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2019年06月21日 03:24:47 | 作者:飞度管家养生回答 | 来源:新华社
China has warned South Korean conglomerate Lotte over its involvement in a planned US missile shield on the peninsula the first time Beijing has openly criticised the group after months of pressure via undeclared economic sanctions.中国警告韩国企业集团乐天(Lotte)不要参与在朝鲜半岛部署美国导弹防御系统的计划,这是北京方面在持续几个月通过未公开的经济制裁施加压力后,首次公开批评该集团。“Lotte will hurt the Chinese people and the consequences could be severe. The Chinese people will not support a company complicit in damaging China’s interests,according to a commentary by Xinhua, the Beijing mouthpiece.“乐天将伤害中国人民,后果可能是严重的。中国人民不会持一家参与损害中国利益的公司,”官方的新华社发表的一篇文章称。The development underscores China’s two-track approach to the Korean peninsula amid heightened tensions over North Korea’s nuclear and ballistic weapons programmes.这一事态突显出,随着朝鲜的核武和弹道导弹计划引发的紧张局势加剧,中国正在朝鲜半岛采取双轨战略。On one hand, it is increasing pressure on Pyongyang following a declaration on Sunday that it would stop importing North Korean coal.一方面,中国正在加大对平壤方面的压力,周日宣布停止进口朝鲜煤炭。On the other, it is squeezing Seoul on its plans to deploy the US missile shield that Beijing says is a “threat to regional security and stability另一方面,它正在韩国部署美国反导系统计划上对首尔方面施压,北京方面称该系统是“对区域安全和稳定的威胁”。North Korea has re-emerged as a potential conflict hotspot after last year testing two nuclear devices and more than 20 ballistic missiles.在去年进行两次核试验,并试射20多枚弹道导弹后,朝鲜已重新成为潜在的冲突热点。Earlier this month, Pyongyang launched an advanced mid-range missile off its east coast in what observers saw a test of the new Trump administration.本月早些时候,平壤方面在东海岸发射了一枚先进的中程弹道导弹;观察人士认为,此举是对刚刚就职的特朗普政府的一个试探。“The proposed deployment of a US missile defence system in the Republic of Korea is a threat to regional security and stability, and Lotte Group is one decision away from becoming an accessory to the act,said Xinhua.新华社称:“大韩民国拟议部署的美国导弹防御系统是对区域安全和稳定的威胁,而乐天集团只差一个决定就会成为这种行为的一个帮凶。”Lotte is in talks with the Seoul government to trade the land needed to host the Terminal High Altitude Area Defence platform, more commonly known as Thaad.乐天正与韩国政府谈判,以转让部署末段高空区域防御系统(THAAD,中文简称:萨德)所需的土地。However, South Korea’s fifth-largest conglomerate has dragged its heels on negotiations in recent months as Beijing stepped up retaliatory measures against its operations in China.然而,随着北京方面加强针对其在华业务的报复措施,韩国第五大企业集团在近几个月的谈判中犹犹豫豫。In December, it emerged the group’s premises across China had come under increased scrutiny and had been subject to an array of health and safety and tax investigations.去年12月传出的消息显示,乐天集团在中国各地的经营地点受到更多关注,遭遇了一系列健康、安全和税务调查。Earlier this month, the company said it would close three retails stores in Beijing, partly as result of the deteriorating bilateral relationship over Thaad.本月早些时候,乐天表示,将关闭在北京的三家零售店,部分原因就是萨德引发的两国关系恶化。“Lotte stands to lose Chinese customers and the Chinese market. That would be a very large slice out of their business pie,said Xinhua.“乐天将失去中国顾客和中国市场。那将是其商业蛋糕的很大一块,”新华社称。The commentary urged Lotte to defer or reject the Thaad deal.这篇文章敦促乐天推迟或拒绝萨德部署场地交易。The ultimatum puts the company in a difficult position caught between its business interests and the will of the South Korean government.这一最后通牒使该公司陷入困难境地,被夹在其商业利益和韩国政府的意愿中间。The issue is also a sensitive one for policymakers in Seoul who recognise the importance of relations with their biggest trading partner but are increasingly anxious about North Korean belligerence.这对首尔的政策制定者也是一个敏感问题,他们认识到与最大贸易伙伴关系的重要性,但越来越担心朝鲜的挑衅行为。“Lotte has the position to resolve this issue from the broad point of view, in other words, for the sake of the national security and national interests,said the South Korean defence ministry.“乐天有能力从全局角度来解决这个问题,换句话说,为了国家安全和国家利益,”韩国国防部表示。The warning to Lotte came after China announced it would suspend coal imports from North Korea in a sign of Beijing’s displeasure with the reclusive regime.向乐天发出警告是在中国宣布暂停从朝鲜进口煤炭、表明北京方面对这个闭关自守的政权不满之后。China is North Korea’s main trading partner, and coal is one of its biggest imports from the country.中国是朝鲜的主要贸易伙伴,而煤炭是朝鲜对华最大出口之一。“This warning against Lotte is only the first step in pressuring the company as well as the government,said Cai Jian, a professor at Fudan University in Shanghai.“对乐天的这个警告只是对企业和政府施压的第一步,”上海复旦大学教授蔡建称。“If Lotte does not budge, the penalties will get worse in terms impact and severity.”