it from heat styling, especially on the ends. Don#39;t overdo it, though, or you risk leaving strands looking limp and flat.在头发上涂抹含有硅树脂的直发定型剂,防止热损伤,尤其是发梢部位。然而不要过量,否则会让头发看上去绵软无力。STEP 7 Flat iron7.平板烫Use a ceramic, ionic flat iron on your hair, or at least on the sections that frame your face, to remove excess moisture and create a smooth surface that will reflect more light.用陶瓷,离子平板烫烫一下头发,或者至少烫一下修饰脸型的部位,清除过多的水分,打造比较顺滑的表面,能够反射更多光线。STEP 8 Eat healthy8.饮食健康Eat healthy foods, like salmon, spinach, walnuts, and Brazil nuts, which contain vitamins and minerals essential for shiny, healthy hair.食用健康的食品,比如鲑鱼,菠菜,核桃,巴西坚果,其中含有丰富的维他命和矿物质,对于光泽健康的头发来说是必须的。By week 22, a developing fetus has all of its hair follicles formed.22周的时候,正在发育的胎儿所有毛囊已经形成。 Article/201412/350566。

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201508/391681。

The deadliest, most powerful thing in the universe.宇宙中最致命、最强大的东西A quasar.类星体A swirling cauldron of superheated gas一团翻腾的超热气体This beast has a heart of darkness, a super-massive black hole这头巨兽的黑暗之心是一颗超级质量的黑洞as heavy as a billion suns.和十亿颗太阳一样重It#39;s ripping apart whole stars它正在撕裂所有的恒星devouring them until they#39;re nothing吞噬着他们直到什么也不剩lost forever from the visible universe在可见的宇宙中永远消失We think, we hope, we pray我们思考,我们希望,我们祈祷we#39;ve seen the worst the universe can throw at us.我们已经看到了宇宙中最骇人的威胁But no one can know what lies ahead但是没有知道前方有什么We#39;ll need to go further, go faster我们必须走得更远,走的更快Eight billion light years from home.距离地球80亿光年More galaxies, but these look different更多的星系,但是这些看起来有些不同Ragged, small, close together形状不整、小而且相距不远We#39;re so far back in time我们回溯时间太长了we#39;re seeing these galaxies as they were before the Earth was born这些星系还是在地球诞生之前的形态They#39;re still young, still growing.它们还年轻,仍在成长We#39;re getting close to where and how it all began我们正在接近宇宙形成的起点Look at the galaxies now.你看这些星系They#39;re more like primitive plankton floating in a vast dark ocean它们就像是漂浮在辽阔黑暗海洋中的原始浮游生物Clouds of dust and gas..尘埃和气体的云团dancing , twirling, merging to make embryonic galaxies.舞动着,旋转着,聚集成胚胎时期的星系 Article/201508/390197。