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来源:飞度排名免费咨询    发布时间:2019年03月19日 14:02:52    编辑:admin         

In just a fraction of a second after the Big Bang, the building blocks of our Universe begin to take shape. But this first matter is like nothing we see today.大爆炸后短短的一瞬间,宇宙的组成元素开始出现。但第一种物质却并非今日所见。The stuff of matter has been very different over the ages of the Universe. What we now think is normal matter was not at all normal in the earliest moments of the Big Bang.宇宙形成百亿年以来,形成物质的元素不断变化。在现今宇宙里人们认为很常见的物质,在大爆炸最初时期并不存在。Thats because conditions were so extreme. There were no atoms yet. But there were tiny subatomic particles.那是因为当时环境非常极端。那时还没有原子,只有微小的次原子粒子。In the earliest moments of the Big Bang, the Universe was so hot and dense. There were great amounts of energy. And so particles will be created all the time and energy and matter will transform back and forth in this hot dense soup.大爆炸最初那一刻,宇宙温度极高,密度极大,蕴含了巨大的能量。因此才一直有粒子生成,能量和物质在这高温高密的大熔炉里反反复复互相转化。That earliest matter was too unstable to start forming the Universe as we know it. Think of it like this. Imagine rush hour at Grand Central in New York City as that superheated early Universe. The commuters racing through the main concourse are subatomic particles.最早的物质太不稳定,从而不能形成我们所了解的宇宙。把纽约中心地带高峰期想像成炽热的早期宇宙,把在中央大厅飞速往返穿行的上班族想象成次原子粒子。If you look at a crowd of people, a large crowd of people, they may appear randomly. That random, cocky motion is very similar to what was happening to the particles in the Universe in the earliest moments of the Big Bang.如果你观察一群人,一大群人,他们可能是随机出现的。这种随机的运动与大爆炸最初宇宙内粒子的高速碰撞运动十分相似。The extreme temperature of the early Universe energizes the subatomic particles. They appear. They disappear. They race around at incredible speeds. Its pure chaos.早期宇宙内的高温提供给次原子粒子能量。它们不断创生,湮灭,以惊人的速率运动,宇宙内一片混乱。Its like people. If they are excited and running around fast to catch trains at a train station, they have to move around quickly. But eventually they calm down and get slower. Thats whats been happening to our Universe in a sense. The particles are moving around very fast and as Universe cools down, the particles move more slowly and in some sense, less randomly.就像人类。如果人们在火车站为赶火车而到处奔跑,心烦意乱时,他们必须得快速移动。但是最终他们会平静下来,越跑越慢。从某种意义上宇宙也是这样,起初粒子四处飞移,当宇宙冷却,粒子运动越来越慢,从某种意义上不再那么随机了。As the Universe cools, the particles stop changing back into energy.当宇宙冷却,粒子不再转化回能量的形式。201205/183076。

Science and Technolgy科技infantile anaemia婴儿贫血Blood simple简单的输血A small change in how babies are delivered might abolish infantile anaemia分娩方式的简单改变可能帮助消灭婴儿贫血CHILDHOOD anaemia is a problem. Around the world, almost a quarter of under-fives suffer from it. And anaemia is not a trivial thing. A childs development, both physical and mental, is stifled by a lack of iron. The reason is that, besides its well-known role in haemoglobin, the oxygen-transporting molecule in the blood, iron is also involved in many aspects of brain development.儿童贫血症是一个全球性的问题,将近四分之一的五岁以下儿童忍受着该病的折磨,使得我们无法忽视它。儿童身体和智力的发育,都会受到铁元素匮乏的影响,因为除了在血液中的氧气运输分子——血红蛋白中发挥着众所周知的作用外,铁元素还在许多方面参与了大脑的发育。A study just published in the British Medical Journal by Ola Andersson, an obstetrician at the Hospital of Halland in Halmstad, Sweden, suggests that a simple change of medical procedure when a child is born may bring a big reduction in anaemia. That change is not to cut the umbilical cord linking the child with the placenta straight after birth—as is standard practice—but, rather, to give it time to transfer more of the placentas contents (particularly its blood) to the child it has been nurturing.