“如果乐天不屈,中方将加大惩罚措施的影响和严重性。来 /201702/493460Here’s how President-elect Trump could unify a bitterly divided America, provide well-paying jobs to many of the millions of disaffected workers who voted for him, and lift the economy, stock market and tax rolls.候任总统特朗普该采取什么办法,让严重分裂的美国重新团结一致,向投票给他的众多心怀不满的工人提供高薪工作岗位,并提振经济、股市和税收?All he needs to do is what he presumably does best: build something.他只需要做他大概最擅长的事情:建造点什么。And I don’t mean a few miles of asphalt or a paint job on a rusting bridge.我指的并不是铺几英里长的沥青路,或者粉刷生锈的桥梁。Build something awe-inspiring. 而是建造某种令人赞叹的东西。Something Americans can be proud of. 某种让美国人引以为豪的东西。Something that will repay the investment many times over for generations to come.某种让子孙后代受益无穷的东西。Build the modern-day equivalent of the Golden Gate Bridge, the Hoover Dam, the Lincoln Tunnel or the Timberline Lodge. 建造当代的金门大桥(Golden Gate Bridge)、胡佛水Hoover Dam)、林肯隧Lincoln Tunnel)或林木木Timberline Lodge)。Or even, given Mr Trump’s passion for the sport, another Bethpage State Park Black Course the first public golf course to host the prestigious ed States Open.又或者,鉴于特朗普对体育的热情,建造另一座贝斯佩奇州立公园黑球场(Bethpage State Park Black Course)——第一座承办享有盛誉的美国公开ed States Open)的公共高尔夫球场。All of these are Depression-era New Deal public works projects started under President Franklin D. 所有这些公共工程项目,都属于应对大萧条的罗斯福新政的一部分,始建于富兰克林#8226;D#8226;罗斯Franklin D. Roosevelt that are still in use.Roosevelt)总统治下,目前仍在使用之中。Can anyone name even one infrastructure project from President Obama’s 0 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act? I didn’t think so. 有谁能从奥巴马总统价000亿美元的《美国复苏与再投资法案American Recovery and Reinvestment Act)找出哪怕一个基建项目吗?我不这么认为。In fairness to Mr Obama, Republicans in Congress bitterly opposed his public works spending plans, and he lamented there were too few shovel y projects.替奥巴马说句公道话,共和党议员曾强烈反对其公共工程出计划,而且他曾感叹几乎没有什么可以动工的项目。That didn’t stop F.D.R. 但这没能阻挡住罗斯福。His Public Works Administration and Works Progress Administration, using combinations of public and private money, solicited proposals from states and cities, hired millions of workers and eventually built 78,000 bridges, 650,000 miles of roads, 700 miles of airport runways, 13,000 playgrounds and 125,000 military and civilian buildings, including more than 40,000 schools in most cases to high standards of quality and design.他的公共工程(Public Works Administration)和工程振兴(Works Progress Administration)动用了公共以及私人资金,向各个州和城市征询了意见,雇用了数以百万计的工人,最终建成了7.8万座桥梁5万英里长的道路00英里长的飞机跑道.3万座游乐场以2.5万座军用和民用建筑,包括000所学校——其质量和设计标准在大多数情况下都很高。The federal government built the La Guardia, Ronald Reagan Washington National and Los Angeles International airports, the Upper Mississippi locks and dams, the Bonneville power project on the Columbia River, the Robert F. 联邦政府修建了拉瓜迪亚机La Guardia)、罗纳德#8226;里根华盛顿国家机Ronald Reagan Washington National)和洛杉矶国际机场(Los Angeles International),在哥伦比亚Columbia River)兴建了纳维Bonneville)电力项目,在纽约架起了罗伯特#8226;F#8226;肯尼迪大Robert F. Kennedy Bridge in New York, and the Florida Keys Overseas Highway. Kennedy Bridge),还修建了佛罗里达跨海公Florida Keys Overseas Highway)。Most are still in use today. 它们大多仍在使用之中。To a large degree, this is the infrastructure that made America great, to borrow Mr Trump’s catchphrase.套用特朗普的说法,这些基建项目在很大程度上让美利坚散发出了伟大荣光。What Roosevelt accomplished is astounding, said Scott Myers-Lipton, a sociology professor at San Jose State University and author of the books Rebuild America: Solving the Economic Crisis Through Civic Works and Ending Extreme Inequality.罗斯福取得的成就令人叹为观止,圣何塞州立大学(San Jose State University)社会学教授、著有《重建美利坚:以民用工程解决经济危机Rebuild America: Solving the Economic Crisis Through Civic Works)和《终结极端不平等Ending Extreme Inequality)的斯科特#8226;迈尔利普Scott Myers-Lipton)说。But it’s not so much the numbers people remember today. 但这并不是今天的人们记忆中的数字。Most people just know there was an alphabet soup of organizations, he said. 大多数人只知道曾经有各种各样的机构名称字母缩写,他说。What they see and remember are the landmarks: the Bay Bridge, Reagan National Airport or the baseball stadium in San Jose. 他们看在眼中、记在心里的只有地标:海湾大Bay Bridge)、里根国家机场或者圣何塞的棒球场。We’re living on that legacy today.我们今天依靠那些遗产过活。Repealing Obamacare, lowering taxes for businesses and mostly wealthy people, overhauling the immigration system and privatizing Medicare what congressional Republicans have cited as their top legislative priorities would be divisive in a nation bitterly split along partisan and geographic lines. 