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四川省生殖健康研究附属医院做宫颈手术遂宁妇幼保健院产前检查好吗Dozens of scientists, entrepreneurs and investors involved in the field of artificial intelligence, including Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk, have signed an open letter warning that greater focus is needed on its safety and social benefits.数十位科学家、企业家及与人工智能领域有关的投资者联名发出了一封公开信,警告人们必须更多地注意人工智能(AI)的安全性及其社会效益。参加联署的人中包括了科学家史蒂芬#8226;霍金(Stephen Hawking)及企业家埃伦#8226;马斯克(Elon Musk)。The letter and an accompanying paper from the Future of Life Institute, which suggests research priorities for “robust and beneficial” artificial intelligence, come amid growing nervousness about the impact on jobs or even humanity’s long-term survival from machines whose intelligence and capabilities could exceed those of the people who created them.这封发自生命未来研究所(Future of Life Institute,简称FLI)的公开信还附带了一篇论文,其中建议应优先研究“强大而有益”的人工智能。目前,人们日益担心机器的智力和能力可能会超过创造它们的人类,从而影响到人类的就业,甚至影响到人类的长期生存。“Because of the great potential of AI, it is important to research how to reap its benefits while avoiding potential pitfalls,” the FLI’s letter says. “Our AI systems must do what we want them to do.”这封FLI的公开信表示:“由于人工智能的巨大潜力,开展如何在规避其潜在陷阱的同时获取其好处的研究十分重要。我们的人工智能系统,必须按照我们的意愿工作。”The FLI was founded last year by volunteers including Jaan Tallinn, a co-founder of Skype, to stimulate research into “optimistic visions of the future” and to “mitigate existential risks facing humanity”, with a focus on those arising from the development of human-level artificial intelligence.FLI去年由包括Skype联合创始人让#8226;塔林(Jaan Tallinn)在内的志愿者创立。成立该研究所的目的一方面是为了促进对“未来乐观图景”的研究,一方面则是为了“降低人类面临的现存风险”。这其中,在开发与人类相当的人工智能技术过程中出现的那些风险,将是该所关注的重点。Mr Musk, the co-founder of SpaceX and Tesla, who sits on the FLI’s scientific advisory board alongside actor Morgan Freeman and cosmologist Stephen Hawking, has said that he believes uncontrolled artificial intelligence is “potentially more dangerous than nukes”.SpaceX和特斯拉(Tesla)的共同创始人马斯克、著名演员根#8226;弗里曼(Morgan Freeman)以及宇宙学家史蒂芬#8226;霍金都是FLI科学顾问委员会的委员。马斯克表示,他相信不受控制的人工智能“可能比核武器更危险”。Other signatories to the FLI’s letter include Luke Muehlhauser, executive director of Machine Intelligence Research Institute, Frank Wilczek, professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Nobel laureate, and the entrepreneurs behind artificial intelligence companies DeepMind and Vicarious, as well as several employees at Google, IBM and Microsoft.这封FLI公开信上的其他联署人还包括机器智能研究所(Machine Intelligence Research Institute)的执行主任吕克#8226;米尔豪泽(Luke Muehlhauser),麻省理工学院(MIT)物理学教授、诺贝尔奖得主弗兰克#8226;维尔切克(Frank Wilczek),人工智能企业DeepMind和Vicarious的幕后主管,以及几名谷歌(Google)、IBM和微软(Microsoft)的员工。Rather than fear-mongering, the letter is careful to highlight both the positive and negative effects of artificial intelligence.这封信并不以一封兜售恐惧心理为目的。与此相反,它十分谨慎地同时强调了人工智能的积极面和消极面。“There is now a broad consensus that AI research is progressing steadily, and that its impact on society is likely to increase,” the letter s. “The potential benefits are huge, since everything that civilisation has to offer is a product of human intelligence; we cannot predict what we might achieve when this intelligence is magnified by the tools AI may provide, but the eradication of disease and poverty are not unfathomable.”信中写道:“如今存在的一个广泛共识是,人工智能研究正在稳步进展之中,它对社会的影响也很可能会逐渐增大。人类文明所能提供的一切都是人类智慧的结晶。这种智慧被人工智能可能提供的工具放大后,我们能做到什么是我们无法想象的,不过那样的话根除疾病和贫困将不再是遥不可及的。从这个意义上说,人工智能有巨大的潜在好处。”Benefits from artificial intelligence research that are aly coming into use include speech and image recognition, and self-driving vehicles. Some in Silicon Valley have estimated that more than 150 start-ups are working on artificial intelligence today.目前,人工智能研究的部分好处已经成为现实,其中包括语音识别和图像识别,以及自动驾驶的汽车。在硅谷,部分人估计如今从事人工智能业务的初创企业超过了150家。