来自瑞典哈尔姆斯塔德市哈兰医院的产科医生Ola Andersson刚刚在不列颠医学杂志上发表的一项研究表明,简单改变婴儿分娩的流程,也许就能显著降低贫血症的发生。这个改变是,不要像惯常操作那样,在胎儿出生后马上剪断连接胎儿与胎盘的脐带,而是等一等,让更多胎盘中的物质(特别是血液)流向胎儿。The argument in favour of rapid clamping is that too much blood may flow from the detached placenta to the newly born child, and that this can cause problems of its own. But that is unproven, and would be a strike against evolution because, in nature, the umbilicus of a mammal usually does remain attached to the infant for some time after birth. Only the modern technology of clamps and sharp scissors permits the slithery tube to be dealt with at speed.坚持快速钳住脐带(速钳法)的观点认为,让太多的血液从胎盘流向新生儿会带来其自身的问题,但这种观点其实从未被实,而且显然与进化论相抵触,因为在自然界中,哺乳动物的胎儿通常在出生后一段时间内仍然通过脐带与母体相连,只有钳子和剪子这种现代工具,才能迅速地处理光滑的脐带。To test her idea that extended post partum connection to the placenta is good for a childs health, Dr Andersson and her colleagues recruited 334 pregnant, non-smoking women whose fetuses appeared to be healthy. When these women came to term, their midwives followed one of two sets of instructions, chosen at random and given to them just before each birth. In 166 cases the newborns had their umbilical cords clamped within ten seconds of delivery. The other 168 had them clamped after at least three minutes had passed.为了实延长产后胎儿与胎盘的连接时间确实有益于儿童的健康,Andersson士和她的同事们招募了334个没有吸烟习惯的妇志愿者,她们肚中的胎儿看起来都很健康。在妇们临产时,助产士为她们从两种生产方式中随机选择一种。在166例中,脐带在新生儿出生后的十秒内被钳住,而在另一组168例中,这个时间至少超过三分钟。When the children were four months old, Dr Andersson re-examined them and took a blood sample. Those babies whose umbilical clamps had been applied after three minutes had, on average, iron levels 45% higher than those whose cords had been clamped immediately. Put another way, only 0.6% of them were anaemic, compared with 5.7% of the rapidly clamped.在这些儿童四个月时,Andersson士重新对他们进行检查并抽取血样。那些脐带在三分钟后才被钳住的儿童,体内的铁元素平均水平要比采用速钳法的儿童高出45%。从另一个角度看,相较于采用速钳法的儿童中5.7%的贫血症发生率,他们的这个比例只有0.6%。Rapid clamping of the umbilicus, then, seems to cause one child in 20 to become anaemic, at least in the early months of its life. Any experiment of this sort needs to be repeated, of course, to check it is correct. But if it is, then the burden of proof in the matter of when to cut the cord will have shifted from those who would cut late to those who would cut early. The cost of doing so would seem negligible; the benefit, great.看起来速钳法在每20个儿童中便导致一例在其出生后的最初几个月内发生贫血。当然,这类研究结果都需要通过重复实验来验可靠性。但如果这个结论确实正确,那么采用速钳法的人将更有义务来明为什么要迅速的剪断脐带,毕竟延长几分钟时间没有什么麻烦,而益处却是显而易见的。 /201210/204096。

Its a city within the city. You have to look over 50,000 people. Youll be so alive when youre down here. What you would see mostly is when you came out for lunch on a beautiful day, when everyone is coming out of the buildings and then of course, youll sometimes look up and see these majestic mountains just staring down actively.那是一个城市中的城市。你得看看这里有超过50000人。当你来到这里,你会感到活力。你会看到大多是当你在美好的一天出来吃午饭,当每个人都走出大楼,然后,有时候你会抬头看见这些峻岭只是盯着下面。Then came 9/11. You know, we can just describe it like a death in the family. A collapse of the World Trade Center south tower obliterated the PATH Station. The station is the lowest point on the trade center site. All the water from fighting the fires poured in. Broken water mains flooded the PATH tunnel all the way to New Jersey. Workers built a temperate plug to sea of the tunnel. It took 40 days to pump all the water out. A crucial link to the subway system was destroyed. Now began the hard work, rebuilding. And Im president defeat of transient engineering. Workers got it one and a half kilometers of tunnels.之后就是9/11。你知道,我们可以把它描述成家庭的死亡。世界贸易中心南塔楼倒塌导致帕斯车站被毁。列车站是世贸中心的最低点。所有的水都在为灭火而战斗。断水淹没了帕斯从纽约到新泽西的隧道。工人们建造了温度插头来控制。而要花40天才能将水抽干。地铁系统的一个关键环节被摧毁。现在开始艰难的重建工作。而我则担任重建工程的总工程师。工人们的工作是1.5公里的隧道。注:听力文本来源于普特201202/172709。