被共和党议员引为立法优先事项的举措,比如废除奥巴马医改法Obamacare)、为企业以及主要由富人构成的群体减税、整饬移民制度、将联邦医疗保险(Medicare)私有化,会在一个沿着党派和地理界线严重割裂开来的国家引发分歧。But nearly everyone agrees that America has grossly neglected its infrastructure even as the rest of the world, notably China, has raced ahead.但几乎人人都认为,在世界上的其他地方——尤其是中国——迎头赶上之际,美国严重忽视了基础设施建设。Our airports are like from a third-world country, Mr Trump said at Hofstra University during the first presidential debate. 我们的机场就跟第三世界国家的差不多,特朗普在霍夫斯特拉大Hofstra University)参加第一场总统竞选辩论时说。You land at La Guardia, you land at Kennedy, you land at LAX, you land at Newark, and you come in from Dubai and Qatar and you see these incredible you come in from China, you see these incredible airports, and you land we’ve become a third-world country.你乘坐的飞机在拉瓜迪亚机场降落,在肯尼迪机场降落,在洛杉矶国际机场降落,在纽华克机场降落,你从迪拜或者卡塔尔过来,看过那里棒极了的机场,你从中国过来,看过那里棒极了的机场,然后飞机降落在美国,你会觉得我们已经变成了一个第三世界国家。Who could disagree? Hillary Clinton also called for a big increase in infrastructure spending.谁会有异议呢?希拉里#8226;克林Hillary Clinton)也曾呼吁大幅增加基建投资。The single best thing the federal government can do to promote economic growth is to repair and build the transportation network, the highways, railroads and airports, said Roger Noll, an emeritus professor of economics at Stanford and a senior fellow at the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research. 要促进经济增长,联邦政府的最佳选择是整修和建设交通网络,公路、铁路和机场,斯坦福大学经济学荣休教授、斯坦福大学经济政策研究所(Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research)高级研究员罗#8226;诺尔(Roger Noll)说。It’s been neglected for 30 years.这方面被忽视已经0年了。Last year, Dan McNichol, author of the book The Roads That Built America, a history of the Interstate highway system, and a White House adviser on transportation issues for President George H. 去年,讲述州际公路系统历史的著作《造就美国的公路The Roads That Built America)的作者、在乔治#8226;H#8226;W#8226;布什(George H. W. Bush, navigated the country in a 1949 Hudson Commodore on a mission to investigate the state of America’s infrastructure.W. Bush)总统任内担任白宫交通运输事务顾问的#8226;麦克尼科Dan McNichol),曾开着一949年的哈德逊准Hudson Commodore)在全国各地游历,调查美国基础设施的情况。I was trying to see if this was really a crisis or a media sensation, he told me this week from California, where he’s working on the state’s high-speed rail project. 我想知道这真的是一场危机,还是只是媒体的耸人听闻,身在加利福尼亚州的他本周对我说。他正参与该州的高铁项目。I found out it’s pretty dire in terms of total infrastructure. 我发现,就基础设施的总体情况而言形势非常严峻。For a nation that leads the world in global trade, our systems are failing.对一个在全球贸易中引领世界的国家来说,我们的各种系统每况愈下。Mr Trump has pledged trillion over 10 years, but no one I spoke to thought that was enough. 特朗普承诺在10年时间里投资1万亿美元,但和我交谈过的所有人都觉得不够。Doubling that would be more realistic, Mr McNichol said. 麦克尼科尔说,翻一番更实际。And Mr Trump’s campaign proposal was limited to infrastructure projects that could pay for themselves out of user fees, which seems like a shortsighted approach. 此外,特朗普竞选时提出的方案仅限于可通过收费实现自负盈亏的基础设施项目。这看上去似乎是一种目光短浅的做法。Most economists say the best way to finance a big public works program, particularly given today’s low interest rates, would be for the government to borrow most of the money from investors.大部分经济学家表示,为大型公共工程筹集资金的最佳方式是,资金大头由政府向投资者举债,尤其是考虑到眼下利率水平低。Pulling off something on the scale of the Depression-era public works programs would be no small feat. 在规模堪比大萧条时期的公共工程上取得成功绝非易事。Recent federal infrastructure efforts, including reconstruction after Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, as well as the Obama stimulus program, hardly inspire confidence.最近的联邦基础设施项目,包括飓风卡特里娜和桑迪后的重建,以及奥巴马的刺激计划,都让人感到心里没底。Alan Brinkley, a professor of history at Columbia, said he doubted Mr Trump could replicate Roosevelt’s achievements. 哥伦比亚大学历史教授阿兰#8226;布林克利(Alan Brinkley)怀疑特朗普无法复制罗斯福的成就。Roosevelt had a coherent mission, if not always a consistent way to address the Depression and the economic crisis, Mr Brinkley said. 罗斯福担负的使命始终如一,尽管他应对大萧条和经济危机的方式并非总是一致,布林克利说。He was eclectic in his approach because he was pragmatic.他在方法上的多样是源于他的务实。Even more important, Roosevelt was informed, surrounded himself with informed people, and was prepared on Day 1 to begin. 更重要的是,罗斯福见多识广,身边也都是见多识广之人,上任第一天他就准备开始了。I’m not sure that Trump’s policies go beyond his electioneering slogans, Mr Brinkley said. 我不确定特朗普的政策会不会超越竞选时打出的口号,布林克利说。