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江苏盐城市看妇科炎症哪家医院最好的Japan’s history is full of moments when the elites rallied around a dramatic shift in strategy. In 1868, its leaders ditched hundreds of years of feudalism in response to the threat of western colonialism. In 1945, they abandoned the pursuit of “greatness” via military means and set diligently about the task of achieving economic prosperity. Now, after 15 years of deflation, Japan’s leadership has dramatically reversed course again by going hell for leather for inflation. In strategic terms, the sudden shift is reminiscent of the notorious attack on Pearl Harbor.在日本历史上,精英阶层团结一致大幅改变战略立场的时刻比比皆是。1868年,日本领导人为应对西方殖民主义的威胁,抛弃了奉行数百年之久的封建主义。1945年,日本领导人放弃了利用武力来追求“伟大”的做法,转而致力于实现经济繁荣的使命。今天,在国民经济经历了15年通缩之后,日本领导人再次大幅转向,开始全力推行通胀政策。就战略而言,这种突然转向不由得让人想起臭名昭著的偷袭珍珠港行动。Readers may consider the comparison to be in poor taste. Precious lives will not be lost as a result of an expansion of the monetary base, however dire the warnings from alarmists who say it will lead to hyperinflationary ruin. Yet there are interesting parallels. By 1941, Japan’s war planners thought conflict with the US was inevitable. In July that year, Washington had imposed an oil embargo on Japan in response to its invasion of French Indochina. Tokyo decided it needed to grab control of oil in the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia – an assault that, it guessed, would inevitably draw the US into the war. In other words, conflict with Washington was coming. Better to pre-empt it in the hope of gaining significant strategic advantage through a surprise attack.读者可能会认为,这种类比并不得体。货币基础的扩张并不会让人们丧失宝贵的生命,无论那些认为这种扩张将导致恶性通胀的人说得多么危言耸听。但二者确有一些有趣的相似之处。1941年时,日本的战争策划者认为与美国发生冲突是不可避免的。当年7月,美国政府为应对日本入侵法属印度那,宣布对日本实施石油禁运。日本政府认定,有必要把荷属东印度群岛(如今的印尼)的石油控制在手里。它推测,如果对荷属东印度群岛发动袭击,将不可避免地把美国拖入战争。换言之,与美国的冲突很快就会到来。日本认为最好先发制人,以期通过偷袭来获得重大的战略优势。Something of the same calculation is going on when it comes to inflation. The logic goes a bit like this: Japan’s current fiscal position is unsustainable; you cannot borrow half of what you spend indefinitely, particularly when your working population – and thus your likely tax base – is going to shrink indefinitely; Japan’s population, currently 127m, will fall to 108m by 2050.在某种程度上,通胀政策有着同样的考虑。这里面的逻辑似乎是这样的:日本当前的财政状况是不可持续的;不可能永远靠举债来维持一半的出,尤其是在劳动力人口(也就是潜在税基)无限萎缩的情况下;日本目前的总人口为1.27亿,到2050年时将降至1.08亿。Thus some sort of debt crunch is coming. With more than 90 per cent of debt held internally, however, future governments are unlikely to default outright. Far more plausibly, they will resort to the printing presses. And if the endgame is inflation anyway, surely it is better to get the boot in first. As with Pearl Harbor, the hope is that by beating the enemy to the punch, one stands a chance of gaining the upper hand.如此一来,就会导致某种形式的债务危机。但鉴于日本逾90%的国债是由国内民众持有的,未来的日本政府不太可能采取显性的违约。更有可能的是,他们会求助于印钞机。如果不管怎样结局都是通胀,那么显然还是尽早进入通胀为好。就珍珠港事件而言,日本人希望的是,若能先发制人,就有机会占据上风。Some critics of reflation say it will work too well. The outcome, they predict, will be capital flight, yen collapse and rampant inflation. That is conceivable, though far from inevitable. If the Bank of Japan can spirit inflation from deflation, it stands a decent chance of being able to control it. Other critics say it will not work at all. Their argument is that Japan has been aggressively printing money for years without success. That is not right either.一些批评通货再膨胀的人士表示,这种政策的效力太过强大,最终会适得其反。他们预计的结果是资本外逃、日元崩盘和恶性通胀。这种结果是有可能出现的,但绝非不可避免。如果日本央行(BoJ)真能神奇地化通缩为通胀,那么它也有不小的可能控制住通胀。还有一些批评人士认为,这种政策毫无效力。他们的观点是,日本多年来一直在大举印钞,却没有取得任何成果。这种观点也是不正确的。