ON MARCH 15th the former governor of Illinois, Rod Blagojevich, will start to serve a 14-year sentence for corruption in a federal low-security prison. In this part of America, he is ting a well-worn path. Over four decades, four governors (out of seven) have been convicted of corruption.伊利诺斯州前州长罗德bull;布拉格耶维奇因在联邦低安全级别监狱中工作腐败,于3月15日开始为期14年的刑罚。在美国的这个地区,他走过了一条曲折的道路。在过去的四十年中,4个州长(共有7个)都因腐败而被定罪。A new report, by Dick Simpson and his colleagues at the University of Chicago, documents the extent to which the state of Illinois and the city of Chicago have been hotbeds of corruption. Chicago, they conclude, has the dubious distinction of being the federal district with the most convictions since 1976.在芝加哥大学迪克bull;辛普森和他的同事们一份新的报告中,他们描绘了作为滋生腐败的温床伊利诺斯州和芝加哥已经到了何种程度。他们宣称,从1976年开始芝加哥就很可能是美联邦中高犯罪率地区,而它也因此显著区别与其他地区。Since then, 1,828 elected officials, appointees, government employees and a few private individuals have been convicted of corruption in Illinois, and 84% of these were in its Northern District;a judicial zone which contains the entire Chicago metropolitan area. During this time around one-third of the cityrsquo;s aldermen have been convicted of corruption. No mayors have been convicted or indicted;not even Bill Thompson, who was backed by Al Capone.从那之后,1828名选举官员、指派官员、政府雇员和一小部分私人个体都因在伊利诺斯州实施腐败而被治罪。他们中的84%都来自于州北部地区;;这是一块包含芝加哥所有繁华区域的司法区。如今整个城市已经有1/3的商人都被定为腐败罪。没有一个市长因腐败被定罪或起诉,甚至在阿尔bull;卡彭持下的比尔bull;汤普森也不例外。Although Chicago is the capital of corruption, the state of Illinois as a whole ranks only third in the country;after the much more populous states of New York and California. But the report documents a pattern of crime that has become synonymous with the Chicago or Illinois ;way; of doing things. All the corrupt governors and 26 of the aldermen had tried to extract bribes from builders, developers, business owners and those seeking to do business with the city or the state. Those who paid bribes either assumed, or were told, that payment was necessary for zoning changes, building permits or any other government action.虽然芝加哥身为腐败之都,但是伊利诺斯州在全国的腐败排名位居第三;;纽约州和加利福尼亚州在这点上更为众望所归。不过报告中描述了一种犯罪方式,这种方式与芝加哥和伊利诺斯州行事方式有相似之处。所有行为腐败的市长和市参议员(市议会长老议员)都曾向建筑商、发展商、大商人以及意欲与城市或者州进行生意交易的人索取过贿赂。这些被索取贿赂的人认为,也有其他人告诉他们,那些作为贿赂的钱财都是为地区改变、建筑许可或是其他任何政府行为所必须的。Mr Blagojevich, notoriously, sought money in exchange for an appointment to a seat in the Senate. Other convictions may have been less spectacular, but the pattern of pay-offs for political favours has prevailed in these parts for 150 years.布拉格耶维奇寻找钱财为了在议会中享有一席之地的事情已经臭名昭著。他的其他罪名没有这么严重,但是通过金钱来交换政治这种方式已经在这个地区盛行了150年了。A project under way by the State Integrity Investigation, due out on March 19th, notes that some changes have been made in the light of past scandals. Mr Simpson thinks the ultimate solution lies in ending the culture of corruption, which would include prohibiting patronage (something he says is on the decline anyway), nepotism and the holding of two government jobs at the same time.国家正义调查局正进行一个于3月19号结束的项目,他们发现在过去的丑闻影响下,一些变化悄然兴起。辛普森先生认为禁止任命职务(他说这个已经在不断减少)、任人唯亲以及同时就职于政府两个职位,这才是断绝腐败问题的最终解决方案。