I’m afraid a new P.W.A., he added, referring to the Public Works Administration, will stand for Promises Without Actions.我担心新的PWA,他接着说,这里指的是公共工程(Public Works Administration),会变成‘只许诺不行动Promises Without Actions)。But in the spirit of magnanimity, let’s give Mr Trump the benefit of the doubt, as Mr Obama has suggested. 但是,正如奥巴马所建议的,本着宽宏的精神,我们权且相信特朗普。He’ll need his own versions of Harold L. Ickes, Roosevelt’s interior secretary, who ran the P.W.A., and his close adviser Harry L. Hopkins, who ran the W.P.A.他将需要找到自己的哈罗#8226;L#8226;伊克Harold L. Ickes)和自己的亲密顾问哈里#8226;L#8226;霍普金斯(Harry L. Hopkins)。前者是罗斯福的内政部长,主政公共工程,后者负责工程振兴。Mr Trump will also need to be hands-on. 特朗普还需要亲力亲为。Roosevelt asked states and cities for proposals, but he made nearly all the final decisions himself. 罗斯福让各州各市提交方案,但几乎所有最终决定都是他自己拍板的。F.D.R. was a fanatic about infrastructure, roads, planning, Mr McNichol said. FDR非常喜欢基础设施、公路和规划,麦克尼科尔说。As a commissioner in New York, he helped lay out the Taconic Parkway. 在纽约当警察局长时,他就参与设计了塔科尼克公园大道(Taconic Parkway)。He even helped design the picnic tables.他甚至还参与设计过野餐桌。The right public works projects, said Mr Myers-Lipton of San Jose State, would address the public anger that elected Trump, which is that the regular folks aren’t being taken care of. 圣何塞州立大学的迈尔利普顿说,合适的公共工程项目会缓解公众的一种愤怒情绪,他们觉得普通老百姓没有得到妥善的对待,正是这种情绪促使特朗普当选。During the Depression, the government built beautiful hotels and golf courses and parks. 在大萧条时期,政府修建了漂亮的酒店、高尔夫球场和公园。The vision was, what’s usually for the elite should be for everybody. 这背后的想法是,通常仅面向精英的务理应面向所有人。That’s the power of public works.这就是公共工程的力量。来 /201611/479513Last year Baker amp; McKenzie obtained a coveted 01licence from Chinese regulators. The designation confirmed that it would be the first foreign law firm allowed to establish a “joint operationwith a Chinese counterpart, FenXun Partners, in the Shanghai free-trade zone.去年,贝#8226;麦坚时国际律师事务所(Baker amp; Mckenzie)从中国监管部门手中得到了其梦寐以求的01号”执照。该执照确认了该律所将成为首家获准在上海自贸区设立联营办公室的外国律师事务所。与之联营的中国律所是奋迅律师事务所(FenXun Partners)。Overseas law firms have long been frustrated by the restrictions they encounter in China. When they recruit talented Chinese lawyers, for example, their hires must give up their local law licences and thus their ability to represent their new employersclients in Chinese courtrooms. In many industries, most notably banking, it is far easier for Chinese companies and service providers to go overseas than it is for their foreign rivals to enter China.海外律师事务所长期对他们在中国受到的监管限制感到沮丧。例如,在他们聘请有才华的中国律师时,接受聘请的律师必须放弃本土律师执照——这使他们不能在中国法庭上代表新雇主的客户。在很多行业(业最为明显),中国企业和务提供商前往海外要比外国竞争者进入中国容易得多。Foreign law firms are revelling in the continuing Chinese mergers amp; acquisitions bonanza, advising local companies on overseas purchases that exceeded 0bn last year and then surpassed that amount in the first quarter of this year alone. But their ability to service multinationals in the world’s second-largest economy is far more constrained.外国律师事务所正陶醉于中国持续的并购热潮,为那些收购海外资产的中国企业提供咨询。去年中国企业海外收购规模超000亿美元,而今年仅在第一季度内便超过了这一数字。但是外国律所在世界第二大经济体为跨国企业提供务时受到的约束大得多。However, Baker amp; McKenzie’s unique arrangement in the Shanghai FTZ demonstrates that there are some interesting liberalisation experiments that could in time open China’s professional service sectors to meaningful overseas participation. This is particularly important in an era when international law firms, like the industrial multinationals they advise, have become increasingly reliant on global supply chains of their own. They support deals in the US, for example, with the help of low-cost back-office operations in Ireland and the Philippines.然而,贝克#8226;麦坚时在上海自贸区的独特安排表明,目前有一些有意思的自由化实验,有望在一段时间后开放中国专业务领域,让海外提供商实质性地参与。在如今国际律师事务所(就像他们提供咨询务的工业跨国企业一样)日益依赖于自己的全球供应链的时代,这一点格外重要。例如,他们利用设在爱尔兰和菲律宾的低成本后台业务,为美国的交易提供持。Baker amp; McKenzie’s collaboration with FenXun is carefully labelled a joint operation, as opposed to a joint venture, because the two partners remain “structurally separate says Milton Cheng, managing partner for the firm’s China and Hong Kong operations. Despite this, a Baker amp; McKenzie lawyer assigned to the operation can in effect advise the firm’s multinational clients on matters of local law anywhere in China. In this way, local hires who gave up their China licences to join the Chicago-based firm can “revivethem. “If there’s one thing you learn from being in China, it’s patience,Mr Cheng says. “We see this FTZ development as a very positive step#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;If it all works it will help the liberalisation process.”