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2018年12月10日 17:19:47来源:度排名健康门户

  • A History of Pilates彼拉提斯的一段历史Joseph Pilates was a fitness guru and inventor born in 1883 near the northern German city of Dusseldorf. His father was a prizewinning gymnast of Greek ancestry. His mother was a naturopath, who believed in stimulating the body to heal itself without drugs or surgery. His mothers healing philosophy and fathers physical achievements were to greatly influence Pilates ideas on therapeutic exercise.乔瑟夫·彼拉提斯是1883年于德国北部城市杜塞道夫出生的健身专家和发明家。他的父亲是希腊血统的得奖体操运动员。他的母亲是一名自然疗法师,她深信不用药物或手术就能刺激身体修复自己。他母亲的治疗哲学以及父亲在体能的成就,将会深深影响彼拉提斯在运动疗法上的想法。Pilates was a sickly child, suffering from asthma, rickets, and rheumatic fever. To make matters worse, the bigger children at school taunted him by making fun of his name. He became determined to overcome his physical disadvantages, and dedicated his life to improving his health and strength.彼拉提斯是个体弱多病的孩子,饱受气喘、佝偻病、和风湿热之苦。让情况更糟糕的是,学校里较魁梧的孩子借由开他名字的玩笑来嘲弄他。他下并决心要克生理上的不利条件,并将他的人生投入在改善他的健康及力量上。He focused on breathing techniques to assist with his asthma, and by exercising outside in his shorts, was able to cure his rickets which is caused by a vitamin D deficiency. By the age of 14, he was fit enough to pose for anatomical charts. He loved skiing and being outdoors. He studied bodybuilding, yoga, martial arts, and gymnastics.他专注于呼吸技巧以帮助改善他的气喘,借由穿着短裤在户外运动,他能够治疗因为缺乏维他命 D 所引起的佝偻病。在十四岁时,他已经够健壮到能当人体结构图的模特儿。他喜欢滑雪和待在户外。他研读健身、瑜伽、武术、和体操。You can recognize the influence of these activities in the Pilates technique. For example, the long stretch and up stretch on the Reformer are drawn from ;downward-facing dog; and ;plank; in yoga. He uses punching and sidekick movement similar to martial arts. And some exercises on the chair are similar to gymnastic ring work. The natural movements of animals also inspired him and this can be seen in exercises such as the cat stretch on the Cadillac.你可以在彼拉提斯的技巧中辨识出这些运动的影响。举例来说,器械床上的延长伸展和向上伸展是取自于瑜伽中“面朝下的式”和“棒式”。他使用类似武术的出拳和侧踢动作。有些在椅子上的练习类似于体操吊环运动。动物的自然动作同样也给他灵感,这可以在练习动作中看到,像是在凯迪拉克床上的猫式伸展。In 1912, Joseph Pilates moved to England and earned a living as a professional boxer, circus performer, and self-defense trainer at Scotland Yard. During World War I, however, the British authorities interned him, along with other German citizens, in a British Enemy Citizens Camp on the Isle of Man.在1912年,乔瑟夫·彼拉提斯搬到英国,并以职业拳击手、马戏团演员、和伦敦警察厅的自卫训练师谋生。然而,第一次世界大战期间,英国当局将他和其他德国公民一起拘留在曼岛上的英国敌国国民拘留营。The health conditions in these camps were poor, but Pilates insisted that everyone in his cellblock participate in daily exercise routines, which he had devised to help maintain their physical and mental well-being.这些拘留营中的健康状态很差,但彼拉提斯坚持在他狱区里的所有人都要参加每日的运动行程,那是他设计出来帮助维持他们身理及心理健康的运动。Some of the injured German soldiers were too weak to get out of bed. Not content to leave his comrades lying idle, Pilates took springs from the beds and attached them to the headboards and footboards of the iron bed frames, turning them into equipment that provided a type of resistance exercise for his bedridden patients. These mechanized beds were the forerunners of the spring-based exercise machines, such as the Cadillac and the Reformer, for which the Pilates method is known today.有些受伤的德国士兵太过虚弱而无法离床。不甘愿于丢下他的伙伴们闲躺着,彼拉提斯从床上取出弹簧并将它们接到铁床架的床头板及床尾板上,将它们变成为久病患者提供一种耐力运动的器材。这些机械化的病床是那些以弹簧为基础的运动机械的先驱,像是凯迪拉克床和器械床,那些都是彼拉提斯法今日为人所知的器材。