As the field draws in more investment and entrepreneurs and companies such as Google eye huge rewards from creating computers that can think for themselves, the FLI warns that greater focus on the social ramifications would be “timely”, drawing not only on computer science but economics, law and IT security.人工智能正吸引越来越多的投资,许多创业家和谷歌等企业都在盼望着能通过建立会自主思考的电脑,获得巨额回报。对于这种局面,FLI警告说,人们或许应“及时”将更多注意力集中在人工智能的社会后果上,不仅要从计算机科学的角度开展研究,还要从经济、法律及信息安全的角度开展研究。 /201501/353879四川省中医院可以做引产吗 Taxi app Uber has set its sights beyond the roads of China with a push into the air and on water as the US company adds helicopters and boats to its services.出租车应用优步(Uber)将视线超出了中国的马路,向空中和水上发展。这家美国企业在其务中增加了乘坐直升飞机和乘船的务。The company will tomorrow APR 25unveil UberChopper, a helicopter ride above Shanghai that will cost Rmb2,999 (4), including transport in a Mercedes-Benz to and from the helipad. The event is a one-day promotion designed to “raise awareness” of Uber and gauge interest in airborne services aly used in countries including the US, India, Brazil and South Africa.该公司将于4月25日公布UberChopper应用。该应用提供了乘坐直升机游览上海的务,价格将为2999元人民币(合484美元),这其中包括了乘坐梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)轿车往返直升机起降场的接送。该活动是一次为期一天的营销活动,旨在“提高(优步)知名度”,考察人们对空中务的兴趣。目前美国、印度、巴西和南非有这类空中务。Uber has also rolled out a boat-hailing service in the southern city of Hangzhou’s scenic West Lake as well as a trial rickshaw-hailing service in downtown Beijing.此外,优步还在南方城市杭州风景秀丽的西湖推出了叫船务,并在北京市中心推出了呼叫人力车的试点务。Uber is a late-comer to the Chinese market and faces competition from local companies Didi Dache and Kuaidi Dache. The pair announced a merger in March, creating a Goliath in the Chinese car-hailing industry with an estimated 99.8 per cent market share, according to Beijing-based internet consultancy Enfodesk.对于中国市场来说,优步是一位后来者,面临着来自滴滴打车(Didi Dache)和快的打车(Kuaidi Dache)等本土企业的竞争。后两者在今年3月宣布合并,缔造了中国叫车产业的巨无霸。根据北京互联网咨询公司易观智库(Enfodesk)的数据,合并后的公司市场占有率估计达99.8%。However, Uber said it was more competitive in the high-end with its UberBlack service, featuring luxury cars.不过,优步表示其在高端市场有更大的竞争力,其中包括以豪华轿车为特色的UberBlack务。 /201504/372019双流区打掉孩子多少钱

四川成都第二人民医院早泄治疗自贡中医院预约四维彩超 Measured against how long we have been around, humans began ing only recently. The earliest scripts emerged about 5,000 years ago.以人类存在的整个历史衡量,人类只是在最近才开始阅读。最早的手稿出现在大约5000年前。The Greeks produced a fully-developed alphabet, with vowels, about 3,000 years ago. Johannes Gutenberg printed his bible 560 years ago.希腊人在大约3000年前发明了带有元音的、成熟的字母表。约翰内斯#8226;谷登堡(Johannes Gutenberg)于560年前印刷出了圣经。If ing from the printed page is recent, then ing from a digital screen is a just-peeled-the-protective-plastic-off novelty.如果说人类只是从最近才开始阅读印刷文字的话,那么从数字屏幕上阅读就如刚刚撕掉塑料保护膜一样的新鲜。Many have described the advent of digital ing as the biggest revolution since Gutenberg. We are still not sure what digital screens are doing to the process of ing. While researchers have tried to examine the difference between print and onscreen ing, the results are fuzzy.很多人把数字化阅读的出现描述为自谷登堡以来的最大变革。我们尚无法确定数字化屏幕对阅读过程具有何种影响。尽管研究人员尝试了研究纸质阅读和屏幕阅读的区别,但结果并不清晰。Some studies have found little difference in comprehension and recall between those ing print and those looking at screens. Others have found lower understanding and memory among screen ers.一些研究发现,纸质阅读和屏幕阅读在理解和回忆方面几乎没有区别。另外一些研究发现,屏幕阅读者在理解和记忆方面表现较差。Apart from the difficulties of assessing how people absorb meaning, digital devices are still changing and developing, attempting to make the ing process smoother.除了在评估人们如何吸收语意上存在困难外,数字化设备仍在不断变化和发展,试图让阅读过程更加顺畅。As ing researchers Anne Mangen of the University of Stavanger and Don Kuiken of the University of Alberta admit, it is best to see their and others’ studies as “an exploration of possibilities rather than explicit hypothesis testing”.正如阅读研究员、挪威斯塔万格大学(University of Stavanger)的安妮#8226;芒让(Anne Mangen)和加拿大阿尔伯塔大学(University of Alberta)的唐#8226;奎肯(Don Kuiken)所承认的那样,最好把他们和其他人的研究看作是“一次关于可能性的探索,而非明确的假设检验”。