贝#8226;麦坚时中国内地和香港业务管理合伙人郑维明(Milton Cheng)表示,贝#8226;麦坚时与奋迅的合作被谨慎地贴上了联营、而非合资的标签,因为两家合作律所在结构上仍然是独立的。尽管如此,贝克#8226;麦坚时被指派投入联营的的律师,实际上可为该律所的跨国客户提供有关中国本土法律问题的建议。这样一来,为了加入这家总部位于芝加哥的律所而放弃了中国律师执照的本土律师就可以“复活”这种资格了。“如果你能在中国学到什么的话,那就是耐心,”郑维明称,“我们把自贸区的发展视为非常积极的一步……如果一切顺利,它将有助于自由化进程。”There have been some headaches along the way. While the Baker amp; McKenzie-FenXun joint operation was formally established in early 2015, it took almost a year for the new entity to get clearance to open its own bank account, making it difficult to do something as simple as issue invoices.在此过程中有一些令人头痛的问题。尽管贝#8226;麦坚奋迅联营办公室在2015年初就已正式成立,但这个新实体几乎花了一年时间才获准开立自己的账户,此前连开具发票这样简单的事情都很困难。Among developing economies, China has not been alone in frustrating some of the world’s best legal minds with Byzantine market entry barriers. The Indian government is known to be hostile towards foreign professional service providers, having scuppered what would have been a landmark global services agreement in 2014. Malaysian rules require that Baker amp; McKenzie can only call itself Baker amp; McKenzie if it actually employs a lawyer named Baker and a lawyer named McKenzie in its local operation. With a dearth of qualified Malaysian lawyers having either of these Anglo-Scottish surnames, Baker amp; McKenzie’s Kuala Lumpur office instead bears a “Wong amp; Partnersshingle.在发展中经济体中,中国并非唯一设置繁复的市场准入壁垒,让世界上最优秀的一些法律人才碰壁的国家。印度政府对外国专业务提供商不友好是出了名的,2014年印度的反对使一项具有里程碑意义的全球务协定化为泡影。马来西亚的规则要求,贝#8226;麦坚时律师事务所除非确实在该国有一名叫贝克的律师和一名叫麦坚时的律师执业,否则就不能用这个公司名。该所找不到这种盎格鲁-苏格兰姓氏的合格马来西亚律师,结果只能挂上“Wong amp; Partners”的招牌。A key benefit of the establishment of Baker amp; McKenzie’s Shanghai joint operation is that the firm’s clients in China will be able to tap into global supply chains that today affect law firms as much as they do manufacturers. “For the last eight years we’ve been investing a lot in understanding pricing and getting much more conscious about how to keep contracts within reasonable margins,says Eduardo Leite, Baker amp; McKenzie chairman. Mr Leite notes that his firm deals with price-conscious “procurement officerswho keep as close an eye on legal bills as they do invoices from component suppliers.设立贝克#8226;麦坚时上海联营办公室的一个关键好处是,该律所在中国的客户能够利用其全球供应链。如今供应链对律所的影响不亚于对制造商的影响。“过年来,我们在理解定价、大力增强把合同保持在合理利润范围内的意识投入了很多,”贝#8226;麦坚时董事长爱德华多#8226;莱特(Eduardo Leite)说。他指出,该律所要和对价格敏感的“采购经理”打交道,这些人密切关注法律务账单,就像对待零部件供应商的发票一样。It is now only a matter of time before Baker amp; McKenzie’s back-office support centres in Belfast and Manila begin to support legal casework in remote parts of China. That will start to entwine the world’s second-largest economy into global service supply chains as deeply as the manufacturing ones it revolutionised a quarter of a century ago.现在,贝#8226;麦坚时在贝尔法斯特和马尼拉的后台持中心开始持中国偏远地区的案子只是时间问题。那将开始把世界第二大经济体深深地嵌入全球务供应链,就像四分之一个世纪以前中国融入全球制造供应链,并带来一场革命那样。来 /201606/447760Britains decision to leave the European Union drew mixed reactions from Beijing, Tokyo and Seoul.英国脱离欧盟这一决定近日引起了中日韩三国的不同反应。During a press briefing Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying said Beijing had taken note of the vote. ;Beijing respects the decision of the British people,; Hua said.在一场新闻发布会上,中国外交部女发言人华春莹声称,中方已经注意到了公投的结果。华春莹表示:“我们尊重英国人民的选择”。Hua added the decision to leave the EU would naturally impact bilateral relations with Britain.But Beijing will approach the partnership with Britain and the EU using a ;long-term; perspective, the spokeswoman said.此外,她补充说道,英国脱欧自然会影响到中英双边关系。不过,中方一贯从“长远”角度看待和发展中英和中欧关系。In Japan, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe took a more proactive approach to the news from London.在日本,对于从伦敦传来的消息,首相安倍晋三的反应更为积极主动。During a recorded television debate, Abe said he is ;concerned; about currency fluctuations and that Tokyo is committed to taking ;every measure; to guarantee stability in the worlds financial markets, The Japan Times reported.据《日本时报》报道,在一次电视辩论中,安倍表示他“担心”货币波动,同时,日本承诺采取“一切措施”以保全球金融市场的稳定;British citizens have made a decision to leave the European Union. Im concerned over risks on currencies and financial markets,; Abe said.