Corruption has cost taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars and sapped faith in government. Both the new governor of Illinois, Pat Quinn, and the new mayor of Chicago, Rahm Emanuel, have shown a willingness to reform. Many of Mr Emanuelrsquo;s early executive orders are designed to improve transparency and accountability. But Mr Simpson says too many loopholes remain. The devil, as ever, is in the detail.腐败问题以纳税人数以百万计的金钱作为代价,并且使得公众丧失了对政府的信任。伊利诺斯州的新州长奎恩和芝加哥的新市长拉姆bull;伊曼纽尔都表示了改革的决心。伊曼纽尔先生早期的行政命令也意在提高政府行政的透明度和信任感。但是辛普森先生说这个体制还是有太多的漏洞,而最终的魔鬼,仍然是在细节上。201203/173109。

Saturn might be the second largest planet in the solar system.土星可能是太阳系第二大的行星。But like gas giant neighbour Jupiter, its a triumph of show over substance.但就像巨大的气体邻居木星一样,这是一种物质胜利的展现。Well, Saturn is first of all a big giant, I mean, gas ball.嗯,土星首先是一个巨大的,我的意思是,气体行星。Actually its a big giant ball of fluid and the other parts of it are gas atmospheres.实际上这是一个巨大的流体球而其他部分是气体层。But if you go deeper, it gets hotter and hotter and also gets more pressurized.但是如果你再深入,它会变得愈来愈热,压力也变得越来越大。And so if you get down deep enough, you start getting sort of fluid effects.所以,如果你足够深入,你会有点受到流体的影响。Saturn is a big boy, but pound-for-pound, a cosmic light weight.土星是一个大家伙,但体积,其宇宙重量非常轻。Its big enough to swallow 765 earth, but as the least dense planet, it would flow on water.它大到足以吞下765个地球,但作为最密集的行星,它的水会流动。Like Jupiter, this is a world with nowhere to stand.像木星一样,这是一个无处立足的世界。With no solid surface, its hard to measure how long a day is.没有固体表面,很难衡量每天有多长时间。Though the cloud tops go around about every 11 hours.尽管云大约每11小时就能到达顶端。But its whats up above not down below that will draw the clouds to Saturn.但是这是上面不是下面,这样可以吸引到土星的云。Its just hard to imagine anything more beautiful than the ring system.只是很难想象还有什么比这个光环系统更为美妙的。Thats the first thing that any kid with a telescope wants to look at.这是任何孩子用望远镜都想看看的第一件事。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/184376。

Science and Technolgy科技Mars exploration探测火星How to land a Mini on Mars如何让一辆微型汽车大的探测器在火星着陆The biggest and fanciest Mars rover so far will soon blast off from Florida迄今为止最昂贵、最大的火星漫游者将很快从佛罗里达发射升空EARTH excepted, the most probed and prodded planet in the solar system is Mars. Besides the assortment of craft that have flown by it or gone into orbit around it, three robotic buggies equipped with cameras and scientific instruments have roamed the Martian surface on behalf of NASA, Americas space agency, since 1997.除了地球,火星是太阳系里被人类探索得最多、最让人感到刺激的行星。除了各种飞过它的以及进入它附近轨道的飞船外,从1997年开始,三个装配了相机和科学仪器的探险车已经代表美国太空机构NASA漫游了火星表面。If all goes according to plan, they will soon be joined by a fourth. On November 26th a new rover, Curiosity, will ascend from Cape Canaveral. If it gets there in one piece, it will examine the climate and geology of Mars and look for any signs of life that might have arisen.如果所有一切都按计划进行,第四个将探险车将很快加入其中。11月26日,新的漫游者;好奇号;将从卡拉维拉尔角发射升空。如果它完好无损地抵达,它将考察火星气候和地质,并寻找可能出现的生命迹象。The first of NASAs rovers, Sojourner, which reached Mars in 1997, was 65cm long and weighed (on Earth, where the gravitational pull is 2? times Marss) 10kg. Spirit and Opportunity, its twin successors, were larger, at 1.6 metres and 170kg. Curiosity, by comparison, is a monster. At 3 metres and 900kg it is the size of a small car. It also uses different technology. The other three rovers were powered by solar panels. Curiosity is powered by plutonium. (Not a full-scale reactor, but a generator that turns the heat of radioactive decay into electrical energy.) This brings three advantages. First, it allows Curiosity to carry more power-hungry scientific instruments than previous rovers. Second, it permits the rover to work through the Martian winter. Third, it avoids the problem of dust accumulating on the solar panels, which gradually sapped the strength of its predecessors.1997年,NASA的火星漫游者;旅居者;到达火星,它长65厘米,重10千克(地球引力是火星的2.5倍)。