Pilates legend has it that during the great flu epidemic of 1918, not a single soldier under his care died. Remarkable! Considering the terrible living conditions of the internment camps.彼拉提斯传说这样流传着,在1918年的大流感期间,没有一个在他照护之下的士兵丧命。非常惊人!考虑到那拘留营中糟糕的生活环境。After the war, Joseph returned to Germany and collaborated with experts in dance and physical exercise, such as Rudolf Laban. In Hamburg, he trained police officers. He was also pressured to train members of the German army, but left his native Germany, disappointed with its political and social conditions, and immigrated to the ed States. En route, he met his future wife, a young nurse named Clara. The couple founded a studio in New York City and taught and supervised their students well into the 1960s.战后,乔瑟夫回到德国,并与舞蹈及体能运动专家合作,像是Rudolf Laban(舞蹈家)。在德国汉堡,他训练警察。他同样也被迫使去训练德国军队,但他离开了土生土长的德国,对于其政治和社会条件感到失望,并移民到美国。在路上,他结识了他未来的妻子,一位名叫 Clara 的年轻护士。这对情侣在纽约成立一间工作室,并教导且监督他们的学生一直到六零年代。His method, which he and Clara originally called Contrology, encouraged the mind to control muscles. It focused attention on core postural muscles that help keep the body balanced and provide support for the spine. In particular, Pilates exercises teach awareness of breath and of alignment of the spine, and strengthen the deep torso and abdominal muscles. Pilates came to believe that modern lifestyle, bad posture, and inefficient breathing lay at the roots of poor health.他的方法,他和 Clara 原先称作“控制哲学”,刺激心志去控制肌肉。那能集中注意力在帮助维持人体平衡及提供脊椎撑力的核心姿势肌上。最特别地,彼拉提斯运动训练对呼吸以及脊椎矫正的认识,并强化躯干深处与腹部的肌肉。彼拉提斯开始相信现代的生活型态、不正确的姿势、以及无效率的呼吸为不良的健康状态扎根。Joseph Pilates New York gym put him in close proximity to a number of dance studios, which led to his discovery by prominent members of the dance community, including George Balanchine and Martha Graham. The Pilates repertoire itself has many references to classical ballet and also the Graham technique. For example, the ballet stretches on the Cadillac and Ladder Barrel, the round back and straight back in the stomach massage series on the Reformer. Many dancers, actors, and famous people in New York depended on Pilates for the strength and grace it developed, as well as for its rehabilitative effects.乔瑟夫·彼拉提斯在纽约的运动中心将他带到几间舞蹈工作室的邻近区域,这使得他被舞蹈界的知名人物发现,包括 George Balanchine 和 Martha Graham。彼拉提斯的动作本身就有许多古典芭蕾、也有葛莱姆技巧(现代舞技巧)的参考依据。举例来说,像是凯迪拉克床及梯桶上的芭蕾伸展、还有器械床上胃部系列的拱背及直背。许多舞者、演员、和纽约名人都为了它所带来的力量及魅力而仰赖彼拉提斯,还有为了它那复健的效果。Joseph Pilates wrote two books, Your Health and Return to Life through Contrology, and was also a prolific inventor. He passed away in 1967 at the age of 83 in New York. He had maintained a fit physique throughout his life, and photographs show that he was in remarkable physical condition in his older years.乔瑟夫·彼拉提斯写过两本书:“你的健康”以及“透过控制哲学重返人生”,他同样也是作品丰富的发明家。他在1967年83岁时在纽约逝世。他在他的人生中都保持强健的体魄,也有照片显示他在晚年仍处于绝佳的生理状态。He is also said to have had a flamboyant personality. He smoked cigars, liked to party, and wore his exercise briefs wherever he wanted—even on the streets of New York. Its said that he was an intimidating, though deeply committed, instructor. Although Joseph and Clara had no children, his legacy and exercise techniques were preserved and developed through the work of his disciples. These disciples who started out as their apprentices are now called the Elders.据说他同样也有高调的个性。他抽雪茄、喜欢参加派对、无论他想在哪穿都穿着他的运动小内裤--甚至在纽约大街上。据说他是名虽然深深投入、却也很令人敬畏的导师。即使乔瑟夫和 Clara 没有孩子,他的遗产及运动技巧都透过他追随者的努力,被保留下来并成长发展。