安倍说道:“英国公民做出了脱欧的决定,我担心货币和金融市场风险的提高。”In South Korea, Seouls ministry of strategy and finance held an emergency meeting on economic and financial stability. In order to minimize repercussions on the Brexit vote, Seoul stated it is operating a 24-hour government monitoring and response system, as well as ;keeping an eye on the movement of major currencies.;在韩国,企划财政部召开了一个关于经济和财政稳定的紧急会议。为了将英国脱欧的影响降到最低,韩国方面表示,该国设置了一4小时的政府监控和响应系统,同时“密切关注主要货币市场走势”。Ahn Cheol-soo, an opposition party politician, said his party is willing to offer all cooperation with the ruling partys government in order to minimize the fallout from the Brexit decision.在野党政客安哲秀表示,他所在政党愿意全力配合执政党,以降低英国退欧带来的影响。来 /201607/452370

The World Health Organization says it will need some million to implement its strategic response designed to contain the Zika virus, which has been linked to birth defects in newborns.世界卫生组织表示,需要五千六百万美元,实施控制寨卡病毒扩散的战略。这种病毒被认为跟新生儿先天缺陷有关联。The WHO said Wednesday that its strategy focuses on mobilizing and coordinating partners, experts, and resources to help countries enhance surveillance of the Zika virus and disorders that could be linked to it.世卫组织星期三表示,其战略重点在于动员和协调各方合作伙伴和专家,调集人力物力,帮助有关国家加强监控寨卡病毒以及该病毒可能导致的病症。WHO says it has tapped an emergency contingency fund to pay for Zika response until it collects the necessary funds, which will be distributed among the World Health Organization and other international partners in the fight against the virus.世卫组织表示,在筹集到所需款项之前,已动用紧急资金,开展应对寨卡病毒的措施。筹集到的资金将在世卫组织及其他国际合作伙伴之间分发。On Tuesday the organization said countries dealing with Zika outbreaks should consider unorthodox tools, such as genetically modified mosquitos, to halt the sp of the virus.世卫组织星期二曾表示,发现寨卡病毒的国家应考虑采取改造蚊子基因等非常规性的应对方式,遏制病毒的扩散。来 /201602/427008

WASHINGTON Under traditional understandings of North Korea, the country’s test launch of two medium-range ballistic missiles in late June should not have happened. Neither should its failed launch, on Saturday, of a submarine-based missile.华盛顿——按照对朝鲜的传统理解,月末试射两枚中程弹道导弹的事情本不应发生,周六发射潜射导弹一事也一样,虽然后者失败了。But they did. And that has brought new urgency to a growing conversation among many North Korea watchers: Is our understanding of this country fundamentally wrong?但的确发生了。这让很多朝鲜问题观察人士之间日渐增多的讨论变得更加紧迫:我们对这个国家的了解从根本上就是错的吗?The country’s weapons programs have long been understood as meant not for immediate military purposes, but to rally North Koreans behind the leadership and extract concessions from foreign governments. North Korea’s bluster, in this view, is not sincere, but just another set piece in an elaborate, never-ending show.外界长期认为,该国的武器计划不是出于直接的军事目的,而是为了将朝鲜民众团结在领导人背后,并设法让外国政府让步。从这个观点出发,朝鲜的叫嚣并不是真的,只是其精心策划、无休无止的表演中的一部分。This does not, however, adequately explain North Korea’s recent flurry of weapons tests, often using unproven technology that tends to fail many times, bringing embarrassment to a government that prefers to project confidence, and that incurs heavy diplomatic and financial tolls the country cannot afford.然而,这不足以解释朝鲜近期一连串的武器试验。这些测试使用的通常是未经验的技术,往往会多次失败,让一个更愿意展现自信的政府处境尴尬,并给它带来不可承受的外交和经济损失。Such tests, according to a growing chorus of experts, suggest that North Korea is now seeking, in a more focused and determined way, a real, functioning nuclear weapons program and could be on the way to getting it.专家日渐一致地认为,这类试验表明朝鲜目前正在以一种更专注、更坚定的方式,寻求一个真正的、能正常运转的核武器计划,并且这个目标可能即将实现。“The conventional wisdom treats these tests and strategic programs as political tools,said Mark Fitzpatrick, a scholar at the International Institute for Strategic Studies. “They’re more than that.”“传统观点认为这些试验和战略计划是政治工具,”国际战略研究所(International Institute for Strategic Studies)的学者马克·菲茨帕特里Mark Fitzpatrick)说。“实际上它们不仅限于此。”This realization is forcing analysts to rethink not just nuclear issues, but also the underlying goals and motivations of the North Korean state itself, with sweeping implications for how one of the world’s most secretive nations is understood.这种认识正在迫使分析人士重新思考核问题,以及朝鲜这个国家本身的根本目的和动机,从而广泛地影响到外界如何看待这个堪称全世界最神秘的国家。A sudden change in 20142014年的突然转变North Korea has had only three leaders, each of whom has faced the same problem: governing a small country with few resources, outnumbered by powerful enemies.