Under Masaaki Shirakawa, who stepped down as BoJ governor this month, the central bank made only token efforts to expand its balance sheet. Mr Shirakawa was a firm believer that Japan’s deflation was structural and could not be fixed by monetary means. Even under his predecessor, Toshihiko Fukui, the BoJ’s pursuit of quantitative easing from 2003 to 2006 was not all it seemed. In that period, the bank took a cautiously incremental approach, a far cry from Haruhiko Kuroda’s big bang this month, with his pledge to double the monetary base in two years. Japan, then, is trying something radically new.在上月离职的前行长白川方明(Masaaki Shirakawa)任内,日本央行只是象征性地扩大了一下资产负债表。白川坚信,日本的通缩是结构性的,不可能通过货币手段加以解决。即便是在白川的前任福井俊彦(Toshihiko Fukui)任内,日本央行从2003年至2006年推行的定量宽松也不尽如表面上那样激进。在那段时期,日本央行走的是谨慎渐进路线,与这个月黑田东彦(Haruhiko Kuroda)搞出的大动静有天壤之别——黑田承诺,要在两年之内让货币基础翻番。所以说,日本正在尝试某种全新的做法。One concern expressed by neighbouring countries from China to Australia is that the policy’s only “transmission mechanism” is via devaluation. Their concerns are partly selfish. They worry that floods of money will leave Japan, pushing down the currency and improving the competitiveness of its exporters. In other words, Japan will simply be stealing growth from others.从中国到澳大利亚,日本的这些邻国表露出的一个担忧是,该政策的唯一“传导机制”是货币贬值。它们的担忧在某种程度上是出于自身利益的考虑。这些邻国担心,会有大量资金流出日本,从而压低日元汇率、提高该国出口商的竞争力。换言之,日本简直就是在从其他国家窃取增长。But their observation also stems from doubts about underlying growth prospects in a country with such unpromising demographics. The BoJ is massively ramping up its purchase of Japan government bonds in order to force financial institutions to recycle savings into riskier assets with higher returns. But what if such assets don’t exist? The worry is that flat or falling demand, coupled with a lack of supply-side reform, will weigh severely against future returns. Lack of opportunities at home could explain why the yen has dropped so precipitously, 20 per cent against the dollar since November. It would also suggest that Shinzo Abe, prime minister, needs to shoot his third arrow – the structural reforms intended to lift Japan’s potential growth rate.但它们持这种态度的原因还在于,一个人口结构如此没有希望的国家,其潜在增长前景是值得怀疑的。日本央行大幅加大购买日本国债的力度,是为了迫使金融机构将储蓄投向风险更高收益也更高的资产。但如果这类资产不存在呢?人们担心,需求持平或下降,再加上缺少供应面的改革,将严重拖累未来的回报。国内投资机会匮乏或许正是日元汇率大幅下挫的原因——去年11月以来,日元兑美元下跌了20%。它还表明,日本首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)需要射出第三箭,那就是旨在提升日本潜在增长率的结构性改革。Before that, though, comes the question of whether the world will tolerate Japanese devaluation. Here the signs are not too bad. The International Monetary Fund said this week that complaints about competitive devaluation were “overdone”. It welcomed Japan’s “dramatic change” in monetary policy and raised its estimates for growth this year from 1.2 per cent to 1.6 per cent, and next year from 0.7 per cent to 1.4 per cent. Even some Chinese officials have cautiously endorsed Japan’s policy. (Others have been less accepting with one complaining Japan was using its neighbours as a “garbage bin”.) Still, the most likely outcome is grudging acceptance of Tokyo’s radical new measures. The world may judge that, even if there are spillover effects, it is better for everyone if Japan can get its economy going again. Tokyo’s monetary pre-emptive strike will be a lot less controversial than Pearl Harbor. And it may actually work.但在那之前还存在一个问题,即世界是否会容忍日元贬值。这方面的迹象还不算太糟。国际货币基金组织(IMF)日前表示,有关竞争性贬值的怨言有些“过头了”。IMF乐见日本“大幅改变”货币政策,并且上调了对日本经济增长的预期,今年的增长率预期从1.2%上调至1.6%,明年的增长率预期从0.7%上调至1.4%。就连部分中国官员也对日本的政策表示了谨慎持。(另一些官员则持保留态度,有人抱怨称,日本正把邻国当作“垃圾桶”)。尽管如此,最有可能的结果仍是世界勉强接受日本激进的新举措。国际社会可能会断定,即便存在溢出效应,只要日本能够使其经济恢复增长,最终结果也还是会使所有人受益。日本在货币政策方面发动的先发制人打击,引起的争论将远少于珍珠港事件。而且,这种政策可能真的有效。 /201304/235926盐城市城南新区人民医院地址 Endless loops of songs like ;All I Want For Christmas; in shops during the festive season don#39;t just drive us mad - they also make us more careless with our money, academics have warned.在节日期间,商店里不停地循环播放像《我想要的圣诞礼物》(All I Want For Christmas)这样的经典歌曲,这不仅仅会让我们心烦 。日前就有学者警告说,这也会让我们更舍得花钱。While repeated renditions of ;Jingle Bells; may seem like an innocent attempt to raise customers#39; spirits during the nightmare of Christmas shopping, the songs also have a more subtle impact.不断重复的《铃儿响叮当》(Jingle Bells)的旋律,貌似是给消费者在噩梦般的圣诞购物时提神使用的,实际上还有微妙的影响。Background music, or ;Muzak;, can be used by marketers to impose cultures - such as the commercialisation of Christmas - onto consumers and influence their behaviour, experts said.专家们认为,这种在公共场所连续播放的背景音乐(又名“米尤扎克”),可以被营销人员用来向消费者们灌输文化,例如圣诞节的商业化,并以此影响消费者的行为。Dr Alan Bradshaw of Royal Holloway, University of London, said: “Festive jingles are force-fed to Christmas shoppers in a bid to change their mood, influence their sense of time and what sort of products they buy. In other words, this is an attempt to manipulate your shopping habits in a way that you might barely be aware of.英国伦敦大学皇家霍洛威学院的阿兰-布拉德肖士说:“节日时播放的广告歌曲, 是为了改善消费者的心情而强行地灌输给消费者的。这会影响他们对时间和所买产品的感觉。换句话说,这是一种用你几乎都不知道的方式来操纵你的购物习惯。”“Often we are told that we have the freedom to choose where we want to shop, but during Christmas the use of music in this way is so ubiquitous that our freedom to choose disappears.”“很多时候,我们都被告知,我们有选择去哪里购物的自由,但是在圣诞节期间,到处都在使用这种背景音乐,我们选择的自由消失了。”Dr Bradshaw and Prof Morris B Holbrook of Columbia University examined the phenomenon and found that retailers often ;dumb down; the music played in shops to relax customers, meaning it is easier to control their behaviour.布拉德肖士和哥伦比亚大学的莫瑞斯-霍尔布鲁克对这一现象进行了研究,发现零售商们经常在商店里“放慢节奏”播放音乐来让顾客放松,这样能更容易地对顾客的行为进行控制。It is thought that slowing down the tempo of music in shops can trick customers into thinking less time has passed, and therefore spend more time perusing the shelves, for example.人们认为,放慢商品里播放音乐的节奏能让顾客认为才过了一小会儿时间,从而花更多的时间仔细查看货架上的商品。Some providers of background music have been known to promote their services by claiming they can boost profits by controlling the behaviour of customers.一些背景音乐的提供商说,他们可以通过控制顾客的行为来提高利润,从而提升他们的务。A common trick is to take a popular current song and record an instrumental version which can be slowed down or sped up at different times of the day to influence behaviour in different ways, Dr Bradshaw said.布拉德肖士说,常见的一种做法是选一个当前流行的歌曲并录制乐器版本,这样可以在一天的不同时段减速或加速播放,从而用不同的方式来影响用户的行为。;I think you can see a real intention on the part of shop managers to use Christmas music to inflence their customers,; he added.他又补充道:“我认为,商店的管理者想通过圣诞音乐来影响消费者的这一意图很明显。”“Not only is this bad for musicians and the dignity of their work, representing a triumph of commercial greed over artistic creativity, but it can have negative social implications”.“这不仅对音乐家来说是件坏事儿,有损他们工作的尊严,表示商业的贪婪性胜过了艺术的创造性, 而且对社会也有负面影响。”Background music is often classed as ;Muzak; in recognition of the Seattle-based company which began producing its soft-sounding melodies in the 1930s.背景音乐通常归类于“米尤扎克”,这个名字是用来表彰西雅图的一家公司在20世纪30年代所开始创造的软音乐旋律。 /201212/216526盐城妇幼保健院地址

盐城/治疗包皮哪家医院最好Ge Donghua looks tired. With a tough job market at the year-end it will be a tough Spring Festival.葛东华(音译)看上去十分疲惫。年末就业市场的不景气,注定这个春节也不会好过了。“Looking for a job is exhausting,” said the fresh graduate from Beijing University of Technology. “We have to condescend ourselves to giving up on ideal posts and accepting average jobs. It’s depressing.”今年刚刚从北京科技大学毕业的葛东华说:“找工作真的让人筋疲力尽,我们不得不屈从显示,放弃那些理想的工作,接受那些平淡无奇的职位,这太让人沮丧了。”