Their research examined whether people differently on a screen (the Kindle app on an iPad) and a printed page, but also looked at the difference between fiction and non-fiction. They gave their subjects a piece of writing describing an actual murder at a mall, and told one group it was made-up and the other that it was real.他们对人们在屏幕(iPad上的Kindle应用软件)和纸质阅读是否存在差异进行研究,不过也观察了阅读小说和非小说之间的差异。他们给了研究对象一篇讲述一宗发生在商场的真实谋杀案的文章,告诉其中一组这件事是虚构的,告诉另一组文章是真实的。Among those who thought it was fiction, there was little difference between screen and print ers. Those ing from the iPad were a little unsure of their location in the text. But their grasp of the narrative, their immersion in the story and how much sympathy they felt with the characters differed little from that of the print ers.在认为阅读内容为小说的研究对象中,屏幕阅读和纸质阅读之间几乎没有差别。在iPad上阅读的人对文中所述事件的发生地点有点不确定。但是他们对文字叙述的理解、对故事情节的投入以及对人物的同情程度,与纸质阅读者几乎没有差别。Among those who thought they were ing non-fiction, there was a significant difference. The iPad ers had less narrative grasp, less immersion and less sympathy.那组认为自己阅读的是非小说的研究对象,则存在显著差别。与纸质阅读者相比,iPad阅读者对文字叙述的理解更差,对故事的投入更弱,同情心也更少。Why the difference? The writers e research suggesting that ing non-fiction involves fast processing (“skimming”)” while fiction involves slow processing (“savouring”).为什么会存在差异?两位作者引用研究称,阅读非小说涉及快速处理(“略读”),而阅读小说涉及慢速处理(“品味”)。The suggestion is that ing screens for factual information encourages skimming so that when the narrative is more detailed it becomes less comprehensible.这似乎表明,在屏幕上阅读事实类信息促使阅读者进行略读,因此当文字叙述比较详细时,理解就较差。This matches my experience. I am ing 10 novels, as chairman of the judges of theFinancial Times arts awards for emerging market countries. As I have been travelling, I have mostly been ing on a Kindle.这与我的经验相符。作为英国《金融时报》评判新兴市场国家艺术奖的主席,我目前正在阅读10本小说。由于我最近在出差,我大多时候都用Kindle看书。I prefer real books, for the heft, the ease of paging back and the sense of how far I have — which I can see and feel, rather than relying on a percentage at the bottom of the page. But a Kindle is compact and easy on the eyes and, like the students in the study, I have had no problem immersing myself in the stories.我更喜欢实实在在的书,因为它有重量,能轻易翻回之前的页,也能直观感受到自己已经读了多少——这是我“看得见摸得着”的,而不需要依靠屏幕下方的进度条来判断。但是,Kindle外形小巧紧凑,阅读起来不伤眼睛,而且就像上述研究的参加者那样,我可以让自己投入故事情节。Reading news is different. When my morning train is crowded, I from an iPhone app rather than a newspaper. When I get into the office and page through the FT, I find I have most of it — but not all.阅读新闻则有所不同。当上班的列车很拥挤时,我用iPhone上的一款app看新闻,而不是直接看报纸。当我进入办公室浏览英国《金融时报》时,我发现自己看过了大部分内容——但并非全部。When I use an app, I what I am interested in. When I a print newspaper, I find myself ing things I did not know I was interested in.当我使用app时,我只看自己感兴趣的内容。但我看纸质报纸时,我会看一些之前不知道自己会感兴趣的内容。Others have spoken about the serendipity of print, but I think there is more to it. Reading from a mobile phone, the fastest-growing form of digital ing, is useful, but it is, literally, narrower than print.有人曾谈到纸质阅读的意外收获,但我认为没这么简单。作为增长最快的数字化阅读方式,手机阅读很有用,但是它显然比纸质阅读更“窄”。A newspaper offers peripheral vision. There is the likelihood not only that you will come across unexpected information, but that you will connect it to other things you have .报纸提供周边视觉。你不仅可能看到意想不到的信息,还可能会把它与你读过的内容联系起来。This is important for those whose job is to think about the threats, opportunities and changes that might affect the business. It is not an either/or. You have to be immersed in the digital world too to know what it is doing to people’s behaviour.对于职责就是思索可能影响业务的威胁、机会和变化的人来说,这很重要。这并非是个非此即彼的选择。你也必须沉浸到数字化世界中,才能了解它对人们的行为产生了什么影响。Studies in the US show that those who still a newspaper are higher-earning and better-educated.美国的研究表明,如今仍然阅读报纸的人的收入更高、受教育水平也更高。They are also generally older. But every now and then I meet a 20-something digital native who s print newspapers, too. I immediately assume they have a great future.他们也普遍年纪更大。但是我也会不时地遇到一个20多岁的“数字化原住民”在阅读纸质报纸。我会立马认为他们拥有一个光明的前途。 /201507/385725四川成都五院妇科检查怎么样

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