朝鲜迄今只出现了三位领导人,三人都面临同一个问题:统治一个几乎没有什么资源、却有着众多强大敌人的小囀?Kim Il Sung, the nation’s founding leader, used diplomacy. By allying with the Soviet Union and China and playing the two off each other he secured protection and support.朝鲜的开国领袖金日成(Kim Il Sung)利用的是外交手段。通过与苏联和中国结盟——并利用两国之间的纷争——他获得了保护和持。His son Kim Jong Il came to power in the early 1990s, as the Soviet Union collapsed and China’s interest in backing a rogue nation waned. In response, he put the country on a permanent war footing. Kim Jong Il began developing missiles and nuclear weapons, periodically stirring up geopolitical crises that promoted nationalism at home and won international concessions abroad.其子金正Kim Jong Il)0年代初上台。当时,苏联垮台,中国对持一个流氓国家的兴趣逐渐减少。鉴于此,他让朝鲜走上了永久性的备战道路。金正日开始发展导弹和核武器,不时挑起地缘政治危机。这些危机在朝鲜国内促进了民族主义,在国外赢取了各国的让步。Foreign governments and analysts concluded that these programs, which North Korea tested erratically but with great fanfare, were meant primarily for political rather than military ends. The country’s leadership was seen as reactive and focused on preserving the status quo. State propaganda, warning endlessly of war with South Korea and the ed States, was dismissed as merely a tool for internal control.外国政府和分析人士的结论曾是,针对这些计划,朝鲜之所以时不时大张旗鼓地展开试验,主要是出于政治目的而非军事目的。该国领导人被认为处于被动地位,重点在保持现状上。官方的宣传没完没了地警告说要与韩国和美国开战,但外界对其不予考虑,认为这只是实现内部控制的伎俩。That view has held for 20 years, through Kim Jong Il’s death in 2011 and the ascension of his son Kim Jong Un.这种观点持续0年。在这期间,金正日于2011年去世,其子金正Kim Jong Un)上台。But, three years into the younger Kim’s reign, as he carried out a series of high-level political purges, something seemed to shift.但在金正恩执政三年过后,随着他在高层中进行一系列的清洗,情况似乎变了。“In 2014, they started testing things like crazy,said Jeffrey Lewis, a nuclear weapons expert at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey in California. The country also built a new underground nuclear testing facility.014年,他们开始像疯了一样进行试验,”加州明德大学蒙特雷国际研究学院(Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey)的核武器专家杰弗釷刘易斯(Jeffrey Lewis)说。朝鲜还新建了一处地下核试验场。Because most of the tests failed and because of popular depictions of the country as silly and backward they were shrugged off as farce. It was “easy to kind of laugh at them,Lewis said.因为大部分试验失败了——也因为流行将该国描述成愚蠢和落后的样子——外界满不在乎,认为它们纯属闹剧。刘易斯说,“外界很容易去嘲笑贬损他们。”Now, in retrospect, it seems that the tests indicated a change whose ramifications are only beginning to become clear to analysts.现在回过头去看,那些试验似乎表明了一种变化。在分析人士看来,这种变化的后果才刚开始变得清晰起来。Targeting the ed States瞄准美国Andrea Berger, a proliferation expert at the Royal ed Services Institute in London, said that for years she and some of her colleagues believed “that one of the motivations behind North Korea’s nuclear development was to eventually sell it for the right price,either in part or in full. Others, of course, thought North Korea was simply engaging in a game of cat and mouse, agreeing to freeze parts of the program in exchange for cash or food, only to unfreeze them later in hopes of making another deal on the same goods in another round of negotiations.伦敦皇家联合军种国防研究所(Royal ed Services Institute)研究武器扩散问题的专家安德丽亚·伯Andrea Berger)说,多年来,她和一些同事一直认为,“朝鲜发展核武器背后的动机之一是最终卖个好价钱”,要么是卖一部分,要么是全部。当然,其他人则认为朝鲜只是在玩一个猫捉老鼠的游戏,同意冻结部分计划以换取现金或粮食,结果后来又将其解冻,希望凭借同样的东西在下一轮谈判中再达成一笔交易。In any case, Berger said the country’s activity since 2014 had led to “growing sentiment, and I would go so far as to say it is now the majority view, that North Korea may not be willing to give up its nuclear program or missile programs at all.”伯格认为,无论如何,该国自2014年以来的活动都让“人们越来越觉得,朝鲜可能根本不愿意放弃其核计划和导弹计划。我甚至可以说,现在这已经是多数派的观点了。”The medium-range missile North Korea tested in late June, known as a Musudan, had failed in all five of its prior launches. Last month’s launch, while not a categorical success, showed progress one of many hard-won breakthroughs.朝鲜6月下旬进行了“舞水端”中程导弹测试。前五次测试均以失败告终,不月这次测试虽不是彻底的成功,却已经有所进步——这是诸多得来不易的突破之一。“We are coming to the realization that North Korea is filling some of the technological gaps we thought they had and erasing some of the question marks quicker than we are comfortable with,Berger said.“我们逐渐认识到,朝鲜正在缩小一些我们认为的技术差距,他们进步的速度也快到让我们不安,”伯格说。North Korea appears focused on acquiring key nuclear capabilities, including, Berger said, “a demonstrated ability to strike the continental ed States.”朝鲜似乎侧重在获取一些关键的核能力上,包括伯格所说的,“明他们有能力袭击美国本土。”