Ge’s graduation blues is shared by the majority of his peers, according to the 2013 Blue Book of China’s Society released by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS). The report indicates that 70 percent of college graduates see themselves at the mid-lower or lower level in the social stratification.由中国社科院(简称CASS)发布的2013年《中国社会蓝皮书》显示,葛东华与大多数同龄人可谓同病相怜,纷纷遭遇毕业低谷。该报告显示,七成大学毕业生自认处于社会的中低层或者底层。With a growing number of college graduates considering themselves to belong to the lower levels of society, experts suggest that students lower their expectations of the job market.面对自认处于社会低层的大学毕业生人数的增加,专家们建议大学生们应该降低对就业市场的期望值。As the 2010 Report on Chinese College Graduate Job Pressure, released by CASS, shows, 18 percent of graduates would accept unpaid employment, compared with only 1.58 percent in 2006.由中国社科院发布的“2010中国大学毕业生就业压力报告”显示,18%的大学毕业生愿意接受零月薪,而2006年的同期数字仅为1.58%。“The once high-flying college graduates are now accepting the fact that they are not as rare as their predecessors decades ago,” commented South Metropolitan Daily last week.上周《南方都市报》有指出:“这些曾经一腔雄心壮志的大学毕业生们正在接受一个现实,那就是他们不再像几十年前的大学生那样稀缺了。”Experts say that the expansion of university enrolment since 1999 significantly increased university output while society’s ability to absorb such a great number of graduates has not been fully developed.专家认为,自1999年各高校实行扩招后,大学毕业生数量急剧增加,然而社会并没有足够的能力来吸收这么多大学毕业生。Hu Ruiwen, from the Shanghai Academy of Educational Sciences, said that graduates positioning themselves at the lower levels of society is a reflection of the current market demand for college graduates.来自上海市教育科学研究院的胡瑞文(音译)表示,毕业生将自身定位成社会底层,这也反映出当今市场对于大学生毕业生的需求。Hu thinks it is inevitable that college graduates face a tough market, with the country’s university education having been transformed from elite education to popular one.胡瑞文认为,随着中国大学教育由精英教育转向大众教育,大学毕业生面临的就业难题是不可避免的。“To some extent, universities now shoulder part of the responsibility to produce an educated workforce, rather than just academic talents,” said Hu.胡瑞文说:“从某种程度上讲,各高校如今必须担负一部分责任,输出受过良好教育的劳动力,而不仅仅是培养学术人才。”According to a report by the National Institute of Education Sciences, domestic demand for academic personnel from research institutions and universities is about 100,000 per year.由中国教育科学研究院发布的一份报告显示,我国对于从研究机构以及高校中走出的学术型人才的年需求量约为十万人。“But there are over half a million postgraduate students entering a job market,” said Hu. “It’s easy to feel disillusioned when one’s expectations meet reality.”胡瑞文表示:“而每年有超过五十万的研究生进入就业市场。当个人的期望遭遇现实时,很容易产生幻灭感。”Wang Feng, from the National Center of Education Development Research, agrees. Wang thinks that China’s higher education is now facing a dilemma. It is caught between professional and academic education.对此来自国家教育发展研究中心的王峰(音译)表示赞同。他认为中国的高等教育正面临着一个困境,夹在职业教育与学术教育之间进退两难。“The country now needs a great number of well-educated workers to serve its expanding industrial and technological ambitions,” said Wang.王峰认为:“为了让工业与科技高速腾飞,我国现如今对于受教育工种的需求量很大。”“At the same time, the education model retains its traditional, even outdated approach, meaning graduates struggle in a market that emphasizes professional skills.”“与此同时,教育模式却仍停留在传统甚至是有些过时的水平,这意味着,大学毕业生们在一个看重职业技能的就业市场里苦苦挣扎。” /201301/220060 编者按:2011;伤不起;的一年:年初的;微打拐;为兔年春节涂抹了一层人文的亮色;日本地震,中国爆发;谣盐;危机;此波未平,;地沟油;一波又起;;高铁;是个奇迹,大家都信了,温州动车追尾事故刚刚平息,多起;校车;交通事故又起,虽亡羊补牢,但对那些已逝生命的孩子终究为时晚矣;从经济到文化,一连串施放的;限字令;构成了调控政策的新风景;一系列的;times;times;控;,更折射出;控;已成为一种生活状态;;PM2.5;引发空气质量大讨论,环保不再只是官方的口号。望国内景象,网事风起云涌,2011,你;HOLD住;了吗?  岁末年终,英语点津在这里为您盘点2011国内最热门的十大词汇,希望能帮助您回顾今年的热点事件和精言论。1.微打拐 microblogs combat child-trafficking2.谣盐 salt rumor3. 地沟油 illegal cooking oil4. 高铁 high-speed train/rail5. 校车安全 school bus safety6. 限 limit7. 控 control8. 可入肺颗粒物 PM2.59. 伤不起 too delicate to bear a blow10. hold 住 /201112/166600盐城市协和医院前列腺炎多少钱江苏盐城治疗腹胀多少钱

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