这些一开始是他见习生的追随者们现在叫做“长老”。Until exercise science caught up with the Pilates method in the 1980s, it was chiefly dancers and elite athletes who utilized the Pilates technique. Now, Pilates has made it to the mainstream, with its health benefits and mental discipline widely recognized as being of great benefit to the health and well-being of all types of people, no matter their shape, size, gender or age.直到运动科学在八零年代跟上彼拉提斯的方法前,主要是舞者和菁英运动员利用彼拉提斯的技巧。现在,彼拉提斯已成为主流,其对健康的益处以及其心志训练,被广泛认为对所有类型的人们的健康及幸福有极大益处,不论他们的身形、大小、性别或是年龄。Today, Joseph Pilates teachings are carried on by the Pilates Elders, their progeny, and by a large group of contemporary teachers all over the world.今天,乔瑟夫·彼拉提斯的教学由彼拉提斯长老们、他们的后代、以及世界各地一大群现代的老师们接着传承下去。201411/343552。
  • Its pretty underwhelming to look at-in fact its quite dull. Its made of brown-grey clay, a simple round pot about the size of the bucket that children play with on the beach, about six inches high, six inches across at the top, and its got its got straight sides and a flat base, and it was made about seven thousand years ago in Japan.其实它本身令人印象相当之深刻。虽然它颜色其实很暗淡,原料是棕灰色的粘土,简简单单的圆型深钵,大小就像孩子们用在沙滩上玩耍的那种小塑料桶一样,大概六英寸高,上边端口直径也差不多六英寸,两侧是笔直的直线,还有一个平底。它大概是制造于七千年前的日本。When you look more closely, you can see that it was built up with coils of clay and then, into the outside, fibres have been pressed, so that when you hold it, you feel as though you are actually holding a basket. It looks and feels like a basket in clay.当你再仔细一点观察,你就可以发现它其实是用一圈圈的粘土圈先绕成型的,然后外边压上绳索般的花纹。当你拿起它的时候,就感觉像是在举着一个篮子。其实它看起来就像一个粘土制成的篮子。The basket - like markings on this and other Japanese pots of the same time, are in a cord pattern and thats in fact what their name is in Japanese. They are Jomon - or cord-pattern pots.这种仿照竹篮纹理的花纹,在这件陶器及其同时期日本陶罐上都可以找到,被人们称之为绳纹,事实上它们的命名在日文里就是这意思。它们就是绳纹陶器。And the word Jomon has come to be used not just for the objects, but for the people that made them, and even the whole historic period in which they were lived. It was the Jomon people living in what is now northern Japan, who created the worlds first pots. Simon Kaner, of the University of East Anglia, is a specialist in ancient Japanese culture:现在绳纹一词,已经不仅仅是这些物品的名称,那时代的人类,及他们生活的整个历史时期都被称之为绳纹。正是这些生活在如今日本北部的绳纹人制造了世界上的首件陶器。东英吉利大学的西蒙?康尔是古日本文化的专家,他说道:In Europe weve always assumed that people whove made pottery were farmers, and that it was only through farming that people were able to stay in one place, because theyd be able to build up a surplus that they could then subsist on through the winter months, and it was only if you were going to stay in one place all the year round, that youd be making pottery, because its an awkward thing to carry around with you.“在欧洲,我们一向认为制作陶器的古人类肯定是农耕人类,因为只有依靠农业,人类才能定居下来,他们可以长年停留在同一地方,渐渐积蓄起余粮,培养起一种可持续的生活方式,能保他们顺利渡过寒冬里那几个月。而且只有长年居住在同一地方,才有制作陶器的必要,要不然如果你得东奔西跑,这种东西搬来搬去可真是不方便。”The Japanese example is really interesting, because what we have here is pottery being made by people who were not farmers, and its one of the best examples that weve got from anywhere in the world really - from pre-history, of people who subsisted on fishing, gathering nuts and other wild resources, and hunting wild animals - that they also had a need for cooking pots.“日本这例子真是相当有趣。因为这些陶器不是农民做出来的。这绝对是我们在全世界范围内收集到的关于史前文化的最好例子。这些人类、采集坚果及其他野生植物,同时也狩猎野生动物,同时他们也需要煮东西的盆钵锅罐。”201405/296798。
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