John Schilling, who tracks North Korea’s weapons programs at the U.S.-Korea Institute at Johns Hopkins University, has concluded that within the next decade, North Korea will probably produce a nuclear-capable intercontinental ballistic missile that can reach parts of the West Coast of the ed States.约翰·霍普金斯大学美韩研究所(U.S.- Korea Institute at Johns Hopkins University)研究朝鲜武器计划的专家约翰·席John Schilling)认为,在下个十年内,朝鲜研制的搭载核弹头的洲际弹道导弹很可能就可以覆盖到美国西海岸的部分地区。The country is also developing multiple ways to deliver these missiles, as indicated by Saturday’s submarine test-launch.该国还在开发多种用来发射这些导弹的方式,周六的潜射试验就是一个据。An extreme solution极端的解决方案As analysts adjust their view of North Korea’s intentions, they are grappling with a much bigger question: Why is North Korea so bent on a program that brings economic sanctions, the risk of conflict and isolation even from China, its sole remaining ally and benefactor?分析人士在调整他们对朝鲜意图的看法,他们也随之面临一个大得多的问题:为什么朝鲜如此坚决地开展这个计划,不怕经济制裁,不惜冒着和中国发生冲突,甚至断交的风险呢?中国是朝鲜仅剩的盟友,为其提供援助。Put another way: What does North Korea believe it will gain from nuclear weapons that is worth these costs?换一种说法:朝鲜为什么觉得拥有核武器值得付出这么大的代价呢?Experts have not settled on a consensus answer, but offer a range of possible explanations. What these theories share is a sense that North Korea’s leadership believes it is facing a potentially existential crisis and is willing to take extreme steps to survive.对于这个问题,专家莫衷一是,但他们提供了一系列可能的解释。这些解释的共通点在于,朝鲜领导层认为该国面临着潜在的生存危机,因此不惜采取极端措施来求取生机。Some analysts say the North Korean warnings of a looming conflict with the ed States and South Korea might not just be for show, but rather indicate that the country’s leaders earnestly believe war could be coming.一些分析人士表示,朝鲜此前警告美国和韩国即将与之发生冲突,或许不只是说说而已,而是表明该国领导层真的认为战争有可能到来。In this view, the country would need more than just a single bomb to deter its enemies. It would require a nuclear program large enough to make such a war winnable.依照这种观点,朝鲜要威慑敌人,将需要不止一枚炸弹。它需要一个大到足以赢得这场战争的核计划。Details about North Korea’s advances suggest the outlines of a war plan, Lewis said. The country seems to be building the capability to launch rapid nuclear strikes against nearby military targets, such as U.S. military bases on Guam and the Japanese island of Okinawa, as well as South Korean ports where any U.S. invasion force would land.刘易斯表示,有关朝鲜取得进步的细节显示出一个战争计划的轮廓。朝鲜似乎在打造能对附近军事目标进行快速核打击的能力,比如美国在关岛和日本冲绳岛的军事基地,以及美国部队一旦出兵将要借以登陆的韩国港口。“I think their hope is that the shock of that will cause us to stop,Lewis said. “Then the whole point of the ICBMs is that there is something in reserveto threaten West Coast U.S. cities, in theory forcing the ed States to stand down.“我认为,他们的希望是由此带来的冲击会让我们停止行动,”刘易斯说。“那么洲际弹道导弹的全部意义就在于,朝鲜有东西可以”威胁美国西海岸城市的安全,在理论上迫使美国做出退让。Fitzpatrick argued that even if North Korea does not intend to carry out such a plan, it hopes that raising concerns of a nuclear conflict will “drive a wedge between the ed States and its allies,particularly South Korea.菲茨帕特里克则认为,就算朝鲜无意实施这一计划,它也希望对可能发生核冲突日渐增长的担忧可以“在美国及其盟友之间制造隔阂”,尤其是与韩国。Should North Korea acquire a nuclear-capable missile that could hit Washington state, some Americans might well question the value of continuing to guarantee South Korea’s security.倘若朝鲜研制出可以发射至华盛顿州的可携带核弹头的导弹,一些美国人可能也会对美国持续保障韩国安全的价值提出质疑。“The North Koreans would like people to doubt that the ed States would trade Seattle for Seoul,Fitzpatrick said, referring to a Cold War adage that the ed States accepted risks to its own cities so as to defend those of its allies.“朝鲜乐见有人怀疑美国不应拿西雅图换首尔,”菲茨帕特里克说。这里借用了冷战中的一句话,意为美国让本国城市蒙受风险,以维护盟国的安全。B.R. Myers, a North Korea scholar at Dongseo University in South Korea, takes this theory one step further. The nuclear program, he believes, is meant not only to scare off the ed States, but to one day coerce the South into accepting the North’s long-stated demand: reunification on its own terms.在韩国东西大Dongseo University)研究朝鲜问题的学者B·R·迈尔B.R. Myers)将这一理论做了进一步的发挥。他认为,朝鲜实施核计划不只是为威慑美国,也是为了有朝一日能迫使韩国接受朝鲜长期以来的要求:按照它的条件实现统一。“It is the only goal big enough to make sense of a nuclear program that has made the DPRK less secure than it was 10 years ago,Myers said, using the abbreviation of North Korea’s formal name.“只有这么大的目标才说得通,才足以让人理解为何朝鲜民主主义人民共和国要实施一个让自身0年前更加不安全的核计划,”迈尔斯说。来 /201607/454782

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