其继任者,双胞胎;勇气和机遇号;比它更大(1.6米、170千克)。相比之下,;好奇号;就是个怪物。其3米长、900公斤重的尺寸就像一部小汽车。它也有不同的技术,之前漫游者由太阳能面板提供能量,;好奇号;由钚驱动(不完全是反应堆,而是一个将放射衰变产生的热能转换成电能的发电机)。这有三点好处:1、比起之前的漫游者,它能让;好奇号;带上更多的能耗大的科学仪器;2、它允许漫游者在火星冬季保持运转。3、它能避免让前几个漫游者的能量逐渐损耗的太阳能面板积土问题。Curiositys size makes getting it safely onto the Martian surface tricky. Previous rovers have deployed parachutes to slow their descents, and have then crashed into the ground using airbags to cushion their impacts. Curiosity is too massive for that approach to work. Instead, NASA hopes to deposit it on Mars using a contraption it has dubbed a skycrane.;好奇号;的尺寸使之能在火星复杂表面安全着陆。以前,漫游者打开降落伞减慢下降速度,在撞向地面时用安全气囊缓冲。;好奇号;大到这样的方法不能起作用。相反地,NASA希望利用一种精巧的被称为;天空起重机;的装置使其在火星着陆。As with the other rovers, Curiositys mother ship will rely on heat shields and air-resistance, and then on a parachute, to slow its arrival. But at an altitude of 1.6km a specially designed descent stage bearing the rover will drop away from this vehicle. The descent stage has eight rocket motors on its corners. These will slow its fall to a relatively sedate 0.75 metres a second. When it is about 20 metres above the surface, the rover will be lowered from it on wires and deposited gently onto the Martian landscape. The cables will then be cut with explosives, the descent stage will fly off and crash land elsewhere, and Curiosity will begin its mission.像其它几个漫游者一样,;好奇号;的母船将依靠隔热、耐大气擦的防护层,然后通过降落伞减速。但在1600米高时,一个特别设计的背负着漫游者的下降台从母船脱落,下降台的四角有8个火箭发动机,这些发动机把速度降到相对缓慢的0.75米/秒。离地约20米时,它将绑在线缆上的漫游者放下去,轻轻地在火星着陆。之后这些线缆将通过爆破切断,下降台飞走并在其它地方坠毁,;好奇号;开始它的任务。That, at least, is the theory. But the skycrane has never been used before, and there is plenty else that could go wrong. Indeed, Mars has something of a reputation for destroying spacecraft. Around half the missions sent there since the first Soviet attempts in 1960 have failed to arrive. A conversation on the subject in 1964, between a journalist and John Casani, a NASA scientist, spawned the idea of a Great Galactic Ghoul, a malevolent creature that prowls the space-lanes between Earth and Mars, dining on unfortunate spacecraft.这至少还是理论。除;天空起重机;从未用过外,可能出岔子的地方还有很多。火星有着宇宙飞船毁灭者的名声,自1960年苏联第一次尝试以来,约一半的登陆任务已经失败。1964年,NASA科学家约翰·卡萨尼与一名记者就这个问题有过一次对话,并得出了;星系食尸鬼;的概念——一个险恶的、徘徊在地球与火星之间航线的、以不幸的宇宙飞船为食的家伙。The ghouls latest victim appears to have been Phobos-Grunt, an ambitious Russian mission that was intended to return to Earth with a rock sample from Phobos, the larger of Marss moons. The Russian space agencys engineers lost contact with it soon after its launch on November 8th. Limited contact had been re-established as The Economist went to press, but it is not clear whether the mission can be salvaged. NASAs engineers, rationalists though they be, will be keeping their fingers crossed on Saturday, and hoping that the ghouls appetite has thus been sated, and that it will leave Curiosity alone.最近一个亡于;食尸鬼;的似乎是俄罗斯的;福布斯—土壤;。一个雄心勃勃的打算把火星较大一颗卫星——火卫一的岩石标本带回地球的任务。11月8日,在发射不久,俄罗斯太空机构的工程师与它失去了联系。本刊截稿时,他们已经重新建立起有限的联系。尽管是理性主义者,NASA的工程师还是会在周六祈祷,希望;食尸鬼;的胃已经填饱了,而不去理睬;好奇号;。 /201210/203628。